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Few persoiis can have prosecuted their 
classical studies to any considerable extent, 
or with ordinary ardour of research, without 
having experienced the want of sorae such a 
manual of reference as that whkh the present 
volume affords; and few can be unacquainted 
with the fact, that the native resources of 
our Literature are wholly inadequate to supply 
the deficiency. 

While the labours of Mohnikey Passow^ Berrt" 
hardt/y Petersen^ Wblf{F. A.)^ Schaafi and others, 
present an ample range for selection to those who 
have mastered the difficult language in which 
they are sealed up, the majority of students 
in this country have hitherto been left to glean 
at best but a fragmentary knowledge of the 

iv translator's preface. 

literary history of Greece and Rome, from 
scattered soui'ces or voluminous and expensive 
works. Hence in introducing to the English 
student the " Grundriss der Geschichte der 
Gr. u. Rom. Literatur" by Aug. Matthiae, 
the Translator deems it unnecessary to re-echo 
the apology, with which its learned author has 
thought fit to preface his volume, since the 
charge of officiousness or presumption, so far 
as relates to the utility of the undertaking, and 
the exigency which gave rise to it, is the very 
last which a well-informed reader will be dis- 
posed to prefer against him. 

The author has himself defended at consider- 
able length, both in his Preface, and subse- 
quently in a posthumous work*, the principles of 
arrangement on which he has constructed his 
Grundriss. The Translator professes himself 
responsible for nothing more than a faithful 
version of the original, and has not presumed, 
except in a very few instances, to add to, or 
animadvert upon, the materials wbich it pre- 
sented to him. He had indeed originally de- 
signed to incorporate in the text, or subjoin in 

» Encyklopadie u. Methodologie der Philologie, p. 75-9. 
See also his Verm. Schr. p. 200, sqq. 


the form of notes, a rather copious supplement 
of observations, references, and bibliographical 
notices, which he thought likely to interest the 
younger student, to stimulate research, and 
direct attention to other works of established 
reputation, in which the same subjects might be 
found more elaborately treated ; and of thus, if 
the expression may be hazarded, naturalizing 
his labours, and accommodating them more 
directly to the course and standard of scholar- 
ship prevailing in our English Schools and 
Universities. Upon subsequent reflection, how- 
ever, he was induced to think, that such an 
attempt to improve upon a work, which so mani- 
festly embodies the carefully digested results of 
extensive reading and judicious selection, might 
savour of conceit, and, by unreasonably increas- 
ing the price and bulk of the volume, tend 
rather to mar than give completeness to the 
design of its Author. 

A few supplemental remarks, [distinguishable 
by brackets,] and a few undistinguished notices 
of editions, admitted partly from inadvertence, 
partly from indecision, and partly from the 
inconvenience of suppressing them while the 


MSS. were in the printer's hands, have never- 
theless found their way into the body of the 
work; — and hence a few more have been ap- 
pended to it, some from the interest of the 
subject to which they relate, and others from 
their embracing the author's posterior researches, 
or materials which, as in the case of the first 
and third vols, of Clinton, were not accessible 
to him. These accidental incrustations and 
excrescences, the growth of circumstances which 
did not admit of elaborate research, (valeant 
quantum valeant^) the reader is requested to 
accept not as fair matter for criticism, or 
as an integral portion of the work, but as a 
gratuitous and supererogatory addition, which, 
like the gold that embossed the statue of the 
patron goddess of letters, (Thucyd. ii. 13.) he 
is at liberty to treat, at his discretion, as 

In its present shape and compass, the Manual 
will be found, it is presumed, sufficiently cir- 
cumstantial in its details to satisfy the require- 
ments of the younger student, while, as a re- 
pertory of literary criticism, it can hardly fail to 
commend itself to those of riper attainments by 

translator's preface. vu 

the authoritative value of its contentsy its com- 
pendiousness, its perspicuous arrangement, and 
its commodious form. 

Considerable labour has been expended in 
adjusting the references which occur to Muller, 
Boeckh, Wachsmuth, &c. to the English trans- 
lations of those works, and in substituting 
references to the English Edition of Clinton, 
in place of the Latin version by Kruger. 

Should it be objected, that the convenience 
of the reader would have been better con- 
sulted, if the text had been disencumbered of 
its crowded references, and if these and other 
parenthetic citations and remarks had been 
thrown into the form of notes; the Translator 
will only repeat his profession of scrupulous 
adherence to the plan, and deference to the 
judgment, of his author ; while as an apology 
for the elliptic brevity and abruptness which 
characterize those portions of the work which 
are designed for occasional reference rather 
than for continuous perusal, and as a general 
introduction to the entire volume, though 
from the length of his pre&ce he may seem 
to have disregarded the hint which they 
convey, it may suffice to add the words 



of one who wrote in an age less prolific, 
and consequently, it might be imagined, more 
tolerant of authors and their productions ; — 

Kough il ^ii'^MOf ttoXXoqv 
tlelgaroi cvvroivva-ais 

Mc5jxo$ &vtgoo^a)v. 

Pind. Pyth. i. 51. 


In contributing an addition to the numerous 
Manuals of Greek and Roman Literature which 
hare already appeared, I have been principally 
influenced by the consideration, that I knew of 
none which, while it observed the due medium 
of specification in its details, was sufficiently 
moderate in price to be generally admissible 
into schools. I was desirous of putting into the 
hands of young scholars, not a bare catalogue 
of Greek and Latin Authors, but an outline of 
the History of Literature. In communicating 
historical instruction, however, no surer founda- 
tion can be laid, nor one better calculated to 
promote perspicuity and assist the memory, 
than a tabular enumeration of events, in the 
present instance of authors, arranged in chrono- 
logical order, yet in such a manner, that the 

author's preface. 

whole may be distributed into certain epochs or 
periods of time, in each of which, as compared 
with that which preceded it. Literature exhibits 
a defined and distinctive character. Under the 
heads of the several authors, can only be stated 
the principal circumstances of their lives, the 
time when they lived, (which, if the precise year 
of their birth and death be unknown, will 
readily appear from their position in the cata- 
logue,) and the incidents which exerted any re- 
markable influence on their character as authors, 
together with the names and subjects of their 
works; every thing else, such as detailed par- 
ticulars of their lives, sketches and critical sur- 
veys of their merits and character as authors, 
is reserved for oral communication. 

On the other hand, an accurate notice of the 
best editions of each author, (not merely of the 
most recent, as in SchaafiTs Encyclopaedia, or of 
those which essentially di£Per from each other, 
as in Harles brevior notitia litter, Gr,) is indis- 
pensably requisite, were it only as a measure of 
security against the errors which so frequently 
occur in the transcription of names. The classi- 
fication of authors in each period, according to 
their respective works, may be proposed as an 


exercise to the pupils themselves, in order that 
an opportunity may be afforded them of work- 
ing up the materials presented to them in a 
different shape, of impressing them more deeply 
on their ^emory, and of forming their judg- 

Such are the principles on which I have con- 
structed the present Manual, which, during 
a course of several years, I have uniformly em- 
ployed as a text book in the education of the 
upper classes of our Gymnasium. What assist- 
ance I have derived from the labours of others in 
the preliminary dissertations prefixed to the 
several periods, will sufficiently appear from the 
work itself. Those teachers who may be in- 
clined to adopt this outline as the basis of their 
lectures, will experience little difficulty in sup- 
plying more detailed notices of the several authors 
from the Manuals of Harles and Mohnigke; 
for the convenience of those who possess or 
have access to the last edition of i^a&nai Bibl. Gr. 
I have pointed out the volume and the page of 
this work in which the several articles occurs 
in the BibL LaL of the same scholar there will be 
no difficulty in finding them from the index. 

xii author's preface. 

In the second Edition my principal aim has 
been to exhibit an historical sketch of the pro- 
gress of Greek and Roman Literature, to trace 
it from its earliest origin through all the suc- 
cessive stages of its developement to the period 
of its highest cultivation, and from that again 
to the extreme stage of its decline, keeping con- 
stantly in view the influence which political 
relations in general, and the difPerent branches 
of Literature in particular, have reciprocally 
exercised upon each other. In the execution 
of this design it is not enough to know under 
what varieties of form and with what success 
the language has been cultivated in a nation, 
what authors have attained a standard rank in 
each, and what may be assigned to a secondary 
and inferior class ; it is necessary also to shew 
in what manner, and under what circum- 
stances, whether operating from within or from 
without, these different varieties arose at dif- 
ferent periods, whence it came to pass that at 
different times first one and then another and 
then several were in the ascendant, by what 
reciprocity of influence the different branches of 
Literature were determined and modified, or what 
peculiarities of structure they severally derived 

author's preface. xiii 

from the most eminent authors, just as in the 
political history of a nation it is not enough to 
know what events and forms of government 
have at any time occurred, but it will be re- 
quisite also to shew how these events and forms 
of government evolved themselves out of the 
existing state of the nation, or the views and 
characters of its leading men. It is true, 
indeed, that in tracing the history of Literature, 
the causes of the different phenomena and their 
influence are not so obvious as they are usually 
found to be in political history : it often hap- 
pens that they can only be discovered by con- 
jectures after a close and long-continued ob- 
servation of contemporary phenomena, or of those 
immediately consequent one on another ; but it 
is also true that tliese conjectures for the most 
part reach a high, very often the highest, degree 
of probability, and in determining the charac- 
teristics of individual authors, we have accord- 
iftgly made very successful attempts of this 
kind. But such a proper historical representa- 
tion of the progress of Literature has a better 
clkim in my estimation to the merit of a philoso- 
phical history of Literature than the scientific 
method, as it iiS termed, which is so much e&- 


tolled and recommended as the only right oiie, 

a method which out of partiality for a logixjal 

arrangement classifies the authors according to 

the varieties of form which their language as-^, 

sumed, and which, without any regard to their. 

historical connexion one with another, or to 

the predominance of different varieties at dif*^ } 

ferent times, represents Literature not$'-\ 

' ■'••/ •J ' ' ' * ^ 
living organization, but as a determinate whofe*:':>' 

 •■ •*•-' .i«'^ 

and not only mutilates it as a whole, but seVeHv.*'^^ 
individual authors who have cultivated its* dif^;-;. 
ferent varieties from each other; just as ini sdttt^f^;^ 
manuals of Universal History, the whole iaJdJ^i/i 
tributed into certain periods, and in each perjed,;". ^ 
the history of particular states belonging tqMt^':.;. 
according as they follow from east to wjgstsijjj^} 
related, the result of which is, that instead/ o^-.- 
a Universal History, there appears only a uiiia^f.*'-| 
ber of single, unconnected, Histories. .'.•'(x??-*? 
Such an historical view of the rise and[ p^g*^** 
gress of Greek and Roman Literature rjl^jRA/| 
attempted to exhibit in the preliminary^ ^^^^ 
sertations prefixed to the several periofJi*, Jjj^' 
respect to which the chronological enumejatfSn^ 
of authors stands in the relation of notes io tfei • 
text, or of chronological tables in hist<j^-;iiR2 



contiuuous narration. Several authors who 
were noticed in the first edition have been 
omitted in the present, on the ground that they 
did not appear to have exercised any consider- 
able influence on Literature. In every instance, 
however, where we possess entire works or col- 
lected fragments of an author, I did not feel 
myself justified in passing him by without 
notice, however insignificant he may be in 
other respects. 

It would be doing me great injustice to sup- 
pose^ that I invariably pursued in my Lectures 
the precise course which I have here marked 
out. A treatise on any subject represents that 
particular subject in a scientific and systematized 
form, and descends from universals to particu- 
lars; in oral instruction the object is to discover 
by what method the knowledge to be imparted 
may be most easily apprehended by the learner. 
In learning, however, the natural course of pro- 
ceeding is from individuals and particulars to 
generals. In my Lectures accordingly I at first 
pass over altogether the preliminary disserta- 
tions, and merely go through the chronological 
catalogue of authors, mentioning under each 
the circumstances which exerted any influence 

xvi author's prefacb. 

on their character; under Alcseus, e. g. the dif- 
ferent national character of the Ionic and Doric 
race, (p. 24, sq.) ; under iEschylus, the origin of 
the Drama, (p. 51, sq.) &c. Until the pupils 
have acquired an adequate knowledge of the 
individual authors and the circumstances under 
which they lived, it is impossible for them to 
comprehend general views with any degree of 
precision : a clear and comprehensive view can 
only be obtained by one who makes himself 
properly acquainted with the authors from their 
works, and with the time in which they lived. 
For the sake of repetition, I require the pupils 
themselves to arrange the authors of each period 
according to their difPerent subjects ; and this I 
find to be the only advantage of what is called 
the scientific mode of treating a History of 
Literature; such an exercise I have never yet 
had reason to think disproportioned to the capa*- 
cities of young persons. 

[The Author's third Preface contains nothing of interest 
to the English reader.] 




Works upon this m^fecf. 

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Work appeared at Hamb» 1718-28, 14 vols. 4to. The new 

edition unfortunately remains incomplete. 
Th. Christ Harles Introd. in Histor. Ling. Gr. Altenb. 1792-95. 

2 yols. 8vo. Supplementa Tom. 1. 2. Jenae 1804. 1806. 8yo. 

£j. brevior notitia litteraturse Gr. Lips. 1812. 8vo. 
Grottl. Chr. Fr. Mohnike Gesch. d. Literatur der Griech. und 

Ramer Ir. B. Greifew. 1813. 
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8 Tols. 8yo. translated into German, with additions by I. J. F. 

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also greatly indebted to H. F. Clinton's Fasti Hellenic!. 

Oxford 1834. 3 vols. 4to. 
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orum interpr. suisque ill. Jo. Conr. OrelUus. tom. 1. 
Socratis et Socraticorum, Pythagors et Pythagoreomm 
qus femntur epistols. Lips. 1815. Svo. 


30. Opuscula Grscorom vett. sententiosa et moralia. 6r. et 

Lat. Colleg. dispos. em. et iU. Jo. Conr. Orellius. Lips. 
1819, sqq. 2 Tols. 8vo. 

ParoBmiograpbi Grseci quorum pars none primum ex co- 
dicjbus MSS. vulgatur, ed. T. Gaisford. Oxon. 1836. 

31. OpuscTila mythol. phys. et ethica, Gr. et Lat. (c. notis et 

var. lect. opera Th. Gale.) Cantabr. 1671. Amstel. 1688. 

32. Historiffi poetics scriptorefl antiqui etc. Gr. et Lat. (c. notu 

ed. Th. Gale.) Paris. 1675. 8vo. 

33. Medicomm Grsec. opera que ezstant. Edit. cur. Car. 

G. K'ubn. Lips. 1821-33. 8vo. 26 vols, are publishetL 
Geoponica, sive de re Bustica, Gr. et Lat. ed. P. Need- 
ham. Cantab. 1704. 8yo. £d. J. N. Niclas. Lips. 1781- 
4 vols. 8vo. 

34. Sficav^'if »i^M( 'Afiakfttag, »m) ntiru 'A)<M<)«r. Comu Copue 

et Horti Adonidis. Yenet. in domi Aldi Bom. 1496. fol. 
j4gainy with other Greek Grammarians^ Venet. 1497. fol. 
A third editiorif Venet. 1524. fol. A fourth, ibid. 1525. 

35. Guil. Dindorfii Grammatici Gr»ci. Lips. 1823. toI. 1. 


36. 1mm. Bekkeri anecdota Gr. Berol. 1814-21. 3 vols. 8vo. 

37. Anecdota Grr. e codd. MSS. Bibl. Beg. Paris, descripsit 

Lnd* Bachmannns. Lips. 1828. 2 vols. 8to. 

38. Anecdota Gr. e codd. regiis descr. annot. ill. J. Fr. Boisso- 

nade. Paris. 1829, sq. 8vo. 
Anecdota Greca, e codd. MSS. Bibliothecarum Oxonien- 
sium descripsit J. A. Cramer. Oxon. 1835-6. 3 vols. 

39. Bhetores Grsci. Yenet. ap. Aldnm Mannt. 1508-9. 2 vols. 


40. Bhetores selecti, Gr. et Lat. (c. not. Th. Gale.) Oxon. 

1676. 8vo. iterum edit. J. Frid. Fischenis. Lips. 1773. 8vo. 

41. Bhetores Grseci, ex Codd. Florr. Mediol. Monac. Neap. 

Paris. Bom. Yen. Taur. et Yindob. emendatiores et auc- 


tiores ed. suis alioramque annot. inatr. indd. locapL adi. 

Cbm. Waltz. Stattg. et Tub. 1832-^6. 9 vols. 8to. 
Scriptorom Teterum nova coUectio, e Vaticanis codicibas 

«dita, ab Ang« Maio, Gr. et Lat. Bomse. 1826-33. 8 yob. 

Antiquffi Mnsicae auctores septem, Grr. et Lat. cum notis 

M. Meibomi. Amst. 1652. 4to. 
Scriptores Physiognomonise veteres, Gr. et Lat ed. J. G. 

Franzius. Altenb. 1780. 8vo. 
Scriptores rei Accipitrarise, Gr. et Lat. cura N. Rigaltii. 

Lutet 1612. 4to« 

Astronomi veteres, Gr. et Lat. Venet. Aldus, 1499. fol. 
Veterum Mathematicoruia Athensi, ApoUodori, et alior. 

opera, Gr. et Lat. Paris. 1693. fol. 

42. Historis Byzantinee scriptores, ed. Pbil. Labbsus, C. Ann. 

Fabroti, Car du Fresne du Cange etc. Paris. 1648-1702. 
32 Yolfi. fol. Venet. 1729-33. 23 yols. fol. 

43. Historiffi Byz. nova appendix, Opera Ge. Piside etc. a P. 

Franc. Fagginio. Gr. et Lat. Rom. 1777. fol. 

44. Corpus scriptorum hist. Byz. consilio B. G. Niebuhrii in- 

stitnta. Bonnie 1828, sqq. yols. 1 to 30. 8yo. 



§•1. The first people who laid the foundation of 
poetry in Greece were the so-called Thracian tribes, 
who, under the name of Pleres, dwelt in southern 
Macedonia on Olympus, in Boeotia and Phocis (about 
1460 Tereus) on Parnassus and Helicon (Strabo, x. 
p. 772), and at Eleusis in Attica {Eumolpus). Among 
them we meet with the earliest minstrel bards, who 
were at the same time the priests and instructors of the 
people, soothsayers, and sages : Orpheus, Linus, Eu- 
molpits, Tkamyris, Mus(Bus, etc. The predilection for 
signalizing themselves by adventures and dangerous 
enteiprizes, which soon prevailed so extensively among 
the Grecian chieftains, (the heroic age, in the pre- 
dominant character of the time, analogous to that of 
chivalry in the middle ages, and, like this, a point of 
transition from the state of barbarism to the first steps 
of civilization), as well as the public festivals and 
sacrifices, furnished poetry with a copious variety of 
materials, of which the lively and characteristic fancy 
of the nation was not slow to avail itself; the exploits 


of the hetoes or the praises of the gods were celebrated 
in song. The poetic spirit became more and more 
awakened and fostered^ while the language by means 
of animated recitation^ accompanied with music and 
ihythmical movements^ acquired refinement and har- 

§. 2. But of all these earlier poets, an Orpheus, a 
Musatts, the hymn-composers Pamphus, Olen (Fa- 
bric. Bibl. 6r. t. i. p. 134. 206), and others, we have 
only traditions and scanty notices ; it is with Homer 
that a Grecian literature first begins, as far as we are 
concerned; but how much the earlier poets had already 
done for language and imagery is evident from the fact, 
that this poet at once produced perfect models of the 
epic — ^models, as well in regard to the vivid and lively 
portraiture of the individual objects, as on account of 
the harmony of the parts and the unity of the whole ; 
which is not the product of study and theory, or of an 
art founded on a knowledge of rules, but of a vigor-^ 
ous imagination under the guidance of its own natural 
laws. In order to give publicity to the works of the 
admired poet> there were some who sedulously com- 
mitted his poems to memoiy, and then recited them 
with an animated and rhythmical delivery, Rkapso- 
dists (Wolf proleg. p. xcvi, sqq. a highly esteemed 
class of minstrels, so denominated from ^(Hfi^, a staff 
of laurel, which they carried as a badge of their pro- 
fession. Find. Isthm. 4. 66, or from fd^rM «?«(, to 


recite poems connectedly, whence fttxiti tm of the 
Homeridae, id. Nem. 2. 2. See there Boeckh and 
Dissen.) The most celehrated of these rhapsodists, 
who hy this means trained themselves for poets, was 
Cinadus of Chios, ahout 01. Ixix. (see Ruhnk. epist 
crit. 1. p. 7. Voss mythol. Br. I. p. 103, sqq. new 
edit.) Others imitated Homer, and produced poems 
similar to his {Homeric school. Homeridie is pro- 
hahly the name of a family. J^itszch hist. Horn. 
p. 128), and sang either those events of the Trojan 
war which he had left untouched, and which were 
anterior to the period of time comprised in the Iliad, 
or those subsequent to the death of Hector, with 
which the Iliad concludes, up to the sacking of the 
town and the return of the Greeks {wrt^, TqXiyftfiW, 
the latter from the death of Ulysses by his son Teleg., 
both continuations of the Odyssey), without however 
designing to complete the Iliad or Odyssey, or other 
achievements of the heroic age, as in the *l»niyui, 
0il/8«i( 11 Kvii\»i, AXtcfutWfU, 'A^ytavTutd, 'H^mttXueu, 
also detached portions of these, as Aiyifuf, a poem 
which contains the earliest transactions of the t>orian 
race, a people so much in various ways connected 
with Hercules, and was ascribed by some to Hesiod, 
by others to Cecrops of Miletus •. Of the unity of 
action, which Homer observed in such a masterly 

* Vide Heyne index script, ab ApoUod. laudatoruin, and 
Muller's Dorians, p. 33. 


manner^ these poets had no idea; they regarded 
merely the unity of time, i. e. the chronological con- 
nection, and the unity of the person*. They were 
called Cyclian poets, because their productions made 
up a complete whole of traditional history, xmXn^. 
The most celebrated are Lesches {k), Arctinu$ (c), 
Stasintis (m) ; among them are mentioned also 
{Aitgicts) Hagias of Trcezen (NtfrrAi)**, Eugamman 
of Cyrene, about 01. liii. (TuAfyawW) see Proclus in 
loc. cit. These and other such traditions of the 
heroic age were also handled by the Lacedsemonian 
Cinathon in his 'H^oueXuW (Schol. Apoll. Rh. I. 
1357). TiiXfy«v/« (Hieron, chron. Euseb. ad 01. v.), 
by Creophylus of Samos in his Oi;^«Amk icAm-k 
(Fabric. B. Gr. i. p. 17). These poets might very 
well imitate, even to deception, the language of 
Homer, especially since they were not so much 
versed in the peculiar style of genius which dis- 
tinguished the individual poet, as in the general 

^ Aristot. poet. 23. 

« Vide Fabric. Bibl. Grr. i. p. 378, sq. Heyne Exc. L ad Mn, 
IL Proclus in BibL d. ali, Litt. «. KwnH, Is. St. Ined, p. 35, 
with Heyne^s Anm. also in HepfuBstion^ edit, Gaisford^ p. 461. 
Belk. prsBf. Schol. II. F. WilUner de cyclo epico poetisque cy- 
cUcis. Moneut. 1826. 8. W, MUller de cyclo Crrac. epico ei 
poet cjfcL Lips. 1820. 8. Cf. Jahrb, d. PMlol. XIII. p. 240. 

^ Groddeck init, hist, liU. Gr. p. 36, considers him to be the 
comic poet of the middle comedy. Thiersch Act, Monac, t. ii. 
p. 584, sqq. places him, with Nitzich hist, crit, Horn, p. 116, 
between Arctinus and Lesches. 


character of the language in use at that period, hut 
they were incapahle of hreathing into their poems his 
spirit •". 

Remark, The hypothesis of F. A. Wolf, that the 
Homeric poems first received their present form from 
the hands of comparatively recent editors {^MrKivct- 
rrtu), particularly during the reign of Pisistratus, and 
under his direction, although defended with consider- 
ahle acuteness and argumentative skill, ohtains cre- 
dence at present with very few, (see particularly Greg. 
GuiL Nitszch hist Hom,fasc. 1. Hannov. 1830. 4to.) 
It has heen hefore remarkefd, that the method of proof 
adopted hy Wolf rests more on a priori arguments 
than upon internal data; and also that the poems must 
have had their present compass and arrangement as 
early as the times of the first Cyclian writers, because 
these would not otherwise have confined their choice 
to subjects, which the Iliad and Odyssey had left un- 
appropriated ^ It has been moreover already observed, 
that the inference drawn from the non-adoption of a 
similar plan of strict adherence to unity by the Grecian 

* Proclus says of these Cycl. p. 378. Gaisf. doubtless on more 
ancient authority : r»u Wt»0u mv»X»u rk 9»tn(Mtrm mrttHatlitrtu 
Hr*7t trtXXttt §h)Q oZrm %tk r^v k^trw, if 2ik r^v k»§X»vtittf ri/f I* 
rnitrf w^yfuiratr and the Alexandrians did not admit any one 
of them into their canon as a classical poet. 

f Struve Abhandl. u. Beden, p. 82, folg. O. MtiUer bei 
Nitzch hist. Hom. p» 152, sq. Nitzsch in £r8ch n. Grubert 
Encycl. Art. Odysee p. 399. hist, Hom, 1. c. 


epic poets^ as to the question of its adoption by Horner^ 
(Wolf prol. p. cxxvi, sqq.) proves too much, and con- 
sequently proves nothing*. The assertion of Wolf 
respecting the evidence of all antiquity (prolog, 
p. cxl.)^ resolves itself, at last, into the evidence of 
comparatively modem authorities, Cicero {diciiur), 
Pausanias, and others, without receiving any cor- 
roboration from more ancient testimony; and, be- 
sides, even this would only show that an arrange- 
ment had been made, agreeably to the indications 
afforded by the poems themselves, not that the 
persons commissioned by Pisistratus invented the 
plan, and then arranged the individual parts in 
conformity to it. Such a contrivance might per- 
haps be expected from Alexandrian grammarians, but 
not from men of that simple age, who were strangers 
to all chicanery and deceit. But when again Wolf 
maintains that it was impossible, even for the poets 
themselves, without the aid of writing, to project and 
retain in their memory poems of so vast an extent, it is 
to be feared that our judgment %n this point is too much 
influenced by modem practice. Depending ourselves 
almost entirely on the assistance of writing, we forget 
how assiduously the ancients cultivated their retentive 
powers, neither do we make due allowance for the effect 
of imagination, which with the Greeks was much more 

« S)ee my Lehrbuch der Philos. §. 106. p. 107. dritt. Aail. 


lively and vigorous than with xxs, and after all there 
still remains to be decided the question^ whether the 
greatest poets of modem times, as Dante, Ariosto,Tasso, 
Milton, Klopstock, Goethe, Schiller, and Wieland, have 
considered it necessary first to commit their poems to 
paper ; at least the appeal of Wolf to our own poets, 
p. cxvi., has never yet been answered by them (comp. 
Schiller's u. Goethe's Briefwechsel (Correspondence), 
3t B. S. 89.) The inquiry into the origin of the 
Homeric poems appears therefore to be independent 
of the question, whether Homer knew and practised 
the art of writing; so that we may, with Wolf, con- 
sistently deny to Homer and his time the practice, oi 
even the knowledge of the art, and yet maintain the 
possibility of preserving these poems in the order in 
which they were composed, without having recourse to 
writing. That the knowledge of writing, however, is 
more ancient than Wolf is willing to admit, Nitzsch 
has shown in his kistor. Horn. 

Generally speaking, in attempting to clear away the 
apparent difficulties which obscure the origin of the 
Homeric poems, others arising from the new hypo- 
thesis seem to have been overlooked. It is thought 
inconceivable that works of such magnitude as the 
Iliad and Odyssey, could have been originated and 
preserved without the aid of writing ; and, in opposi- 
tion to this, an assumption is set up, which is just as 
little warranted by any precedent in the literature of 


Other nations: for that a work should have derived its 
origin, from the productions of several poets heing 
collected and joined together by the contrivance of one 
or more persons, other than the original authors, or 
from the circumstance that some preexisting nucleus, 
(a quadre,) of moderate dimensions, had gradually, 
by means of subsequent additions and accretions, ac- 
quired, like a snow-ball, an augmentation of bulk, and 
that nevertheless a work thus heterogeneously con- 
structed, should be in the whole of one tone and spirit 
and as it were of one mould ^, would be as great a 
miracle as if several artists should undertake to restore the 
celebrated Torso, and should execute it so cleverly as to 
lead a person to suppose, even after the closest scrutiny, 
that he saw before him the work of one and the same 
artist. It is not to be denied that isolated verses, or 
even several, may have been interwoven, through 
ignorance, in both poems ; inasmuch as there is 
scarcely any production of antiquity which has 
escaped this fate. But that subsequent revisers should 
have designedly interpolated whole passages, which do 
not betray themselves by any difference of hue, like 
the last book of the Odyssey, is antecedently impro- 

^ What Cicero says of a speech of Fannius, Brui, 26, 100. 
is applicable here : '^ nee ejusmodi esty ut a plttribtu ctm/usa vide- 
aiur : unus enhn sonus est totius orationts et idem stilus" Some 
also asserted of that speech, ^^ multos nobileSj quod quisque 
potuisset, in iliam contulisse" 


bable^ were it only on the ground that even the Cyclian 
poets cautiously abstained from any attempt to describe 
again those same scenes^ which the original poet had 
already delineated. As yet there have been no pas- 
sages of any considerable length pointed out by the 
old grammarians, or the modem critics, which it is 
necessary for us on internal or external grounds to 
pronounce spurious. Such decisions are founded 
either on hjrpothetical views, as the assertion of 
J. Glob. Schneider's, who is said to have considered 
the 9th book of the Iliad an interpolation* : or on a 
misconception of the style of thought, and the general 
spirit and character of antiquity, as in the opinion that 
the last part of the Iliad [viz. the last six books] is 
an extraneous addition, or that the catalogue of the ships 
is foisted in at an improper place, as if the historians, 
Herod. 7. 61, sqq. and Thucydides 7. 52. did not 
there first give the catalogue of the belligerent parties, 
where the principal battles are described. Least of all 
has it been considered that not the old poets only, 
but other writers also, suffer themselves to be influenced 
in the connection of their thoughts and the arrange- 
ment of their works, not so much by regard to the intel- 
lect which combines all affinities, though even this is 
not altogether excluded from their consideration, as by 
the laws of a vivid imagination, which associates even 
the bare similitude, and often lays hold of the slightest 
* Conf. Jen. allg. Littz. 1823. n. 172. 


handle for digression, as Od. 19, 394, sqq., and that, 
for this reason, the individual connection often appears 
loose and irregular to us, who are accustomed to pro- 
ceed according to the demands of reason and rules of 
Logic. Whereas, when viewed in relation to the laws 
of the imagination, the association of ideas, which 
prevaOs in all ordinary conversation, it appears per- 
fectly natural. It is precisely this sort of coherence 
which we trace in the s^y» ttxt ifu^»t of Hesiod, the 
arrangement of which deviates so far from a logical 
connexion, that H. Twesten was of opinion that 
the poem should he divided into several portions; 
the same ohservation is also applicable to the poems 
of CoUinus and T}Tt8eus, especially to the Elegies 
not only of the Greeks, but also of the Romans, to 
the Odes of Pindar, and even to the History of 
Herodotus ^, This connection, so incoherent according 
to our ideas, can only have been derived from the 

ic This connectiou in Hesiod and Herodotus I have attempted 
to point out in mj vermtschten Serif ten S. 108, sqq. I am here 
reminded of an assertion which F. A. Wolf made in a conversa- 
tion with Hier. de Botch at Amsterdam in 1790, that ev^n. the 
History of Herodotas had heen revised at a subsequent period, 
and disfigured by a multitude of digressions and episodes which 
stood in no logical connection with the main circumstances of 
the narrative. Bespecting the train of thought in Pindar, see 
Hermann in the Netten JcJirb, d, Philol, IS. 55, sqq. The effect 
of the Imagination predominates also in the Greek Syntax, and 
those persons are greatly mistaken who expect to find aU its 
parts constructed on a logicetl basis. 



original poet; but if some learned individual in after 
times should wish to arrange and bring together 
several detached pieces of a poem of this kind> he 
could not arrange them otherwise than according to 
logical considerations ; and it is too much to suppose 
that it could have occurred to any one^ however ex- 
quisite his poetical taste, to arrange the parts of the 
Odyssey in such a manner as we have them arranged 
at present; none but the author himself who compre- 
hended the whole in the grasp of his genius could do 
that; though others also^ who possessed the like poetic 
genius, might imitate the given model, as Virgil in tlie 
JEneid, and Wieland in the Oberon. When persons 
here speak of an- art which it would be premature to 
expect from the age of Homer, they confound the 
term Art, as the faculty of producing something ac- 
cording to the knowledge and direction of certain 
rules, according to a theory (which, however, did not 
exist even in the age of Pisistratus), properly speaking 
artificial skill, with art as the immediate emanation 
of genius, originating in the inmost recesses of the 
mind, conformable to which are all genuine works 
of art, in which the authors themselves cannot perhaps 
give any account of the manner in which they were 
produced, because it appears to them so perfectly 
natural ^ It has been thought extraordinary, that in 

1 This effect cf Genioa is admirably described in a letter of 
Mozart, which I remember to have read in a former number of 


the eleventh Book of the Iliads v. 809> sqq. after men' 
doning the meeting of Patroclus and Euiypylos^ and 
the cure which the latter sought to ohtain from him^ 
the thread T>f the narrative is then hroken off, and is 
not resumed till the fifteenth Book, v. 390 ; and then 
again at v. 405, it is hroken off until it is continued 
at the heginning of the sixteenth Book ; and persons 
have heen for this reason induced to regard all the 
intervening portion as an extraneous addition. It is 
imquestionahly true, that a revising poet or scholar 
woold hardly have arranged the pieces* in question a» 
we now read them, if they had heen presented to him 
in a detached and unconnected form ; he would cer- 
tainly have joined together every thing which was 
logically connected, and would have avoided any 
transition in the narrative from one subject to another; 
he would have related in nice and regulai' order, first 
one and then the other. The fact of its not being so, 
makes it probable that the loose coherence, as we con- 
ceive it to be, proceeds from the original poet, who 
directed his view to the main subject, the battle of the 
Greeks and Trojans, and incidentally introduced the 
subordinate circumstance, the stay of Patroclus with 
Eurypylus, imtil this stay, at the beginning of Book 16, 
brings on an important consequence. That Pylsemenes, 
who was killed II. 5, 578., nevertheless follows the dead 
body of his son II. 13. 658., is much less surprising, if 

the Leipzig Musicalischen Zeitung. Comp. Wolf proleg. 
p. 42. 


the whole poem was merely preserved in the memory, 
than if it were indebted for its present form to the 
persons whom Pisistratus deputed to arrange it, who 
must therefore be supposed not to have at all remarked 
the contradiction. 

The Odyssey harmonizes with the Iliad in tone and 
spirit, in its simple unaffected language, and in the 
vividness of its imagery; on the whole, so extremely 
uniform, that it becomes difficult to believe that it is 
the work of a different author from that of the Iliad, 
as some grammarians (»i ;c*'C'?*'"**^' Wolf proleg. p. 
clviii.) maintained, supporting their opinions on ab- 
stract grounds, isolated words and expressions, and 
mythological episodes". That the Odyssey has not 
the energetic character of the Iliad, arises not, as 
Longinus thought, from the advanced age of the poet, 
but from the difference of subject, inasmuch as the 
Iliad portrays the vigorous exertions of heroes in 
council, in fights, and battles, while the Odyssey, for 
the most part, depicts peaceful and domestic scenes ; 
for the Greeks were remarkable for the exquisite tact 
with which they discovered a suitable tone /or eveiy 
variety of subject. 

§.3. In nearly as great estimation with the ancients 

^ [The question respecting the identity of aathorship in the 
Iliad and Odyssey was first mooted by the Alexandrian critics. 
This identity is rejected by Clinton, Payne, Knight, and Cole- 
ridge; the former however conjectures that the interval between 
the two poems did not exceed fifty years, as they manifestly 
belong to the same school of poetry. Cf. Clint. F. H. 381 .] 


was Hesiod {by, though the suhjects of his composi- 
tions were very different. In his t^y» tuti ifti^m, the 
most ancient of the poems ascrihed to him^ he has set 
forth in a loose, though, from the natural association 
of ideas, a defined connection, exhortations to an 
honest, active life, and was therefore the forerunner 
of the succeeding gnomic and didactic poets : besides 
this, he comprised also, in two works, the 0My«wW and 
K»T»x§yH yvfecucSf, the traditions and poetic fictions 
respecting the genealogy of the gods and heroes. His 
poems also were recited by the rhapsodists. In his 
language and imagery, as well as in his religious con- 
ceptions, he has a more sombre cast than Homer, and 
evinces the spirit of a dififerent time, which is no longer 
directed to the lively and cheerful enjoyment of the 
boons of life, but to the due adjustment of domestic 
and social relations, which had been disturbed by a 
complication of disorder and distress*. He was suc- 
ceeded by other composers of Theogonies, Titano- 
machies, Gigantomachies, Genealogies ; and there 
arose also an Hesiodic school^ of poets, who, like 

'^ According to Voss ( Wettkunde 8. xvi. conf. xx. Benj. Can' 
slant de la religion^ t. iii. p. 294. not. iv. p. 363, et sqq.) he lived 
about the 20th, according to Miiller (Orchom, s. 358, who con- 
tradicts himself however, Dorians 1 , s.33.) about the 35th Olymp. 
The poems ascribed to him probably belong to different periods. 
[Clinton refers his genuine works to 859~ 824.] 

^ Cf. Lobeck Agaloph. p. 312. 

P Nitzscb hist. cht. Horn. p. 123. [So called, not because 


bim^ composed genealogical poems, as the Lacedae- 
monian Cinathon (Pans. II. 3. p. 119. ed. Kuhn. 18. 
p. 151 ), as also one who composed 'h^axXm, TnX§yntt, 
Olhirc^M, See above, §. 2. Carcinus, author of the 
Ktft/srioerMus, SO called from the country of the poet^ 
containing a catalogue of celebrated women of the 
heroic age^; Asius, of Samos'; Eumeltts (rf). To 
the same class of epic poems belong also the hymns> 
which relate, in hexameters, either the birth and early 
life of a god, until the time when he enters upon his 
appropriate functions, or some event in his traditional 
history. Of this kind are still extant five h3aDns, 
wliich are ascribed to Homer, because he was generally- 
considered as the representative of epic poetry. The 
hymns of the Lycian Olen are of more ancient date*, 
and were composed, as we may infer from Pausanias> 
for the Delian festivities, as well as those of the 
Athenian Pampkus*, in which, among other subjects, 
the praises of the family of the Lycomidse were sung 
at the sacred performance (uri r«iV }(«yeii«<« Paus. p. 

Hesiod was the most ancient poet of this school, bat because he 
was the most distioguiphed.] 

1 BibL d. alt Litt. u. Kurst II. p. dO, sqq. 

^ Yalcken. diatr. de Earip. tr. p. 68. not. 

> 'aXift, Herod. 4. 35. Pans. 1, 18. 9y IS. 5, 7. p. 393. 
8, 21. 9, 27, 10, 5. p. 809. Callim. in Del. 304. 

< ni/K^Mf. Paus. I, 38. p. 92. 39. p. 94. 7, 21. p. 577 ; 
8, 35. p. 672. 9, 27. p. 762. 29. p. 767. 31. p. 773. 35. p. 781. 
Fhiloetr. Henuc. p. 693. 


762, at the sacrifice or at the consecrations ?) . Homer's 
hymn to Ceres bears a great resemblance to that of this 
poet, and was therefore probably designed like it for 
the purpose of religious worship, as was also the first 
hymn of Homer to Apollo, in imitation of Olen". 

§ . 4. The style of these h3rmn'-compQser8 was applied 
by Callinui {e) of Ephesus to songs, in which, upon 
the irruption of the Treres, a Cimmerian people, into 
Asia Minor, he animated his fellow-citizens to valour : 
as also among the Spartans, by the Athenian Tyrtcnu 
(^), although, by the annexed pentameter, he lowered 
the mi^ estic tone of the heroic verse". But Archilochus 
(/) exhibited the first model of personal satire in a 
newly-invented metre, which has a closer approximation 
to the language of common life, the iambic (from 
Imirrm, to ztrike, to hurt ? properly the designation of 
the class of poetry itself), the object of which was to 
ridicule the follies, weaknesses, and foibles of indivi- 
duals, e. g. of Lycambes (Horat Epod. 6, 13. epist. 

V Nitzsch hist Horn. p. 136, ie of opinion that they were song 
at festivals daring the Ijrrical contest. 

^ That the name Elegy first arose in the age of Simonides, 
iXiyt signifying among the Attics a fiineral dirge, and that 
the term lk»yun derived therefrom denoted a distich eonsistiiig 
of an Hexameter and a Pentameter, and that thence a poem 
consisting of severed distichs was called \X*y%m in the plnr. 
or IXityiUj Francke has shewn in CcUlinus, See qtuestionis 
de origine carm. elegiaci tractatio critica, Altona et Lips. 
1816. 8vo. 


I. 19^ 25.), in which, by the force of expression, and 
by the energy and brilliancy of his thoughts (Quint. 
10, 1, 59.), he became that which Homer was in the 
epic. (Vellei. Pat. I. 5. c. not. Ruhnk.) A similar 
satirical composition was Margites, in hexameters, 
which several of the ancients, as Plat. Alcib. 2. p. 147 
B. Aristot. de poet. c. 4, 10. and others, have ascribed 
to Homer, and in which, at a later period, Pigres, 
brother of Artemisia, is said to have intermixed iambic 
versed. Archilochus was succeeded by Simonides of 
Amorgus (t), Hippanax {pp), Ananius, 

§.5. At the time when the epos began to decline, 
while the cheerful and buoyant character of the lonians 
led them to observe and represent the objects of ex- 
ternal nature with a childlike simplicity, the Molo- 
Dorian tribes, who w^re characterized by greater 
solemnity and depth of feeling, and whose penetration 
was directed more to the interior of things, without at 
the same time renouncing the joys of life, expressed 
their feelings and conceptions with the greatest warmth 
and vigour in lyrical efiusions. The ceremonials of 
religious worship, which were always accompanied with 
chori, furnished the occasion ; thence the hymn$, 
paans to Apollo and Diana, particularly with the view 
of averting the plague, or other calamities, fi(ui to 
Apollo (Nitzsch hist. Hom. p. 40.), dithyrambs to 

r Fabric. Bibl. Gr. t. i. p. 383, sqq. Tyrwhitt et Herm. ad 
Aristot. 1. c. Nitzsch hist. Horn. p. 106. 


Bacchus, poems composed iu the most elevated style 
of lyric holdness, as being smig at seasons of drunken 
merriment (Philoch. apud Athen. 14. p. 628. A.), 
T^Mriim {^^Tmi,) hymns sung on approaching the 
altar, accompanied by flutes, often also in hexameters. 
Pans, I V. 33. xa^tkfm sung by young women, vir^^x^fMnu, 
during the dance aioimd the altar at the time of sacrifice ; 
\f^Kmiim on distinguished men, and others {choral-lyric, 
see O. Miiller Dor. ii. p. 381, sqq.). But, on other 
occasions also, 13^10 poetry served as a medium of 
expression for the feelings, as well for the vehement 
and excited, as for the more soft and tender {odal 
lyric). To this class belong the vxixm, convivial 
songs, which were sung by the guests, with a myrtle 
twig in their hand, not in regular order^, but alter- 
nately, from one side to the other, accompanied with 
the lyre, and contained not only exhortations to a 
cheerful enjoyment of life, but also serious maxims 
for its due regulation ; 7«^«/v/« {uo-^rm) sung in 
succession ; ttSfit, merry songs, which they addressed , 
to their mistresses at processions; Iwi^mXtifiM, songs of ; 
the reapers, fishermen, spinsters, etc., for there w&s 
scarcely any business of public or private life which 
was not accompanied with song and music*. The 
most distinguished of these poets, whom the Alexan- 
drian critics admitted into their catalogue of standard 

' Bgen ^»iXM s. carmina conriv. Graec. Jens 1798. 8vo. 
 -S. Zell.'Ferien8chriften i. p. 55. 


authors (canon), were the nine following : Alcinan (A) 
at Sparta, celebrated'' in Xiet^ikfmq and love-songs; and 
particularly at Lesbos, the warlike foe of tyrants, 
AlccBtts {p) (Quintil. x. i. 63) ; the love-breathing 
(Horat. Od. IV. I. 10.) Sappho {q) ; and shortly after, 
among the Sicilians, the nervous Stesiehorns (r), who 
treated particularly epic subjects with Ijric boldness 
(Quint. 1. c. 62) ; in Rhegium the love-distracted 
{t^ttTOftanrrecjcf, Suid. conf. Cic. Tusc. Qu. iv* 33.) 
Ihycus (oa); and, among the lomxas, Anacr€(m{hh), 
who exhorts to the cheerful enjo3rment of life : these 
were succeeded in the following age by Simonides, 
Bacchylides, and, the greatest of all, Pindar. To the 
same class belong also the dithyrambic poets, as Arian 
(jci) of Methymna in Lesbos, Lasus (qq) of Hermione, 
Melanippus (rr) of Melos, who is mentioned by 
Xenophon, Mem. p. I. iv. 3. as the best poet of this 
class; and some poetesses, as Erinna, Myrt^ Corinna. 
Each of these lyrics composed not in one species only^ 
but in several; some in all, though they did not usually 
obtain distinction in more than one ; they were at the 
same time musicians, and several of them are more 
celebrated in this last respect, as Terpander (I), Arum, 
Tkaletas (Hoeck Kreta 3. p. 339) S Sakadas, Po- 

* Muller in loc. p.^378. 

^ Nitzsoh bist Horn. p. 43, sqq. 

' Muller's Dorians, ii. p. 321 , sqq. Nitzsch hist H(Mn. p. 68. 


§. 6. All these kinds of poetry^ as well as those 
which remain to he noticed, genninated out of the 
political and private life, the ceremonials of religious 
worship, and the general hahits of society, without 
the intervention of any extraneous influence, or any 
pre-existing model; — whereas the Romans in their 
literature commenced at once with imitating the 
Greek poets; — the language again developed itself, 
by the plastic energy of its original genius, through 
the instrumentality of poetry and music, not by the 
aid of artificial theories; while the Romans, on the 
other hand, from the very first constructed theirs 
according to the rules of the grammarians, but still 
after the pattern of the Greeks, and consequently 
cramped and constrained it. It is not so much from 
necessity, or for want of suitable materials for writ- 
ing % that oral delivery was resorted to as the only 
medium of communication, but much more on ac- 
count of its greater liveliness, a property which 
renders it congenial to the taste of other southern 
nations also ; rhapsodists recited not only the poems 
of Homer and Hesiod, but also those of Archilochus 
and others, and the study of music was a principal 
object in the education of youth f. For that very 
reason, however, the productions of the poet became 

« Nitzscb hist Horn. p. 70. 
^ Nitzsoh hist. Horn. p. 36, sqq. 


more extensively diffused into the spirit of the 

§. 7. While among the different states of Greece, 
the fonns of government developed and matured 
themselves in the greatest variety, and while con- 
flicting claims gave rise to frequent intestine and 
external wars, and the private relations hecame more 
and more counter to each other, practical statesmen 
presented themselves, who, at the head of the state, or 
as counsellors through the medium of laws {Zaleucus 
among the Locri Epizephyrii, ahout 01. xxix. Cha- 
rondas of Catana^), composed precepts and admo- 
nitions {the seven tmse men: Periander at Coiinth, 
633—563 ; Pittactis at Mitylene, ahout 590 ; TkaUs 
in Miletus, ahout 597; Solon {v), ahout 594; Cleo- 
hulus, lawgiver in Lindus ; Bias in Priene ; Chilo in 
Sparta; to which some add hesides the Scythian 
Anacharsis, Pherecydes of Syros, Epimenides {u) 
of Crete, JEsop (x), and others). While many of 
these, e. g. Periander (Athen. iv. p. 632. D.), Solon, 
delivered political precepts and rules of life, for the 
most part in the metre afterwards called Elegiac, 
also in Scholia, sometimes also in Hexameter^ as 
Phocylides, and the author of the XV*^* ^'^> ^^^ 
maxims of law drawn up in verse were sung at 
hanquets and on other occasions (Nitzsch hist. Horn. 

S Fabric. Bibl. 6r. t. ii. p. 1. 9. Heynii opusc. voUii. p. 1 , sqq. 
Wachsmath Historical Antiquities of Greece, i. p. 317, sq. 


p. 38), they were soon followed in the same path by 
others; hence arose particularly by means of The- 
ognis {eld) and Pkocylides {ee), and Xenophanes {oo), 
a new kind of poetry, which delivered advice and 
prudential maxims (yfiftrnt) for all occurrences of life 
( Gnomic poets, a name of modem invention). With 
the same view fables (A«V«^ fiv^oh '^^^h ttfroXdy^i) had 
been occasionally delivered by the most ancient poets, 
e. g. Hesiod, Archilochus^, Stesichorus, (Aristot. 
Rhet. II. 20.) and others, in which moral instructions 
were vividly conveyed under the guise of animals 
introduced as talking and acting; in these Msop 
particularly distinguished himself. The same Ele- 
giac metre, which had hitherto been employed in 
exhortations (^m^euHirui, vT«^if««i), was applied by 
Mimnermus {w) to the expression of lamentations on 
the shortness and the casualties of life, to the sorrows 
of love, and also to the description of its joys ; and 
first in the following period by Simonides to funeral 
dirges and sepulchral inscriptions, for which puipose 
it became generally used in all smaller poems, ori- 
ginally designed for inscriptions {imy^dfcfutrx) , and, 
in general, wherever a thought was to be expressed 
concisely and pointedly. See Francke CallintLS. 
§. 8. The sciences, on the other hand,'Werd as yet 

Ik L G. Huschke de Fabulis Archil, in Miscell. philol. i. 1. 
^ Fabric. Bibl. Gr. t. i. p. 618. Nachtr. zu Sulzers Theorie 
T. p. 269. Cf. Quintil. 6, 11, 19. c. not Spald. 


in an incipient state. Even at this period efforts 
were made by the Greeks, particularly by the lonians 
of Lesser Asia, to give a more definite character to 
physical science by distinctness of ideas, and to reduce 
itj by general principles, to a connected system, or, 
in other words, to philosophize, while the Orientals 
never advanced it beyond a mere sport of the ima- 
gination with symbolical representations. Philosophy 
begins with Thales {t), who, with Anaximander {z) 
and Anaximenes {ii), constitutes the Ionic school; 
but it consisted for the most part only in mathema- 
tical, physical, and astronomical acquirements, and in 
speculations on the origin of the universe. Xeno- 
fhanes of Colophon established in Magna Graecia 
the Eleatie school, which sought to attain the same 
object by deductions of reason, assigning only a sub- 
ordinate place to perception by the senses; but the 
researches of the Dorian Pythagoras {gg) were 
besides this directed to the moral and political amelio- 
ration of the human race. Then arose also the proper 
didactic poem, after the example of Hesiod ; Xeno- 
phanes recited (if^xif/S^u) his tenets in the epic 
metre, in which he was followed in the next period 
by Parmenides and Empedocles. The Ionian Cadmus 
of Miletus {*ll) , Acusilatts {mm), and HecattBus {nn), 
made tlie first rude attempts in historic composition, 
but they confined themselves to chronicles of single 
states and families [?i»y«y^dfot Xitzsch hist Horn* 


p. 87. 90.) and to the traditions^ which they endeavoured 
to relate in continuous order, hut which, owing to 
their heing themselves only an incoherent mass of 
local and popular sayings, they did not connect on 
any principles of internal affinity and rules of logic, 
but on external grounds and resemblances, particu- 
larly geographical considerations. Many appended to 
these traditions the narrative of subsequent events up 
to their own time, as Hecat^ms ; particularly several 
of the following period''. From these attempts in 
historical composition, as well as in philosophical 
researches, arose the prosaic style of writing, which 
in philosophical subjects Anaximander or Pherecydes 
of Syros {ff) is said to have first practised, and in 
historical Cadmus, Pherecydes of Leros, and others. 
Mitzsch hist Horn. p. 98, sq. 

(a) Homer, according to the general opinion of the 
lonians (of Chios ?) about 300 years after the taking 

k Crenzer die hiot. Kunst der Griechen, p. 121, sqq. Poppo 
ad Thnc. i. 1. p. 13, sqq. Nitzttch hist. Horn. p. 88—90. Of 
their plain and artless style, foil of childlike simplicity, see 
Dionys. Hal. t. vi. p. 819, sq. 864 ed. Beiske. Cic. de orat. 2, 
12. Creuz. h. E. p. ISO. Nitzsch hist. Horn. p. 94, sq. But 
the entertaining stories which they introduced possesHed great 
attraction for their hearers (Thuc. i. 21). It can hardly be 
supposed that they studiously designed to imitate the Cyclic 
and other poets; this loose connection was demanded by the 
character and condition of the age. See §. 2. Remark. 


of Troy, or 1000 B. C. {Bemh, Thiersch Uber das 
Zeitalter u. Vaierland des H. Halberst, 1824. Cf. 
Jahrh. d. PhiloL I. S, 435, sq. has endeavoured to 
prove, that the poet lived in the interval between 
the destruction of Troy and the return of the Hera- 
clidae). 'iXia^ comprehends the period which inter- 
vened between the feud of Achilles and Agamemnon, 
in the tenth year of the war, and the interment of 
Hector. 'O^va-nw, the destinies of Ulysses after his 
departure from the island of Calypso till his arrival 
at Ithaca, and his slaying the suitors, a period of 
twenty-four days. These poems were for a long 
time recited or declaimed in detached portions by 
rhapsodists (the Homeridce). But after the time of 
Solon, Pisistratus, and his son Hipparchus (c. 638— 
510 B. C), who first arranged them according to 
internal data, and ordered them to be recited in 
a regular series at the Panathenaic festivals, they 
acquired increased notoriety, and were considered, as 
they had already been through Lycurgus,as the national 
property of all Grecian tribes, as the most genuine basb 
of their language, and the main source of their 
civihzation. There were eight distinct and carefully 
corrected copies {ho^i^o-uf), six of which are named 
after the cities («/ ^cXtrtKotl, ml ht ^iXMf) from which 
they were brought to Alexandria; those of Chios, 
Argos, Cyprus, Crete, Synope, Massilia; a seventh 
is said to have proceeded from Antimachus of Colo- 


phon, the eighth from Aristotle {i ht fv f«l^H»H, 
Fabric. Bibl. Gr. t. i. p. 357 sqq. ; Wolf prolegom. 
p. clxxiv.). In the Alexandrian age the grammarians 
bestowed their labour almost exclusively^ though too 
frequently on mere arbitrary grounds^ on the cor- 
rection of the text of these poems and on the elu- 
cidation of forms of expression which occur in them, 
particularly Zenodotus> Aristophanes of Byzantium, 
Aristarchus, Crates of Mallus. Fragments of their 
researches are preserved in the Scholia, particularly 
the Venetian, in Eustathius, and other grammarians. 
Whether the text of Homer was really so corrupt as 
these grammarians would have us believe, or whether 
that only appeared so to them, which did not accord 
with their ideas of grammar and taste, cannot now be 
determined, as we are not acquainted with the primitive 
structure of the text. 

Editioru, Edit princ. Florent. 1488. fol. 2 vols. Venet. 
Aldas, 1504. 1617. 1524. 2 vols. 8vo. Opera. Florent Janta, 
1519.^ — ^Yenet Junta, 1537. 2 vols. 8yo. — S'cholia minora in 
niadem. Bomie 1517. Sch. Didymi in II. et Od. Yenet 1528. 
8yo.— cum scholiis minoribus (Didymi) Basil, ap. Heryag. 
1535. 1551. fol. min.— Amst Elzev. 1656. 2 vols. 4to.^IliaB 
cum scholiis. Cantabr. 1689. 4to. — U. et Od. cur. Jo. Henr. 
Lederlino et Steph. Berglero. Amstelod. 1707-12. 2 vols. — ^11. 
et Od. cum schol. Gr. opera Jos. Barnes. Cantabr. 1711. 4to. 
2 vols. — n. et Od. ed. Sam. Clarke. Lond. 1729-1740. 4to. 

4 vols. 1760. 1779. 8vo. frequently reprinted. — e rec. et c. not. 
Clarkii ed. Jo. Aug. Emesti. Lips. 1759-1764. 8vo. 1824. 

5 vols. Glasg. 1814* — llias et Odyssea, Gr. Oxon. Clarend. 
1800. (Grenville edit) 4 vols. 4to. min.— Opera, recognovit 



F. H. Bothe, Lips. 1832-35. 6 toIs. 8yo Ilias ad Teteris 

codicis Yeneti fidem recensita. Schol. in earn antiquissima ex 
eod. ood. aliisque nunc primum edidit Jo. Bapt. Casp. d' Ansae 
de Villoison. Yenet. 1788. foL — ^Ilias ex recens. Fr. Ang. 
Wolfii cnm ei. Prolegomenis de opermn Homericomm pruca et 
gennina forma yariisqae mutationibus et probabili ratione emen- 
dandi Vol. 1. Halse, 1795. 8yo. with the Prolegom. Homeri et 
Homeridaram opera ex rec. Fr. Aug. Wolfii. Ilias Lipa. 1817. 
8vo. — Odyss. ib. 18l7« 8vo. — Odyss. cnm var. lection, e cod. 
Harleiano et notis Bic. Porsoni. Oxon. 1801. — Horn, carmina 
cnm brevi annotatione. Ace. varise lectiones et observationee 
yeterum Grammaticorum cnm nostree statis critica cur. C. G. 
Heyne, Lips. 1802. 8 vols. 8yo. (the Iliad alone) torn. 9. 
Indie, conf. £. A. G. Grafenham, ib. 1822. editio minor 
Lips. 1804. Oxon. Clarend. 1821-1834. accednnt Scholia 
minora 2 yols. 8yo. — (cur. Godofr. HeDr. Schaefero) Lips, 
ap. Tauchnitz, 1810. 5 yols. 12mo. — Carmm. Hom. II. et Od. 
a rhaps. Interpol, repnrgata— c. not. ac proleg. in qnibus de 
eorum orig. anct. et act. inquiritur — op. et stud. Bich. Payne 
Knight, Lond. 1820. 8yo. and separately Payne Ejiight 
proleg. ad Homer, s. de carm. Hom. orig. auct. et st. Prsef. 
est Buhkopf. Hannoy. 1816. 8yo. Evfra^iov «f;^if«v«'«#«'«v 
Qtw^mXsnMMf vs^fx/S^Xc^ tU rhf 'Oftn^ev* IXi^tht, BomsB 1542. fol. 
Lips. ap. Weigel. 1827-29. 4 yols. 4to. tig riif *Qiiu^0tmf Bom. 
15419. Lips. ap. Weigel. 1825. 2 yols. 4to. cum ind. Matth. De- 
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fol. — Ilias, Gr. from the text of Heyne, with English notes 
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1822-24, 3 yols. 8yo. — ^Odys. cum scholiis yeteribus etc. Oxon. 
Clarend. 1827, 2 yols. 8yo. — Odys. ed. et annot. perpet. illus- 
trayit G. Loewe, Lips. 1828. 2 yols. 8yo. — Scholia in Homeri 
Iliad, ex rec. Imm. Bekkeri. Berol. 1825, 2 vols. 4to. Append, 
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Codd. Ambros. ab Aug. Maio prolata, nunc e Cod. Palat. et 
aliunde auctius et emend, edita a Phil. Buttmanno. Berol. 



1821) Syq. — J. H. J. KSppin erUarende Anmexinngen zum 
H. (nUde) Hannover 1780, sq. 6 Tbeile. Greg. W. Nitzsch 
erklar. Anin. zu H. Odysa. KaanoT. Ist B. 1826. 2nd 6. 
1831. 8yo. — P. Buttmann, Lezilogns, oder beitrage znr griecfa. 
w5rterklamng, hanptsiichlieli fiir Homer n. Hesiodns, Berl. 
1818-25. 8\o. tranfllated by J. B. Fishlake, Lond. 1836, 
8to. — G. C« Crosius, YoUttandstiges Gr. Deat Wdrterbacfa, 
Uber die G^dichte des Htnaeros nnd der Homeriden, Hannov. 
1836, 8vo. F. A. Graoff, Grammatische Torschule zn Homer, 
Bern. 1837, 6vo.— W. Miiller Homerische Torschule, eine 
einleitang ill das studium der llias u. Odys. Leipz. 1836. 
8vo. — F. G. Welcter den episcbe Cyclua oder die Homerischen 
dicbter, Bonn. 1835, 6to. — Translations: German by Job. 
Heinr. Yoss. 1802, 4 vols. Svo. — Englisb : Iliad and Odyssey, 
by Geo. Cbapman, Lond. (circa 1600) fol.— by Alex. Pope, 
Lond. 1760, 11 vols. 8vo. frequently Veprinted. — by Pope, with 
additional notes by Gilb. Wakefield, Lond. 1796, 8vo.— by W. 
Cowper, Lond. 1809, 4 vols. 8vo.--by W. Sotbeby, Lond. 1834. 
4 vols. 8vo. 

Spurious Works. 1) Hymni (31) et Batracbomyomacbia in 
most editions of bis works; separately by C. D. Ilgen. Habe. 
1796, 8vo. — rec. Aug. Mattbiie, Lips. 1805, 8vo. 27 Hymns 
alone H. in Cererem nimc primam editus a Bubnkenlo Ace. dun 
epistoliB crit.(tbe first of wbicb treats of tbe remaining Hymns> 
Lugd. B. 1782, 8vo. H. in Cer. rec. et illustr. C. G. Mits- 
cberlicb. Lips. 1787. 8vo. — Aug. Mattbise animadversiones in. 
bymnos Homericos, cum proleg. de cujusque concilio, partibus, 
state, Lips. 1800, 8vo. H. et epigr. ed. God. Hermannus, 
Lips. 1806, 8vo. — rec. et not instr. Fr. Franke, Lips. 1828, 
12mo. *T. iiV rhv Anfinr^t* iibers. u. erlaut. v. Job. Heinr, 
Yoss, Heidelb. 1826. 

(6) Hesiodus, of uncertain date (§. 3.), but pro- 
bably the most ancient poet next to Homer, of Ascra 
in Boeotia. * 


Editions of hia Works: ed. princ. Orationes Isocratis XTiii. 
Eid. Theocr. ; Hesiodi Opera et Dies. Mediolani 1493. fol — 
Theocr. eel* zxx. Hesiodi Theogonia ; ei. Scutam Here, et 
Georgicon libri ii. Tenet, ap. Aid. Manut. 1496. foL-— cum 
scholiis Gr. (Prodi Diadochi, Jo. Tzetzse, Eman. Moschopiili, 
Jo. Protospatharii) ed. Job. Franc. Trincayelli. Yenet. 1637. 
4to. — Gr. et Lat. cum yariant, lection, e MSS. Palatinis et 
notis W. DD. ap. Hier. Commelinum 1591. Svo. — cum schol. 
Gr. ed. Dan. Heinsius Antv. 1603. 4to. — ex ree. Jo. Greorg. 
GrsBvii cum ej. Lectionibus Hesiodeis et notis Jos. Scaligeri 
et Franc. Guieti. Amstel. 1667> Svo. — ed* Tbom. Bobinson. 
Oxon. 1737. 4to. Lond. 1756. — ex rec. Bobins. cum ei. Jos. 
Seal. Dan. Heins. Fr. Guieti et Jo. Clerici n. J. G. Gr. lect. 
Hea. et D. Heins. Introd. Ace. Tariet. lect. MSS. et edd. vett 
scboliaque inedita cur. Chr. Fr. Loesner, Lips. 1778. 8vo. — 
rec. et comment instruxit Car. Goettlingius. Groth. et Erford. 
1831, 8vo. in CoUedt. nr. 12. 1. 1. u. iii. Uebersetzung von Job. 
Hein. Yoss. Heidelb. 1806. Svo,— Editions of single Poems: 1) 
X^ym Mti fi/ii^mi in CoUecU, n. 11. — e yetL gramm. notationibus 
rec. F. A. G. Spobn. Lips. 1819. Svo. — ^2) Tbeogonia Hesiodea, 
textu subinde reficto edita a Frid. Aug. Wolf. Halse, 1783. 
Svo. — 3.) Scutum Herculis {Fragment of the ^th hook <^ the 
KmrdXtyu yvfoimSf, of which the fourth book teas called fttymXmt 
ficimi) cam Grammaticorum scbol. Gr. em. et illustr. Car. Frid. 
Heinricb. Yratisl. 1802. Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 567—617.-- 
Naehirage zu Sulzers Theorie 3. S, 49. 

{c) Argtinus, of Miletus, about 01. ix. (744) ac- 
cording to Suidas, 01. i. according to Euseb. (776), 
according to others a contemporary of Lescbes. See 
Welck. Alcm. fr. p. 7. Autbor of two epic poems, 
tbe Ai^fTti, in 6 books, (tbe period of the Trojan war 
extending from tbe deatb of Hector to tbe dispute 
concerning tbe anns of Acbilles, tbe expedition of 

GYGES KING OF LYBIA 715 fi. C. 37 

Memnon with his Ethiopians against the Greeks at 
Troy,) and *ixl»v vi^n; in 2 books. See Biblioth* der. 
a. Liter, und KunsU \s St InediL p. 32, and 37. 
Fabric, B, G, i. p. 9. Corsini F, A.X. iii. p. 3- 

{d) EuMELUS of Corinth, about 01. iii. (768) or 
ix. according to Voss Weltk. s. xxvii. 01. xl. Author 
of epic poems^ the Titanomachia, Europia. A later 
Eumelus was the author of an historical poem Corin- 
thiaca, on the earliest history of the city Corinth. 
See BibL der alien Lit und K» 2s. St. 94. 4s. St. S. 
52. Corsini F, A, t. iii. p. 7. Jahrb, der PhiloL it. 
Padag. xiii. S. 192. 

{e) Callinus of Ephesus, inventor of the elegiac 
metre, in which he exhorted his countrymen to va- 
lour in war. The Alexandrian critics admitted him 
into their canon* One elegy has been preserved by 
Stobseus. See Brunck, Gnom, p. 58. (Lips. p. 87.) 
Gaisf. Jah. Valent Franckii Callinus. — Call, Tyr- 
tai, Asii carmm, qtue supers, disp. em, ill, Nic. 
Bachius, Lips. 183L 8vo. — Supplement — wjth a let- 
ter, by G. Hermann, Lips. 1832, 8vo. 

(f) Akchilochus of Paros about 01. xv. (720 B. C.) 
inventor of iambic verse, i. e. personal satire ; (hence 
Archilochia edicta of Cos. Bibulus in Cicero ad Att. ii. 
21. Cf, Horat Epod. 6. 13. Epist I. 19. 30. Ars 


Po6t. 79.) mthi, also an elegiac poet, but not of the 
plaintive class. See Francke Callin. p. 36, sq. 
A Hymn of his on Hercules used to be sung at the 
solemn procession of the conquerors at Olympia {xnx- 
xtuxo^ Pind. 01. ix. init. from the conunencing words 
Z KetXXlvMi, x^i ^'^S *H5««x«y). Commentaries on 
him were written by Apollon. Rh. Aristoph. Byz. 
Aristarch. Fragments will be found in CoUectt. 3. 
7. 8. 13. Archiloch. reliqui<B, colL et illustr, I^nat 
Liebel. Lips. 1812. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 107. 
/. G, Husckke de fahh. Archilocki in MiscelL philoi 
i. p. 1, sqq. Lips. 1709. 8vo. 

{g) Tyrtjeus of Athens (a RhapsodistP whence 
the designation Schoolmaster) in 01. xxiv. (684), 
leader or counsellor of the Spartans in the second war 
against the Messenians, in which he animated them 
by elegies, and on their march by anapaests {Iftfiari^ta 
fti)<n) to valour, unanimity, and an enthusiastic love 
of their country. Three elegies and eight fragments 
are extant. His Ev9$^» likewise was celebrated. 
{Aristot. Polit, v. 7. Strab. viii. p. 557. ed. 

Tyrtffii quae restant omnia, coUegit, ill. ed. Christ. Ad. Klot- 
ziuR Altenh. 1767, 8vo.— See aluo in CoUecU. n. 7, 8, 12, 13, 
Fabric, B, Gr. t. i. p. 738, sqq. Also in Script. Ghr. Minores, 
ed. Giles, Oxon. 1831. Cf. Franck. Callimty p. 135. and with 
that (my verm, Scrifien) p. 83, sqq. 


(A) Alcman of Sardis^ about 01. xxvii. (671) ac- 
cording to Suid. 01. XXX. 4. according to Chron. 
Euseb. but brought up at Sparta, a lyric poet> parti- 
cularly in the IIx^6t»i» class. Upon him also several 
grammarians wrote commentaries. See Fragm. in 
the CollectL no. 3. Alcm, fir, ed. Fr. Th, Welcker, 
Giesscsi. 1815. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 88. 

{%) SiMONiDES of Amorgos one of the iambic poets 
admitted into the canon of the Alexandrians, according 
to Eusebius about 01. xxix. (B. C. 664), but according 
to Suidas about 780 (778) B. C. An iambic poem by 
a Simonides is preserved in Stobaeus, Tit. 73, — rec, 
atque animadv. illustr. G, Dav. Koeler. Gotting* 1781. 
8vo. See CollectL no. 12. 13. Fabric. B. Grac. t. ii. 
p. 150. t iiL p. 808. xi. 

{k) Leschss (Afo^iK, — f#) of Lesbos, about 01. XXX. 
(660), according to others a contemporary of Arctinus. 
See Welker 1. c. Author of an epic poem in four books, 
entitled *lxu^ fmt^it or sA«W#9, which contains the 
events before Troy from the dispute concerning the 
arms of Achilles to the capture of the city. See 
BibL der alt. Lit. und K. Is. st. ined. p. 35. Fabric. 
B. Gr. t. i. p. 376. 

(/) Tekpander of Antissa in Lesbos, about 01. 
xxxiii. (648), a lyric poet, and an eminent musician. 

40 THE SETSN WISE MEN 620-540. 

held in high esomodon particDiarly at Sparta^ Fa- 
brie. B. Gr, t. i. p. 292. Hoeckh Kieta, iii. p. 267. 
Muller Dor. iL p. 383. not. 1. Nitzsch 1. c. p. 41, sq. 
143, sq. 

(m) To this period belongs also an epic poem which 
has been ascribed to Stasinus of Cyprus, thence called 
Kvr^M m, comprismg the internal between the mar- 
riage of Pelens and Thetis and the commencement of 
the Iliad, in eleven books. See BihL der alien lAter, 
u. K. Is. St. ined. p. 23. Fabric. Bibl. Gr. t. i. p. 382. 
Henrichsen de carminn. Cypriis comm.Havn. 1828. 8yo. 
Jahrb. d. Philol. xiii. p. 183, sqq. 243, sq. 

(n) PiSANDEB (IImV«i>?(«$), about 01. xxxiii., of 
Camirus in Rhodes, author of a celebrated epic poem, 
'H^dwAfM, in two books. Heyne Exc. I. ad Virg. lEn. 
II. p. 382, sqq* Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 590, not. 

(o) Abion of Methymna in Lesbos, about Ol. 
xxxTiii. (B. C. 628), lived at Corinth, under Periander, 
from the year 633. Inventor of the Dithyrambic. 
Herod. 1, 23, sq. Fabric. Bibl. Chr. X. ii. p. 110. 

i Clem. Alex. Strom, i p. 808. Sjlb. /iAKh *^Sr»s tn^din** 
Tt!tt ^u^fMo^i jMt) rsttf Am»thuft»9uf9 wftstff (Qu. Lawt or Lays) 
\fA%x§9§inn. See MUUer Dor. i. p. 369. cf. ii. p. 333. not. 4. 
Nitzsch hist. Horn. p. 31, sq. 38, sq. 41, sq. 

CR<£snS KING 07 LTDIA 573-545. 41 

[p) Alcjeus^ about 01. xlii. (610)^ of Mitylene in 
Lesbos, a lyric poet^ distinguished himself by the re- 
sistance which he made to the tyrants of his country 
with arms and in his poems. See Horat. Od. i. 32. ii. 
13. 28> sqq. Fragm. s. in ColUctU no. 3. 4. v. Blom- 
field in Museum crit Cantabr, n. III. Jani prolusiones 
III, de AlcuBOy p. lyr. ejusque fra^m, Hala 1780-82. 
4to. Ale. reliqui(B. Coll, et Annot, instr. A, MatthitB, 
Lips. 1827. 8vQ. See Welch, in Jahrh. d, Philol, xii. 
p. 14, sqq. Seidler im Rhein, Mus, 1829. p. 153, sqq. 
Fabric. B, Gr, t. ii. p. 84, sqq. 

(q) Sappho (2«T^di, — •w^), contemporary with 
Alcseus of Eresus or Mitylene, a lyric poetess. 
Besides several fragments we have one of her entire 
odes in Dionys. Hal. de compos, c. 23. and another^ 
for the most part perfect, in Longin. c. 10; the latter 
has been translated by Catullus, no. 51. See in the 
Collectt no. 3. 4. /rugm.^—cura Jo, Christian, 
Wolfii, Hamb, 1733. 4to. S, carm, et fragm, rec, 
illustr, schemata mus, adi, H, F, Magn, Volger. 
Lips. 1810. 8vo. V, Blomfield in Mus, crit. Cant. 
no. II. See Fragm, ed, Chrn, Frid, Neue, BeroL 
1827. 4to. See Seidler in the Rhein. Mus. 1829. 
p. 153, sqq. Fabr, B. Gr, t. ii. p. 137. Sappho von 
einem herrschenden Vorurtheil befreit durch Fr. 
Gottl. Welcker. G6tt. 1816. 8vo. 


(r) Stesighorus^ of Himera in Sicily, about Ol. 
xlii. (Clint, p. 5), who gave warning of the tyranny 
of Phalaris (Aristot. Rhet. ii. 20), a lyric poet, but 
wrote also on epic subjects, e. g. Tn^vfis, 'ixUv xf^^. 
St. fragmenta colleg, Jo. Andreas Stichfart. GdtL 
1771. 4to. V, Blamfield in Mtis. Crit Cant. vi. p. 256. 
coll. 0. Fr. Kleine. Beroi. 1828. 8yo. Fabr. B. Gr. 
t. ii. p. 151, sq. 

(s) Erinna, of Lesbos, a friend of Sappho, authpr 
of a poem in Hexameter verse, 'HAammcth, also of some 
epigrams, did not survive her nineteenth year. The 
poem ti9 'Tciftn* is of a much later age. Fabr. Bibl. 
Gr. t. ii. p. 120. Welcker in Creuzer. meletem. 
vol. ii. p. 3. 

{t) Thales, of Miletus, the oldest of the Grecian 
philosophers, and foimder of the Ionian school. He 
foretold a solar eclipse, which happened 01. xlv. 4. 
(597) during a battle between Cyaxares, king of the 
Medes, and Alyattes, king of the Lydians (Herod, i. 
74) ; he was also held in high estimation for his 
political talents. See §. 5. Clint, p. 7. 

(«) Efimenides, of Crete, celebrated as a thauma- 
turgist, versed in the art of mysterious consecrations 
and lustral ceremonies, purified Athens, 01. xlv. 3, 


B. C. 598. (KvA^^MMjr «y«$)^ at the same time allayed 
-the commotions of the state, and prepared the legis- 
lation of Solon. Several poems are ascribed to him, 
}C^f**h »M^fut, a Theogony, 'A^yfawtxd, etc. C. 
Fr, Heinrichs Epimenides atu Kreta. Leipz. 1801. 
8vo. Fabric. Bibl. Gr. 1. p. 30. 

{v) Solon, archon and legislator at Athens, 01. xlyi. 
3, B. C. 594. Some fragments of his are extant, con- 
taining for the most part moral and political maxims, 
of which the greater number are in elegiac metre 
{yrSifim). See Collectt. 7. 8. 9. 11. 12. 13. 14. Sol. 
qwB supers, em. atque annot. instr. N. Bachius. Bonn. 
1825. 8vo. 

(fr) MiMNERMUs, of Colophon, inventor of the 
plaintive love elegy, particularly in his Nanno, con- 
temporary with Solon; according to Horace, Epist. II. 
ii. 100, sq., the greatest elegiac poet. Fragments in 
the Collectt no. 7. 9. 12. 14. — qua supers, ed. JV*. 
Bachius. Lips. 1826. Svo.—Fabr. Bibl. Gr. p. 733. 

{x) ^sopus, 01. 1. (580), a Phrygian, at first a 
slave of the Lydian Xanthus, afterwards liberated by 
ladmon, lived principally at the court of Crcesus king 
of Lydia, a fabulist (A«yofr«<«$), reckoned also by some 
..among the seven wise men. His fables were for a 
long time preserved, as to their substance, only in the 

44 CR(EStJS KING OF LTD I A 573-545. 

mouth of the people^ until others at a later period^ 
antecedently perhaps to the time of Socrates ( Wyttenb* 
ad Plat. Phced, p. 124. their metrical structure they 
owe particularly to Babrius, in the time of Augustus), 
committed them to writing. The collections which 
have been preserved in MSS. differ very materially 
from each other : the generality of them probably owe 
their origin to Maxim. Planudes. 01. liv. 4, B. C. 560. 

Ed. pr. B. Accui^ii. Mediol. s. a. et 1. 4. 1479 or 80 (only 
149 F.)— ap. Aid. Venet. 1498. 4to. 1505. fol.— e cod. bibl. 
regiae ap. Kob. Stephan. Paris. 1546. 4to. witli 20 new JP.) — op. 
Is. Nic. Neveleti. Francof. 1610. 1668. 8vo. {with 148 «. F. ans 
Ffalzer Handsclir.) — Fah. Aeeopic. coUectio (ed. Job. Hudson.) 
Oxon. 1 71 8 . 8to. Otber Fables have been published by Tyrrwh. 
diss, de Babrio^ Lond. 1779. Erlang. 1786. 8vo. from the Cod. 
Bodlei. in which several perfect Choliambs are preserved. Fab. 
Aesopicae c. Hudsoni suisque annott. ed. Jo. Mich. Heusinger. 
Isenaci et Lips. 1741. 8vo. — c. Jo.Hadsoni et J. M. Heusing. 
not. cur. G. H. Schaefero 1810. 8yo. with 28 new Fables publUhed 
by Uochefort from a Paris, Cod. Cf. Babrius. Fabr. B. Chr. t. 
i. p. 618, sqq. Nacktrage zu Stdzer V. §. 269. Gravert de Aes. 
etfabb, Aesop. Bonn. 1825* 8to. 

(y) Phalaris, tyrant of Agrigentum about Ol. 
liv. (564). 168 letters written in the Attic dialect are 
Mtributed to him^ but they are undoubtedly the pro- 
duction of a later sophist. See S. BentL diss, de epist. 
Phalar. etc. in Opusc.philoL Lips. l78l.8vo. — Phalar, 
epist. Latin, fecit et illustr. Jo. Dan, a Lennep ; finem 
operi imposuit et adnotationes qtuisdam prafixit L. C. 


Valckenaer, Ghroning. 1777. 4to. Lips. 1823. 8vo. 
Fahr. B. Gr, U ii. p. 662, sqq. 

(z) Anaximander of Miletus^ a Philosopher of 
the Ionic School, bom 01. xlii. 3. B. C. 609. died 
shortly after 01. Iviii. 3. B. C. 645. Fabr, B. Gr. 
t. ii. p. 649. 

(aa) Ibtcus of Rhegiiun, a lyric poet, beloved by 
Polycrates. Fragm. see Collectt no. 3. 4. Fahr. B. Gr, 
t. ii. p. 124, sqq. Ibyci Rheg. carminum reliquise. 
Quaest. lyric, i. 1. Scripsit. Fr. Guil. Schneidewin. 
Praefixa est Epist. C. Odofr. Miilleri. Getting. 1833. 
8vo. Cf. Hermann in Jahrb, d. PhiloL viii. 4. 

(bb) Anacreon of Teos, (Twg thence Tiii«j), emi- 
grated with his countrymen to Abdera, 01. lix. 3. (542), 
but passed the greater part of his time with Polycrates 
and Hipparchus; a lyric poet, whose effusions prin- 
cipally exhibit the joyous scenes of life. Of the 
poems which are extant under his name, the greater 
part belong to a later age and to different authors. 
Natch tr. see Sulzer. vi. p. 343. 

Edd, First iy Henr. Stephanns. Lutet 1564. 4to. Then 
Tanaquil Faber (le Febvre) Salmur. 1660. 12mo. — Madame 
Dacier, Paris 1682. 12mo. Amsterd. 1693. 12mo. andfreqaently. 
— Mich. Maittaire. Lond. 1740. Gr. 4to.— Jo. Corn, de Paaw. 
Traj. ad Bh. 1732. 4to.-.aiiil. Baxter. Londiii. 1665. 8to. 


1710. 8vo.— Jos. Barnes. Cantabr. 1705. 8vo. 1721. 8vo.— 
Jo. Frid. Fischer. Lips. 1793. Svo. — ^Brunck. Argent 1778. 
1786. 12mo. — Joseph Spaletti. Bom. 1781. fol. engraven on 
cop/per from a Vatican Codea. — sec. Levesquii coll. Cod. Palat. 
rec. Steph. not. int. alior. sel. soisque ill. Fr. Mehlhorn. Glogav. 
1825. 8vo. Fabr, B. Gr, t. ii. p. 91, sqq. 

{cc) About this time also lived Aristeas of Pro- 
connesus, a pretended thaumaturgist, the author of a 
fabulous history of the Scythians, Arimaspians, Hy- 
perboreans, T<ft *A^tfid<r7FUit, Hesiod. 4, 13, sqq. Paus. 
1, 24. V, 7. Vossius de hist. Gr. IV. 2. p. 347. 

{dd) Theognis about 01. Iviii. (548), of Megara, 
in Sicily, according to Plato, in Attica Corsin. fast. 
Att. III. p. 109. Clinton Fast. Hell, ad a. 544 a native 
of the Sicilian, but resident in the Attic Megara Miiller 
Dor. /.p. 141. //. p. 174. or rather a native of the 
Attic, a citizen of the Sicilian. Welcker proleg. p. xiv. 
Author of gnomic elegies, designated as one work in a 
fragment of Xenoph. hi Stob. tit. 86. of which, however, 
we have only single distichs mixed confusedly together, 
containing moral apophthegms. See Sylburg. Praef. 

Ed. princ. Venet. 1495. fol. with Hesiod. — ed. Wolfg. Seber. 

Lips. 1620. 8vo — in the Collectt. nr. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13 Th. 

elegi ex fide libr. MSS. rec, et aucti c. n. Fr. Sylburg. et 
Brunckii ed. Imm. Bekkerus. Lips. 1815. 1827. 8vo. (toiih the 
addition q/* 159 Y, of an amatory character.) Th. reliquiae. 
Novo ord. dispos. comm. crit. et not. adi. Frid. Theoph. Welcker. 
Frankof. ad Moen. 1826. 8vo. Fabric, B, Gr. t. i. p. 704, sqq. 

FOLTCRATBS IN 8AM0S 532-523. 47 

(ee) Phocylides, of Miletus^ a highly esteemed 
gnomic poet, of whose productions only a few fragments 
remain, every one of which begins with the words »ai 
T^f ^sNtvXthm, whence it would appear that from the 
iirst they had no connexion. The iflnfut fvhrmtf in 
epic metre which bears his name, is probably the com- 
position of a later Christian author. 

£d. pr. Yenet. 1495. 4to. witb Const Lascaris Greek Gramm. 
ed. Jo. Ad. Schier. Lips. 1751. 8vo. — in the CoUectt. nr. 9. 10. 
11. 12. 13. Fair. B. &. t i. p. 700. 

(j5^) Pherbcydes, of the island Syros, about 
Ol. Iviii. is said to have made the first attempt to write 
in prose on philosophical subjects. He was reputed 
also to have intimate connexion with the gods as 
a soothsayer and propitiator. Fabric. B. Gr. U ii. 
p. 661. 

, {ffg) Pythagoras, about 01. Ix. (540), of Samos, 
founded a School of Philosophy at Crotona, in lower 
Italy, and a league, which, however, was soon broken 
up by the selfishness of the Croton Demagogues. 
Pythagoras also employed himself in investigating the 
origin and arrangement of the univei-se, and with this 
view applied himself to Mathematics, {Arithmetic, 
iheoremorPythagor,), Astronomy, (Hannony, Music of 
the Spheres, a figurative expression to denote the most 
perfect unison), aud Physics. One of his most cele- 


brated philosophical doctrines is that of the Transmi- 
gration of souls> ftiTtft^v^Mnf, The golden sayings, 
Xi^Tei m, of Pythag. are the work of a later Pytha- 
gorean. Fabr. B, Gr. t. i. p. 750. Meiners Gesck. 
der Wissch, in Grieck, u» Rom. Lemgo, 1781. 1 vol. 
p. 178> sqq. on the spuriousness of the ;^gv0'cSf vc%' 
See p, 578, sqq. 

£dd. of the XV^* ^^"- ^i'^^ Venet. 1494. 4to. with Const 
Lascaris Gr. then in the ed. princeps of Hesiodns ; then in 
Collectt. nr. 9 — 14. also in Tabula Cebetis item anr. carm. 
Pyth. cnm. prsfat. CI. Salmasii. Lngd. Bat. 1640. 4to. — ^by 
J. A. Schier. Lips. 1 750. 8 vo. With the Commentary of Hierocles 
(450 A.D.) by Aurispa. Patav. 1474. 4to. by Curterius. Paris. 

1583. Lond. 1654. 1673. 12mo by B. Needham. Cantabr. 

1709. 8vo. — also in Script. Gr. Min. ed. Giles, Ozon. 1831. 

{kh) Theano, wife of Pythagoras. Under her name 
there are still extant seven letters, written in the Attic 
dialect, Collectt. no. 6. 29. of which, however, the last 
four at least are spurious. Translat. by Wieland, die 
Pythagorischen Frauen, in the 24th vol. of his Works. 
A fragment, likewise spurious, is preserved in Stoh, 
ecL phy$. I. p. 302. ed, Heeren. Fabr, B, Gr, U i. 
p. 687. 884. 

(li) Anaximenes, of Miletus, a Philosopher of the 
Ionic School, about 01. Ix. bom 01. liii. according to 
Wyttenb. Bibl, cr. Ill, 4. p. 66. Fabr. B. Gr, t. ii. 
p. 650. Clinton 6. 7. 



CYRUS KllfO OF PERSIA 560-630. 49 

(//) Caduvb, ao historiiin of Miletus: »Tirf« MOitov 
K«i'l#ri«K. CoUecitno.20. The ancieBti themselTea, 
however* considered the vritings ascribed to him as 
spurious. Fab. B. Or. L p. 200. Clinton p. 368. 

(mm) Acnsiuius, of Argos, translated into prose the 
genealogical works of Hesiod* (Theogony, K«T«A«yM). 
See fragm. in Fkerecjfdes. 

{nn) Hecataus, of Miletus, about 01. lx.> wrote 
a traditionary history under the title of yii>MA«yi«i and 
others. See Herod, v. 36, 125. See in Collecti. no. 
20. Hecat Mil. fr, Scylacis Caryand. PeripL Ed. 
Rud. Henr. Clausen. Berol. 1831. 8to. Pabric. B. 
Gr. t. i. p. 201. not. ii. 348. Dahlmamn Fonehun^in 
auf. d. Geb. d. Gesch. Altona 1823. II. l.p. 113, sqq. 

Xanthus, a Lydiaiu Lydiaca II. IV. Fragm. see 
CoUectt. no. 20. 

{90) XsN0PHANES,Qf Colophon,about01.1x. (540), 
founded a School of Philosophy at Elea ( Velia) in lower 
Italy, see § . 8. Fragm. will be found in Collecit. no. 15. 
and a more complete collection in Fullebarns BeiirUget^ 
zur Geschichte der Philos. VI Is St. — carmm. rtl. ed* 
et ill. Karsten. Brux. 1830. 8vo. Besides a philoso- 
phical history vt^t ^wrwi, there were also by him 
Elegies containing exhortations to wisdom and virtue. 
Satires on Horn, and Hesiod., Parodies, and an epic 
poem fitX^mt Kria-tf, Fabr. B. Or. t. ii. p. 613. 


{pp) HiPPONAX, of Ephesus, contemporary with 
Croesus and Cyrus, an acrimonious Iambic poet (in the 
canon Alex.), Bupalus and Anthermus {Hor. epod, 
6. 13.)* He inirented the Scazon Iambic. Hippan, et 
Ananii iamhogr, fragm, ed, Th. Fr. Welcker. Gott. 
1817. 4to. Fabr. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 122. 

{qq) Lasus, of Hennione, a celebrated Dithyrambic 
poet, who according to Suidas, v. Adr^, instituted the 
Dithyramb, contests, lived in the reign of Hipparchus. 
Herod, vii. 6. Fabr. B. Gr, t. i. p. 120. not. e, ii. 
p. 128. 

{rr) Mblanippides, of Melos, about 01. Ixy. 
(B. C. 520.) Fab. B. Gr. U ii. p. 129. 

(^$s) Heraclitus (^H^d»Xur»9), about 01. bdx. (504), 
of Ephesus, a natural philosopher, notorious for the ob- 
scurity of his diction, owing in a great measure to the 
difficult nature of his subject. Creuzer hisL Kunst. 
p. 185. Of his prose works m^i ^vrtf see Fragm. by 
Schleiermacher in Wolfs and Buttmanns Mus. der 
Alterthumsunss. Berl. 1807. t. i. p. 313, sqq. Fabr. 
B. Gr. t. ii. p. 623. 



§.9. The Pisistratidse 528-510 had already gathered 
poets around them, as Anacreon, Lasus, Simonides, and 
others. Hence arose a new species of poetry — the 
Drama. It had indeed heen customary from a remote 
period especially in the Doric States of Peloponnesus, 
in Sicyon viz. (Herod. 6, 67. Bentl. de Phal. p. 159. 
163.), to exhihit on the festivals of Bdcchus tragic and 
comic Chori, in which, hesides the Dith3nramhus in the 
solemn style, passages from the Myths, relating at first 
to the Deity, and suhsequently to the heroes also («v^ff 
5r{«« T«? AiifVTM Suid. see Welcker in loc. cit. p. 277.), 
were recited hy the precentors of the chori (m lid^x"r%g 
T«f 2i^v^eefAfiM Aristot.), or jocular songs, (jutftf^ttu fr. 
KSfff), which were also called r^ttyMtn and x«^%W% 
were made the vehicle of gihe and raillery. But repre- 
sentation by action and dialogue was first introduced at 

* Bdokh. Pab. Econ. of Athens. II. p. 207, sqq. Cf. Henn* 
ad Aristot de poet p. 104. 107. Welcker Nftchtr. zu. d. Tril, 
p. 139^ sq. [also MViller Bor. ii. 362.] 


Athens. To this Thespis about 530^ and Phrynichus 
annexed the narration of a serious event from the tra- 
ditional history % and thus gave rise to the Drama, and 
Tragedy properly so called (Aristot. de Poet. 4, 6.). 
From these Chori arose £rst of all the drama satyricum, 
in which the Chorus consisted of Satyrs (men in a 
state of nature), and the whole (even the heroic scenes) 
partook rather of an entertaining character. It was 
chiefly cultivated by Pratinas (Welcker Uber das 
Satyrspiel in Nachtr. zu d. Schr. Ub. d. Msch. Tri- 
lagU p. 183, sqq. particularly p. 276.). A similar 
change had been introduced at a still earlier period 
into the comic Chori, which dii^layed a profusimi 
of wit and humour, by Susarion about 560 and others. 
But while this last species was rather to be regarded 
as an entertainment for the pc^ulace, JEschylus, with 
others, became during the Persian war the author of 
tragedy properly so called, inasmuch as he iMOught 
forward two interlocutors, and introduced the dialogue, 
which, however, was as yet extremely rude, and, in con- 
trast with ithe lyric sprightliness of the Chori, destitute 
of spirit. The Satyric Drama, in which I¥atinM and 
also JEsehylus wexe tnasters, and Tragedy, were now 
•the kinds of national poetry in indispensable request 
.at the icelebration of the Dionysian festivals among 

^ Welcker Nachtr. zu. d. Trilog. p. 257, sqq. 
^ Aceordiog to Welcker in loc. oitat. p. 268. the Diakgve ef 
the Chorus with the leaders of the Choir^ the precentprsii 


the Atheniaus, who to the vivacity of Ionic tempera- 
ment united all the depth of feeling which characterized 
the Dorian race; for the contests in these kinds of 
Poetry three festivals were appointed — the Great, the 
Rural Dionysia, and the Lensea'. The poets, of 
whom every one engaged in the contest hy the com- 
mission, and at the expense of a f vXii, vied with each 
other in poetical competition for the prize, which was 
adjudged by arbiters specially appointed for the purpose. 
Each one produced four pieces, three tragedies {tri" 
logid), and a drama saiyricum {tetralogia) , until 
Sophocles first appeared with single pieces. See 
Hermann de compositione tertralog, tragic, 1819. 
in Opuse, ii. p. 206, sqq. Lyric poetry was at the 
same time raised to the acme of perfection by Pindar, 
{ah) contemporary with whom, though his senior, was 
$monide8,'who,mih others, celebrated the achievements 
of the nation in lyric poems, elegies, and epigrams. 
Both, as well as JEschylus and Bacchylides (al), 
met with the most flattering reception at the Court 
of Hiero of Syracuse 47&-467, who was for this state, 
what Pisistratus and his sons had been for Athens. 

§.10. These poets all lived at the time of the 
glorious Persian wars, which had the effect of awaken- 
ing and invigorating every intellectual energy both 
among the Athenians and others. The grave and 

4 See B^ckh. in the Abhandlung. der Berl. Akad. Histor. 
pMlol. CL 1816-17. p. 47, sqq. 


severe style still prevailed among them. But no sooner 
had the successful issue of those wars^ and the enjoy- 
ment of constitutional liherty, especially under the 
administration of Cimon (470-449), inspired the 
Athenians with a loftier sense of their importance, 
and refined their uncultivated hardihood into a noble 
manliness of character, than a corresponding elevation 
of the national genius began to display itself in a taste 
for Poetry and Art ; and Athens became in the same 
degree the general resort of those who sought an ap- 
propriate stage for the display of their talents. Phi- 
losophy, which was principally cultivated in the Free 
States of Magna Graecia by the Pythagoreans and 
Eleatse, §. 8. and during this period by Parmenides and 
Zeno, was introduced into Athens by AnaxagorcLs the 
Ionian {ao), a sage who not only created an epoch 
in Philosophy, by ascribing the origin and structure of 
the material Universe to an intelligent First Cause 
(mv$), but by the grace and dignity of his style con- 
tributed also to the improvement of prose composition. 
Diog. L. ii. 6. [Cf. Ritter I. 526, 7, 421, 296.] 

Sophocles {at) advanced the Tragic Drama to 
its highest perfection by the skilful arrangement and 
development of the action, — the result of his genius> 
not of an acquired theory, — by the representation 
of characters, which raise themselves by their moral 
di^tv above the influence of fate, and the calamities in 
which they had involved themselves, not in consequence 


of crimes, but of inyoluntary errors; by the simple 
majesty of the Dialogue^ for which he was the first 
to employ three interlocutors, and by the curtailment 
of the choral odes, which he reduced to their just 
proportions, whereas in most over the pieces of JEs- 
chylus, the lyric parts were still allowed a decided 
predominance over the Dialogue. Ian also (be), 
JLchmus {hi), and Agathon {hi), contributed largely 
to the improvement of dramatic composition. In 
political and forensic eloquence, Pericles, a pupil 
of Anaxagoras, was preeminently distinguished. (Ctc. 
BruL 7, 28. 11, 44.) Hence, after the death of 
Cimon, 449 — 428, he enjoyed without a rival a 
complete ascendancy over the minds of the Athenians ; 
while, at the same time, the theoiy and the various 
arts of eloquence (L. Cresollii theatrum rhe- 
torum, orator, etc. in Chronov. thes. antiqu* vol. x. 
Ueber die Bildung d. Rhetor, unter den Gr. in Man- 
$0*8 verm. Abh. Breslau 1821. L. Spengel wtttyttyk 
r»^9Sif s. artium scr, ab init, usque ad edit. Aristot. 
II. de rhetorica. Stuttg. 1828. 8vo.) were introduced 
into Athens by Rhetoricians from Sicily, where, 
since the expulsion of the T3rrants, especially of 
Thrasydseus from Agrigentum 472, and Thrasybulus 
from Syracuse 465, eloquence had been cultivated 
in various ways in the democratic states, and reduced 
to a regular system by Corax, Tisias, and Empe- 
docles, (Diog. L. viii. 57. ix. 25. Cic. Brut.' 12. 64. 
Quinctil. m. 1. 8vo.). The age of which we treat. 


however, bemg BtiU of a poetic <^iaiBcter, though it 
cannot be denied that they imparted to prode com- 
position a greater lichness and fuhiess of expressioBy 
they sooght to compensate for their deficiency hi 
fxHoA matter by extemal pomp, by images and figures* 
The most remai^ble of those who addicted them- 
sdves to this pursuit were Gorgias of Leontini {bd)^ 
Protagoras of Abdera [hf)y Thrasymachui of Chal- 
cedoB, who first employed the oratorical rh3rthm, (Cic« 
Or* 52. )> Prodicus of Ceos (fin), Hipfuu of £lis 
(hn) ; at the same time, however, they were ambitioufi 
of signalizing themselves by the extent of their at'- 
tainm^ts, m being conversant with the whole rang« 
of science at that time known, as I^losopheis, 
Statesmen, and Orators, and by the versatility of 
their talents, which enabled them to treat logical and 
metaphysical problems of every kind, even the most 
diametrically opposite, and to represent them severally^ 
acoerdmg to their inclination, in a favourable or an 
03B6eptionaUe point of view, {Sophisien, Cresollins> 
)&€• /• Geel hist crit sophist in n&if^ acta soe. 
Bhem-Traj. p. ii. Traj. ad Rh. 1825. 8vo.} an art, 
of which Zeno of Elea had laid the foundation by 
his Dialectic. Gorgias opened also the first school 
of Rhetoric at Athens, and firom that time the theoiy 
and practice of eloquence went hand in hand. 

§•11. Historical composition also was cultivated 
with success. After that Dionysius, Ph&recydes (aw) , 
Smonides the GeneaJtogist^ Htrodorus, had begun 

to naitMA the oral traditions^ and Hellanietu {av)t 
abo to bandle proper subjects of history % though 
only sifitananly^ and without chronological precision, 
(ThttC. i. 97.) Herodotus, an Ionian (6p), the first 
who e()(celled in this species of composition, com* 
menced investigations, which were further pursued 
at this period, especially by Hippys of Rhegium, and 
Sr^odorm; but, notwithstanding the genuine his- 
toric spirit with which he deduces every fact from 
its cause, and, without intermixing any reflections 
of his own, suffers every incident to evolve itself with 
all the vividness of reality before our eyes, notwith- 
standing his honest love of truth, which scrupulously 
discriminates between what he has heard from others, 
and what he has seen and witnessed himself; and his 
moral rectitude of feeling, which invariably exhibits 
in a prominent light the punishment of wickedness 
and insolence, and the reward of virtue and integrity; 
notwithstanding the tact and adroitness with which 
he connects the most varied multiplicity of facts into 
cme harmonious whole, (not as an imitator of Homer, 
or with any regard to the understanding, but by 
embtacing occasions of episodical digression as they 
spontaneously present themselves,) and the skill with 
which he ranges them in subservience to his main 

* [To a de^cieticy of sach subjects we may ascribe the tard j 
progress of literature in this department. Before the Persian 
war no event of national interest had occurred of sufficient 
moment to engage the pen of an historian.] 


design^ of setting forth^ viz., from their first com- 
mencement, the contests of the Barbarians and 
Greeks, and despite his (Ionic) talent for vivid 
delineation, he is characterized nevertheless, with all 
his old honestheartedness and good humour, by a 
garrulity, and an almost rude simplicity of speech, 
alien to genuine prose, which must ever be the result 
of a well-proportioned development of the intellectual 
powers f. Tkucydities, on the other hand, im- 
parted the highest dignity to history; with a stem 
severity of criticism f he applied it to the instruction 
of others, particularly of Statesmen, (i. 22. Prog-, 
matwnus,) aimed more at depth and richness of 
thought than elegance of expression, and although by 
no means deficient in imagination (see vii. 70, sq.)> 
he allowed it too little scope, and preferred an antique 
cast and a rigid precision to gracefulness of ex- 
pression. His leading diaracters detail their motives 
and views in set formal speeches, because his was 
the age in which forensic and political eloquence 
flourished, whereas Herodotus for the same purpose 
employs ahnost exclusively the Dialogue. He was 
imitated with tolerable success by Philistus {ch) the 

§. 12. The period at which these exertions were 

' [His subject, obeenres Heeren, necessarily made him a critic ; 
he thus became the inventor of the art of historical criticism, 
probably without being conscious of the great value of his dis- 


made^ viz. the first half of the Peloponnesian war, 
especiaUy from 459 », was peculiarly favourable, m- 
aismuch as the national character had received an 
elevating impulse from the glorious struggle with the 
Doric states^ and from the feeling of security and 
power which a series of victories had engendered, 
as well as from a consciousness of liberty, which was 
daily becoming more and more consolidated. But 
with the increase of prosperity there was manifested 
at the same time a growing appetite for enjoyment, 
for selfish and sensual pleasure, and the state mean- 
while was surrendered, especially during the adminis- 
tration of Pericles, and still more by succeeding 
demagogues, who were not so well versed in the 
art of government as he was, to the passions 
of an unbridled mob; those who were ambitious 

K This is denominated the age of Pericles, as if the influence 
of a single individual could have effected that, in a democratic 
state, which was effected hj Augustus, or Louis XIV. in 
an absolute monarchy. True it is, however, that the age 
in which Literature most flourished, coincided with that of 
Pericles, hecause both were under the influence of the same 
spirit which characterized the times ; for even Pericles was 
the creation of his age. And Pericles, it is probable, was not 
so much actuated by a genuine enthusiasm for art and science, 
like Cosmo or Lorenzo of Medici, as (observes Plutarch) by the 
shrewd calculation, that the citizens, especially those of the lower 
classes, would more favourably acquiesce in his political in- 
novations, in proportion as he provided for them some lucrative 


of distraction sought to acquire it not so much hj a 
genuine patriotism in spirit and action^ as by Rheto- 
rical and Dialectic arts, and the same tone eventually 
pervaded Literature itself. The Tragic art began to 
decline; its last great representative, Euripides (bq), 
paid too much homage to the rhetorical and dialectic 
taste of his contemporaries, and bestowed too little 
attention on the arrangement of his materials; 
though, for his great talent in exciting pity, and 
moving the passions, he was styled by Aristotle 
{Poet. c. 13, 10.) with justice the most tragic of 
all poets, and, owing to the truth of his moral and 
political reflections, too often, however, introduced 
in improper places, was the favourite of the Philo- 
sophers. Comedy, on the other hand, which had 
originally been nothing more than ryide extempo- 
raneous jests, gibes, and personalities, acquired a 
regular form through Epickarmus {ad) and Pkormis 
in Sicily, through Cratinus {bg), who gave to 
Comedy a more ethical direction, inasmuch as he 
lashed vicious characters, and even Pericles, with 
unsparing hand, Crates, who constructed his pieces 
on a determinate plan, and depicted general cha- 
racters, {Meineke qu» seen, 1. p. 26* cf. Lesnmgs 
ramb. Dramaturg,), the witty but caustic {Mein, 1. c. 
p. 38, sq.) Eupolis {bh), distinguished for the spirit 
and vigour of his delineations, Pherecrates {by), who, 
like Crates, preferred general portraitures of character 


to peisonalities^ arruuirmrH [Memeke 2. p. 32.)> and 
particularly by Aristophanes {bz), when the art was 
in its most palmy state, inasmuch as it exhibited 
in its animadversions on political and other miscar- 
riages, its ridicule of the Philsophers and Tragic poets, 
and its parody of particular passages in their pieces, 
a faithful picture of democratic licentiousness. In the 
same spirit wrote Hermippus {Meineke p. 30), Pkry" 
nichtts (id. 2. p. 6.), Plato (6i), Amipsias {Meineke 
1. c. p. 42, sqq.), and the other comic poets of the old 
Comedy, of whom the names of about fifty have been 
preserved. £ ven during this period, however, on the un« 
fortunate issue of the Peloponnesian war about OLxciii. 
it was confined within narrower bounds, and the ridicule 
of persons by name, of the administration and the 
ministers of state, was interdicted, {middle Comedy. 
See Chrauert in 'the Rhein. Mus. II. L p. 50, sqq. 
a division probably derived from the Alexandrian 
Grammarians); with the prevalent increase of poverty 
the Chorus also {Meineke 1. p. 34, sq.) became silent. 
The poets of this Comedy, of whom the names of 
seventy-five are extant, made the old poets, philoso- 
phers, especially Platonic and Pythagorean, and Mythic, 
and also general characters, as the drunkard, the miser, 
&c. the subjects of their raillery {Meineke 2. p. 3,sqq.). 
The most celebrated among them were Antipkanes {ex) 
and Alexis, also Euhulus {Meineke 3. p. 16, sqq.), 
Anaxandrides (id. ib. p. 23.), Amphis (id. ib.p. 42.). 


Great value was attached to Catalogues of the pieces, 
as well those of the Ti'agic as of the Comic poets, 
with dates of the years when they were exhibited 
{didascalia), since even Aristotle bestowed much 
pains upon them, and not only later Grammarians, 
as Lycophron, Callimachus, Eratosthenes, Aristo- 
phanes Byz., Aristarchus, Crates Mall., Didymus, 
but philosophers also wrote upon Comedy, as Theo- 
phrastus, Dicsearchus, Chamseleon, Philochorus. 

Resembling Comedy as a portraiture of manners 
were among the Dorians the Mimes of Sophran {bw) 
and Xenarckus, representations in the form of dialogue 
from scenes of every-day life, of which we have an imi- 
tation still extant in the Adoniazusae of Theocritus. 

§.13. The corruption of the age instigated noble 
spirits to lay a check upon its further progress,, par- 
ticularly Socrates {bu). The earlier philosophers, 
lonians, Eleatae, §. 8. and others, in this period 
Parmenides {(iq), Melisgtis {as), Leucipptu {au), 
Empedocles {bb), Democritus (be). Ocellus {ap), had 
devoted themselves to the investigation of the nature 
of things, and to that which we call Metaphysics, but 
the ancients Physics {rk ^vo-txti) ; Pythagoras directed 
his owi> energies and those of his disciples, partly to 
this subject, but partly also to the moral and political 
improvement of men, with the result that, as long as 
Pythagoreans presided at their head, the States of 
Magna Grecia enjoyed the most uninterrupted tranquil- 


lity and happiness, but that, as soon as the I^thagorean 
league was dissolved, they were distraeted by parties 
and factions. Zeno of Elea {ayj had applied himself 
particularly to Dialectic r Socrates devoted himself 
entirely to the moral reformation of his contemporaries, 
while he discarded metaphysical investigations on Na- 
ture and the Universe as useless, and transcending the 
capacities of the human mind, and confined philosophy 
to the knowledge of men and their duties. The lessons 
of virtue which he delivered in artless conversations 
with men of all classes, derived weight from the un- 
impeachable rectitude of his life, and the ardour which* 
he manifested in pursuit of truth, his disinterestedness, 
his simple and unaffected manner, which was entirely 
free from dogmatism, gave him the advantage over the 
avarice and pompous vanity of the Sophists. The 
analytical precision and distinctness of his ideas, his 
simple and natural diction, and the impulse which he 
gave to the study of human nature, had a powerful 
effect not only on the spirit of philosophy, but also 
on the improvement of the language and style of 
prose composition, the last, but, owing to the exact 
proportion of the mental powers required for its com- 
plete development, the most perfect production of 
Grecian genius. 

The great historians had their respective Rulings. 
Herodotus, with all his sweetness and perspicuity, was 
deficient in energy; Thticydides, with his elevated 


stenmess, in gprace ; the orators dntiphon nod .^a^- 
c%de$ di9dained the artificial refinements of the Sophists^ 
and observed in their speeches that simplicity which 
is the indication of a chastened intellect. First the 
Socratics, as Antisthenes (Diog. L. vi. 14. Phot. p. 173. 
Hoesch. p. 101 b. Bekk.) Cebes and Xenaphon {ca), the 
laat also as an historian, who employed history, not like 
Thucydides, as a guide for statesmen, but rather as a 
medium of moral cultivation, (to which end, however, 
his moral writings more essentially contributed ; among 
which may be included also his philosophical Romance, 
the Cyropsedia, being a picture of a flourishing king- 
dom subject to an unlimited monarchy,) evince con- 
siderable powers of intellect and imagination, acuteness 
and wit, and blend precision and dignity with grace 
and simplicity. But above all Plato stands preemi-' 
nent for the versatility of his genius ; in his language 
are combined all the intellectual powers in their highest 
perfection, and in the most beautiful symmetry, and in 
his metaphysical, moral, political, and dialectic investi- 
gations, by aspiring after the ideal, he laid the founda- 
tion of a scientific method of treating philosophy. 

§. 14. The flourishing period of philosophy began 
with Socrates. But only a few of his disciples, as 
Xenophon, Cebes (cs), JEsckines {cq), trod entirely 
in his steps ; others seized upon single portions of the 
Socratic doctrine. Antisthenes (c) and Aristippus (eo) 
occupied themselves, after the e:xample of their master^ 


solely with Ethics^ but the former carried them to the 
extremity of rigour, inasmuch as he paid no regard to 
the sensual nature of man, but represented an inde- 
pendence on external influences as the highest object 
of exertion (the highest good) ; his successor was 
Diojfenes {cp). Aristippus, on the other hand, placed 
the supreme good in a refined and rational enjoyment 
of life. The one was the precursor of the Stoics, the 
other of the Epicureans. Others preferred taking up 
the acute definitions and conclusions which Socrates 
propounded in his discourses, and practised Dialec- 
tic, which, however, they disfi-gured by their fallacies 
and sophisms, as Eieclides of Megara {cd) (thence 
Megarian)^, Menedemus of Eretria, {Eretrian)» But 
Plato {ce), the greatest genius among the Grecian 
philosophers, compassed the whole range of philo- 
sophy; he applied himself anew to the questions 
on the origin and cohesion of the world, on the rise 
and signification of ideas, and in general to that 
which we denominate Metaphysics,, investigations, 
which were the more congenial to him, because his 
rich poetical imagination found therein the amplest 
scope, while at the same time he taught the purest 
morality, and shewed himself a master in a sound 

b Spalding vindicise philosopb. Megaricornm, Berol. 1792. 
Ritter liber die Philos. der Megarischen Schule im Khein. 
Mas. ii. 3. p. 295, sqq. [Ritter Hist. Anc. Philos. ii. p. 124, 
9qq. on the Eretrian school, see p. 141.] 


and convincmg Dialectic as well as in the art of dialogue. 
He exhibited at once the essential notion of philosophy 
by the distinction which he made between 9«|« and 
i9FtrrifAH, and the connection of its several parts. The 
Pythagoreans TimatLS {cf), Archytas {cff), Philolaus 
{en), and others, whose remains contained the noblest 
moral and political lessons, were still contemporary 
with him, and in high repute. 

§.15. Socrates was also instrumental in separating 
philosophy from the study of eloquence, which the 
Sophists had united with it (Cic. de Orat. iii. 16, 
19), and of thus accelerating the attainment of per- 
fection in each, inasmuch as every one might now 
bestow his undivided attention upon a single branch ; 
the healthy and correct taste of the Athenians was a 
sufficient check upon any tendency which the im- 
portance of the subject-matter might have to super- 
induce an indifference as to the language in which 
it was expressed, and eloquence found an ample 
variety of resources in the public transactions of the 
forum and the state. Themistocles, Cimon, Pericles, 
Alcibiades, are already named as persons distinguished 
for their eloquence (Cic. Brut. 7. Orat. ii. 23. See 
Ruhnkenii hist. crit. orat. Grsec); but they left be- 
hind them no written orations. These are first ascribed 
to Cleophon, Aristophon, Phtsax, Callistrattts ; some 
of this description hy Antiphon (hr) and Andocides 
(hx) axe still extant. Statesmen, leaders of the 


people Qi^futynyM), and orators, became synon3anous 
designations. The first who, as a Socratic, combined 
ease and elegance with simplicity and dignity, was 
Lysias (cr), a inend of Socrates. But eloquence and 
oratory were first directed in their proper channel by 
Isocrates {cr). Without being exempt from the 
artificial embellishment with which it had been in- 
vested by the Sophists, he nevertheless employed it 
with discreet moderation, and, reclaiming it from their 
unprofitable subtilties, applied it to the practical pur- 
poses of life, and by his system of instruction formed 
the most eminent orators and writers as Lycurgus, 
Leodamus, Isaus, Eubulus, Androtion, Aristogiton, 
Cephisodarus, PhilUcus, Naucrate%, the historian, 
Tkeapcmpus, Ephorus, and others, {Cic. or, 52. Brut. 
8. de orat. ii. 22. iii. 44, 173.). But eloquence first 
received its highest finish, when the political relations 
became more complicated, and the welfare of the state 
itself was placed in jeopardy by the conflict of parties 
in the age of Philip of Macedon. Then it was that 
Demosthenes (df) displayed in his orations a con- 
summate art and vigour of expression combined with 
an elevated simplicity, and raised Athenian eloquence 
above that of all other nations. As a politician and 
an orator, he had the following competitors; Hyperides 
(dg),Lycurgu8 (cz), Hegesippus, Mcerocles, Polyeuctus 
of Sphettos, and others, Mschines (dh), the betrayer of 
his country, and Demades {di). On the other hand. 


oratory in the style of IsocratBS already began to 
exercise a prejudicial influence upon historical com- 
position, which first shewed itself in Theopompus {da), 
not only in rhetorical ornament, but also in the dis- 
tortion of facts* 

§.16. Epic poetry declined more and more; Pa- 
nyasis (ar) and Antimdchv^ {ck) were certainly 
admitted by the Alexandrians into their canon, but 
distinguished nevertheless as authors who in no re- 
spect approached the ancient standard [QuintiL x. 
1, 53. 4.) ; and, to judge from their fragments, their 
poems, as well as those of Chasrilus {ci), were rather 
the fniits of study than of poetic genius. Among the 
lyrics, the Dith3n^mbic poets Pratinas, Philoxenus 
{cl), and Timoiheu$ {cm), were eminent, the last also 
as a musician; as an Elegiac and Tragic poet, the 
Tyrant Critias {en). On the other hand, the 
Sciences properly so called, which are less subject 
to the influence of the imagination, than of the observ- 
ation and intellect, were more assiduously cultivated. 
Natural philosophy, mathematics, and astronomy, as 
well as political science (t* w^Xium), especially culti- 
vated by the Pythagoreans, Arckytas and Plato, were 
now for the first time regarded as parts of philosophy; 
as natural philosophers, Alcmaon, a Pythagorean, 
IHonysius of Apollonia, Empedocles and Democritus, 
are particularly named ; as mathematicians and astro- 
nomers, Philolaus, Theodortts of Cnidus, the preceptor 


of Plato, and particularly Eudoxus of Cnidus {cy). 
Geography was combined with history; the facts 
which had at that time been collected respecting 
particular countries and tracts, were communicated 
by the earliest prose-writers and historians in their 
historical works; as Herodotus likewise frequently 
avails himself of opportunities for introducing de- 
ascriptions of countries from his own personal observ- 
ation or from the report of others. Anaximander 
(1st Period n^ z.) is said to have projected the first 
map of the earth, and such . was that perhaps which 
the Milesian Aristagoras laid before the Spartan 
King Cleomenes about 503 B. C. (Herod, v. 49. 

%ttXxi«f mfmut, If rm y«f kireLvm ^n^tti^ InTttfin^t, xat 
S*)movu r% ^ewvt nsti xtrmfui 9r«»rf(). Proper geogra- 
phies unconnected with history are the ^h^iVam of 
Scylax and Hanno. But first in the* age of Alex- 
ander, and principally by him, and, at a later period, 
by the conquests of the Romans, the sphere of geo- 
graphical research became so extended, that Eratos- 
thenes and Strabo were enabled to describe the whole 
earth at that time known. Medicine was raised by 
the priests of ^sculapius, 'AffwAnTM^^i, from its rude 
state, in which it was confined to the cure of external 
injuries, and to magic charms, and became afterwards 
mcMre generally known and cultivated. Hippocrates 
(fiv) of Cos was the first who treated it scientifically* 
Gymnastics also were applied to medicinal purposes, for 


ogthening and invigorating the body, by Herodicus 
iif Selymbria, in the time of Socrates. (Plato de Repub. 
lii. p. 406. Ast. ad Plat. Pbaedr. p. 223. Heind. ib. 
p. 190. C. Fr. Hermann ad Lucian de conscr. hist, 
p. 218.) At the same time Acvmeniis (AxcvfutU) 
was the most celebrated Physician in Athens, a friend 
of Socrates, as well as his son Eryximachus (Valck. ad 
Xen. Mem. p. iii. 13. 2.). But the sons of Hippo- 
crates, Thessalus and Draco, already abandoned the 
path of experience, and applied to the science 
of medicine dialectic arts and the philosophy of 

(a) SiHONiDEs of Ceos, {JLwf thence KU(k), bom 
OLlvi. 1. (B. C. 566,) gains a victory over ^schylus 
01. Ixxiii. 1. (448) d. 01. Ixxviii. 2. (467). Inventor 
of the plaintf^e Elegy, and Lyric Poet, eminently 
versed in the pathetic style, ( CatulL 38, 8. Horai. 
Od. ii. 1. 38. QuincL x. 1, 64.) author of several 
smaller poems in commemoration of remarkable per- 
sons and events of his time, (8iny^«^^r«, Inscrip- 
tions). He was a favourite with Hipparchus, the 
Tyrant Hiero of Syracuse, and Pausanias king of 
Sparta. On his art of memoiy, see Cic. de Orat, ii. 
86. Quint xi. 2. 11. Fragments of his Poems and 
Epigrams see in Collectt, no. 3. 4. 8 — 13. van Ooens 
diss, de Simonide Ceo, poeta et philosopho, Ultraj. 
1768. 4to. Fabric. BibL Gr. t. ii. p. 142.) 


{ah) Phrynichus, of Athens, a disciple of .' . 
pis and Tragic poet; be was the first who introduce. v 
female characters, and chiefly made use of the ( 7Vo'- 
chaic) Tetrameter. Herm. ad ArUt. po^t, p. 108.) 
His piece Mtxirtv iixttTtf was exhibited 01. Ixx. 
Fabric. B. Chr, t. ii. p. 316. cf. Blomfield Pratf. 
Msch. Pers, 

{ac) ^SCHTLUS, of Eleusis or Decelea in Attica. 
He gained his first Tragic prize OL Ixxiv. 1. B. C. 484. 
But being defeated by Sophocles 01. Ixxvii. 4. B. C. 
468., he went to Sicily, and died at Gela 01. Ixxxviii. 1. 
B. C. 456. ( Clint p. 45.) . Of his 70—90 Tragedies, 
7 only are extant. U^^n^ntf he-fctirm, Ui^Tw, 'Ewrtt 
eri 0jf;3«u$, ^Ayaft^fifm, Xoh^o^m, Evfttndig, 'ittstidtf. 

Ediiions. Ed. pr. ap. Aldum Manutium 1518. 8vo. — ed. 
Franc. Kobortelli. Venet. 1662. 8vo. — cum scholiis ed. P. 
Victorius. ap. H. Steph. 1567. 4to. — ed. Guil. Canter. Antw. 
1680. 12mo. — cum seboliis fragm. et comment, ed. Thorn. 
Stanley. Londin. 1663. fol. — rec. Jo. Corn, de Pauw. Hagae 

Com. 1748. 4te. 2 vols ^rec. et illustr. Chr. God. Schutz. Halae 

Sax. 1782—94. 1799.— 1807. 1809—1821. 4 vols. 8vo ex 

ed. Th. StanL— ed. Sam. Butler. Cantabr. 1809. 4to. etSvo.— 
0>y Person) Lond. et Oxon. (1806) 1794. 2 vols. 8vo. (see "Wolfs 
Anal. ii. p. 284.) — e rec. Ric. Pors. passim reficta a Guil. 
Bindorfio. Lips. 1827. 8vo. ad opt. librr. fidem rec. integr. lecL 
variet. notasque adi. Aug.Weilaiier. Lips. 1823.3 vols. 8 vo.(t.iii. 
l*x.^gchyleum. ib.l830.) — iE8ch.tragg. Prometheus^ Persse et 
Septem ad Th. Sophoclis Antigone, Euripidis Medea ex optimis 
exemplaribas emendatse (a Bich. Phil. Brunck.) Argentor. 


1779, 8vo. — ^8ch. Prom, ad fidem MSS. em. notan et gloss, 
adjecit Car. Jac. Blomfield. Cantabr. 1810. Svo. Lips. 1822. 
also PersfiB ib. 1814. Lips. 1823. Sept. c. Th. lb. 1817. Lips. 
1823. Agamemn. 1818. Lips. 1823. Choeph. 1824. Lips. eod. 
i£schylos Eumeniden Gr. u. deutscb mit erlautemden Abb. 
von K. O. MUller. Gotting. 1833 — 4. ^^*cA. txm. H, Voss zum 

Theil volL v. J. H. Voss. Heidelb, 1826 See NachtrUge zu 

fixers Theorie der sch, K, ii. B. S. 391. Fr, Glieb Welcker die 
Ae9chyUache Trilogie Prometheus u. s. w. DarmH. 1824. 8vo. 
Nachirag, Frank/, a, M, 1826.— i^Vii. B, Gr, t. ii. p. 164, sqq. 

{ad) Epicharmus, about 01. Ixxiv. of Cos, but 
resided in Sicily, a comic poet, see §. 12. MUller 
Dor. ii. p. 363. 368. Fabric, B, Gr. L ii. p. ^98, 
sqq. 440. De Epicharmo, Scr, Harles. Essen, 1822. 
8vo. C. J. Grysar de Doriensium comosdia. Epi- 
charmi etcfragm, vol. i. Colon,, 1828. 8vo. 

(<w) Themistocles the celebrated general of the 
Athenians. 21 letters are ascribed to him, which he 
is said to have written in exile (477—471.) Bentley, 
however, diss, de PhaL ep. has proved them to be 
spurious. — e MS, Vatic, ed. Jo, Matik. Caryophilus. 
Rom, 1626. 4to.— rec. ill. et vindic. Christ, Schoett" 
gen. Lips, 1710. 8vo. Fabric, B. Gr. t. i. p. 691, 

(a/*) Pratinas of Phlius, a l3nic poet, invented 
also at Athens the Drama Satyricum, and was an 
eminent master therein. MUller Dor. ii. p. 380« 

PERSIAN WAR. CIMON 470-449. 73 

{ag) CoRiNNA, a lyric poetess of Thebes or 
Tanagra. see in CollectL no. 5. Fabric, B. Gr. t. ii. 
p.. 118. Welcker in Creuzeri Meletem, ii. p. 1, sqq. 
also Boeckh. corp. inscr. t. i. 

(ah) Pindar, of Thebes, b. 01. Ixv. 3. B.C. 517. 
d. 01. Ixxxiii. 4. B. C. 445. the greatest lyric poet. Hor. 
Od. iv* 2. Of his poems {2i6u^teftfi»t, tf/x&ftm, vfim, and 
^meins, ^^nf^t and others), are still extant triumphal 
odes on the Victors in the festive games, mfUui, 
Olympia 14, Pythia 12, Nemea 11, Istbmia 8. 

Ed. pr. Yenet. ap. Aid. 1513. 8vo.— cum scholiis per Zach. 
Calliergum. Boms 1516. 4to. — Uttiafeo irtfUi»t. op. Erasm. 
Schmidii. Yiteberg. 1016. 4to. — ed. OxonieaHis (cur. Bich. 
"West, et Bob. Welsted.) 1697. fol. — Pindari carm. cum lecti- 
onis varietate et adnotatiombus (scholiis et fragm.) iterum 
cairavit Cbr. Gottl. Heyne. Gdtting. 1798. 8vo. Lips. 1817. 3 
vols. (School E(Ut. 1798. 1813. 8vo.) — P. opera, quse supersunt 
testa in genuina metra restit. et ex fide MSS. doct. conj. recens. 
annot. crit. schol. int. interpr. Lat. comment, perp. etindd. adj. 
A. BoeckhiuB. Lips. 1811—18. ii. (each pp. 2.) 4to. — Find, 
carm. rec. metra constit. lect. var. adj. Chr. GhiiL Ahlwafdt. 
Ed. min. Lips. 1820. 8vo. — ex rec. Boeckhii comm. perp. 
illufltr. Lad. Bissenius. Gothae et Erford. 1830. 8vo. — Pind. 
carmm. selecta cum scholiis selectis suisque notis edid. Frid. 
Gedike. Berol. 1786. 8vo. Theoph. Luc. Frid. Tafel dilucidat. 
Pindaric. Berol. ii. 1826. — See Nachtrage zu Sulzers Th, B. i. 
5. 49. Fafiric, B. Gr. t. ii. p. 67. 

{ai) Bacchtlides, of Ceos, nephew to Simonides, 

74 PERSIAN WAR. CIMON 470-449. 

a lyric poet^ and a rival of Pindar at tb6 c6urt of 
King Hiero of Syracuse* B. fragm. colL rec, 
interpr, C. Fr. Keue. Berol. 1823. 8vo. Fragm. 
see in Collect L no. 7. 8a 12mo. Fabric. B. Gr, t. ii. 
p. 114. 

(ak) Praxilla, of Sicyon, a lyric poetess. See 
Collectt no. 4. 5. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 135. 

(al) To this period belongs also, according to 
Hug and others, the m^Uxovt of the Carthaginian 
Hanno, translated into Greek, being a description of a 
voyage on the western coasts of Libya. It is foimd in 
the Edit, of Steph. Byz. by Abr. Berkelius, in the 
Hudsonian Collect, no. 22. edited by J. L. Hug. 
Freib. 1808. 4to. by F. G. Kluge. Bresl. 1828. in a 
School programme. Cf. Ukert Geogr. der Gr. und 
Rdm. (Weimar 1816.) i. p. 61. 

(am) DiONTSius, of Miletus, an historian, (a 
different person from Dion of Samos, [see, however, 
Clinton. F. H. ii. 37.] ) wrote the traditional history, 
{Mv^txA Diod. Sic. i. 66, sq. »wx$^ fiv^txif in Prose. 
See Jahrb. der Philol, und Padag. xiii. p. 242. 
Lobeck. Aglaoph. p. 990. Muller Proleg. p. 95. 98.) 
the events of his time (IXf^o'ixtf, roL furet L»^utw). 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 378. Creuzer hist Kunst p. 
125, sqqj 

CIS! ON 470-449. decemvirs in rome 452. 75 

{an) Diogenes, of Apollonia, a natural pbilo- 
sopher^— ^« eetate et scriptis diss, frctgni. ill, doc- 
trinam expos. Fr, Panzerbieter. Lips. 1830. 8vo. — 
ill. With. Scham in Anaxag. sqq. 

(ao) Anaxaooras, of Clazomenae, b. 01. Ixx. (67 
according to Wyitenh, Bihl, cr, iii. 4. p. 65.) 1. B. C. 
500. d. 88. 1. B. C. 427, went (in his 20th year ?) to 
Athens^ where Pericles and Euripides had the benefit 
of his instruction. §. 10. Among his disciples were 
Archelaus of Athens, and Diogenes of ApoUonia, 
Ffogm. coll. et comm. instr. ed. Schaubach. Lips. 
1827. 8vo.— 17/. Wilh. Schorn. Bonn. 1829. 8vo. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 644 . 

(op) Ocellus Lucanus, a Pythagorean, under 
whose name a work is extant, v%^i rnt t«v vrtttrtf 
^Immt, probably translated by a more modem hand 
from the Doric into the Attic Dialect, (cf. Stab. ecL 
i. p. 422 — 428. ed. Heeren with Ocellus, p. 514. 519. 

£d. pr. Paris. 1539. 4to. — Oc. luc. de la nature de Taaivera ; 
Tim^e de Locres de Tame du monde, avec la traduction fran;. et 
des remarques par M. I'abb^ Batteux. k Paris 1768. 3 Tol8.8vo. — 
Oc. Luc. gr. ad fid. MSS. et edd. rec. comment, perp. anxit et 
Mndicare studuit A. F. W. Budolphi. Lips. 1801. 8vo. Also 
m the CoUecU. no. 30. Fabric, B. Gr, t. i. p. 865. Meiners 
Getch,'d. Wiss. I. p. 584. On the other aide ^Bardili Epochen 
d, vorz. philos. Begr. (Halle 1788.) p. 165, 

76 PKBSIA5 VAS. ciMOir 470-449. 

(aq) Pakhktibss of Ekt, mbout OL ]xxix. (ac- 
cording to FuUeb.), a disciple of Xenophanes. The 
fiagments of his philosophical poem wt^i ^vnmq may- 
be found in SUpk, poes^ pkiL and more follj in Ful- 
leborns Bejtragen Ti. at. Cf. under Empedocles. 
Fahric. B. Gr. t. iL p. 62L ClimUm p. 37a 

{ar) Paktasis of Halicamassos, aboat 01. Ixxviii. 
paternal uncle to Herodotus, put to death by the tyrant 
Lygdamis, 01. Ixxx. 4. B. C. 457. Clint p. 27. 45. 
one of the five classic epics (Qiim^ x. 1, 54.), wrote 
an'H^«»>>fM in fourteen books, also according to Suidas 
another poem on the Ionian Colonies in Asia Minor 
in elegiac verse 'isnuul. Three fragments of him (of 
Heraclea ?) see in Brunch piom, p. 130. Fab. B. Gr. 
t. i. p. 734. 

{as) Melissus, leader of the Samians against 
Pericles, 01. Ixxxviii. 1. (B. C. 428), a philosopher 
who developed with greater precision the principles 
of Xenophanes respecting the one eternal substance, 
a pupil of Parmenides. Ilf^i ^vvu/f xai rtv 6fr^i. 
See Fragments in Brandis coram, eleat p. 183, sqq. 
Fab. B. Gr. i. ii. p. 659. 

[at) Sophocles of Athens, b. 01. Ixx. 4. (H. C. 
497.) d. 01. xciii. 4. (B. C. 405), obtained the Tragic 
prize against ^schylus OL Ixxvii. 4. shared the com- 

PERSIAN WAR. CIMON 470-449. 77 

mand with Pericles against the insurgent Samians. 
Of his 106 dramatic pieces^ only seven are extant : 
Alttf ftamyo^i^9f, 'HXtKT^a, Otimvf Tv^mt6f, 'Avrtyifn,. 
Oid. Ix-i K^X&M, T^^fMi, 0iA«»TifTii(. See §.10. 

£d. pr. ap. Aldum. 1502. 8tq. — Z;^«Ai« trmiiam. Rom. 1618.. 
4to. — Soph. Trag. Gr. cum Grsecis Demetrii Triclinii scholiis- 
ap. Adrian. Tumebum. Paris. 1653. 4to. — Sopbocl. Trag. Y II.. 
una cum omnibus Gr. scholiis et cum Latinis Joach. Camerarii. 
Ace. annotatioaes H. Stephani in Soph, et Euripid. 1668. 8yo.— > 
G-r. opera Guil. Canteri. Antw. 1679. 12mo. — Gr. et Lat. eum 
scholiis cur Jo. Capperonnier et Jo. Franc* YauTilliers. 1781. 
4to. 2 vols. — Soph. Trag. YII. ad optimor. exemplariam fidem 
emendatse cum versioae et notis ex editione Rich. Franc. Phil. 
Brunck. ArgCDtor. 1736. 2 vols. 4to. 4 vols. 8vo. — Tom. iii, iv, 
in Soph. Tr. scholiaates Grseci (ace. fragm. et ind.) ib. 1789^ — 
cum animadv. Sam. Musgravii. Ace. Soph, fragm. ex edit. 
JBrunck. nee non index verborum. Oxonii. 1800. 8vo. 2 vols. — 
Soph. Tr. YII. ac deperditarum fragmenta, emend, varietatem 
lectionis, scholia, notasque tam aliorum tum suas adjeeit Car. 

Gottl. Aug. Erfurdt. Ace. Lexicon Sophocleum et index verbo- 
rum locupletissimus. Lips. 1802. 6 vols. Trach. Electr, Philoct. 

Antig. CEdip. Tyr. Ajax. vol. vii. (Ed. Col. em. et notas adj. 

Ludov. Heller et Lud. Doederlein. Lips. 1825 — ad opt. libr. 

fid. iterum rec. et brevibus notis instr. C. G. A. Erfurdt. Lips. 

1809) sqq. 8vo. contin. by Hermann. — ad opt. libr. fid. em. c. 

brevi notatione emendat. Cur. God. H. Schsefer. Lips. 1810. 

2 vols, small 8vo. — ad opt. exempl. fidem ac prsec. Cod. vetust. 

Florent. a P. Elmsleio coll. em. (Fr. Gaisford). Lips. 1827. 8 vo.:— 

rec. et expl. Ed. Wunder. {in Bibl. Gr. c. Jacobs, et R. IX.) 

Goth. et. Erf. 1831, sqq. 8vo.— recogn. et brevi ann. schol. in 

usum instr. Fr. N cuius. Lips. 1831. 8vo. 

Philoctetes cum notis Fr. Gedike. Berol. I78i. 8vo. — ed. 

Phil. Buttmann. Berol. 1822. — ^recogn. et comm. in usum juv. 


stodioss ill. J. P. Mattbsi. Altona 1822. 8to« — Ajax Gr. com 
scholiis et commeatario perpetao edid. Christ. Aug. Lobeck. 
Lips. 1809. S. (Ed. T. ex rec. P. Elmsley, qui et annotatt. 
suas adj. Oxod. etLond. 1811. 8to. Lips. 1821. 8yo. S.CEd.iii 
Col. c. schoL vet. et suis comment, tam emendatior edita tojo. 
explanatior ab Car. Keisigio Thur. Jense 1820. 8vo. With 
C. Reisigii comm. crit. de Soph. CEd. C. Jense 1822. 8vo. 
Ejusd. enarratio exegetica. ib. 1823.— e rec. P. Elmsley. Ace. 
Brunck. et al. anDot. selecta, cui et suam addidit ed. Oxon. 1824. 
Lips. eod. a. — Soph. Antig. Codd. MSS. omn. exempl. discre- 
pantia enot e schol. vet. em. atque ezpl. Fr. C. Wex. Lips. 
1829, 31. 2 vols. 8vo.— Scholia in Soph. Trag. e Cod. MS. 
Laurent, descripsit P. Elmsley (ed. Th. Gaisford). Oxon. 1825. 
Lips. 1826. 8vo. — Syll. var. in Soph. Tragced. lectionum (op. 
Jo. Frid. Martinus). Halse 1822. 8yo..-.Glieb C. W. Schneider 
vollst. Soph. WOrterverzeichniss. Weimar 1829. 2 vols. 8vo. 
C. Matthise qusest. Sophocl. Lips. 1832. 8vo. — Fabric* B. Gr. 
t. ii. p. 193, sqq. NacMrage zti Sulzers Th» B. 4. p. 86. 

(aw) Leucippus, bis country unknown, author of 
the Atomic system, which was further developed by 
Democritus Epicunis. Fab. B, Gr. t. ii. p. 658. 

(at?) HellanIcus, (v. Lobeck. ad Phryn. p. 670 cf. 
Kriizer Leb. d. Thucyd. p. 28.), of Mytilene, author of 
an historico-geographical description of the known 
earth, which is quoted according to its several parts : 
T^mKu, 'Ar^if &c. Hellan. Lesbii fragm. ed. F. W. 
Sturz, Lips. 1788. 1826. 8?o. Cf. Mus. crit. CanU 
11. V. p. 90. Clinton p. 373. not. t 

[aw) Pherectdes, of Leros, but resident at Athens, 

PECEMYIRS ly ROME, 452. 79 

(thence Ai^icf and 'a^wZh) wrote principally the tia* 
ditional history, in ten books. PKfrngm. colleg. emend, 
ilLfrcLgm, Acunlai adj, Fr. GuiL Sturz. Gerse 1789, 
1824* 8vo. See my Miscell. Writings, p. 102, sqq. 
Fah. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 665. 


(ax) Chabon, of Lampsacus, about 01. Ixxv. (ac- 
cording to Passow p. 10. about 01. Ixvii.), Tlt^txti, 
History of the Persian war. See Fragm. in CollectU 
no. 20. 

(ay) Zend, of Elea, about 01. Ixxix. disciple of 
Paimenides at the same time with Empedocles, founder 
of the iuiXtKTuui, i. e. the ai*t of disputing on scientific 
subjects, §. 10. Fab, B. Gr, t. ii. p. 670, sq. 

(az) Simon ides yvtutxiy^i, about 01. Ixxxii, grand- 
son of the lyric poet, wrote a genealogical histoiy after 
the manner oi^ the Eceae and the Naupactica. See 
Groddeck in Bibl, d, alt. Litt. und K, ii. p. 100. 

(6a) Herodorus, of Heraclea in Pontus, wrote in 
prose *A{v»9«BVT<je« and tk xaf *H^ak>m, See Oroddeek 
in Bibl, d. alt. Litt. und K, ii. p. 72, sqq. MUller 
Dorians, i. p. 524. Nitzsch hist. Horn, p. 84, sq. 

(bb) Empedocles, about 01. Ixxxiv. B. C. 442, 
of Agrigentum in Sicily, disciple of Parmenides, a 


celebrated philosopher and naturalist, left behind him, 
besides several other works, a philosophical poem^ trf^i 

Empedocles Agrigentinus : de vita et philosopbia ejus expo- 
suit, carminum reliquias coUegit, recensuit, illustravit Frid. 
Guil. Sturz. Lips. 1805. Svo. Emped. et Farm, fragm. ed. 
Amed. Peyron. Lips. 1810. Svo. Cf. B, H, C. Lommatzach die 
Weisheit des Empedokl Berlin 1830. Svo. Fabric. J5. Gr, t. i. 
p. 805. C/m^OTi, p. 365. An astronomical poem in Iambics falsely 
ascribed to him *EiAvtioK>.uvs ffipa7^»j may be foundj in Fabric. 
B. Gr. t. i. p. 816. ed. Harl. 

{be) Democritus, of Abdera, pupil of Leucippus, 
about 01. Ixxxiii. (B.C. 446.) (b. 01. lxxvii.3. according 
Wyttenh. BibL cr. iii. 4, p 66. according to others Ol. 
Ixxx. B.C. 460. See Clinton, p. 43. d. 01. cv» 4= 
357 at the age of 104), a naturalist and philosopher. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 628. 

{bd) GoRGiAS, of Leontini, a disciple of Empe- 
docles, a sophist or philosopher, orator and rhetorician^ 
inventor of the periodic style, of various rhetorical 
figures, and especially of the rhetorical nUmerus. 
Cic. Or. 12. 50. 52. He displayed his art in 
various parts of Greece, particularly in Athens, 
where he had Critias and Alcibiades for his hearers, 
and was likewise highly esteemed by the now aged 
Pericles. {Philost. vit. Soph. p. 493. Philostratus 
at least says nothing of his having delivered the 


funeral oration over those who fell at Salamis.) He 
was one of his country's ambassadors when she sued 
for the assistance of the Athenians against the Sy- 
racttsans 01. Ixxxviii. 2. (B. C. 427 .)i and opened at 
Athens the first school of rhetoric. Two declamations 
are ascribed to him. *£Affii( lyauv^My and n«Aa^ii3«v( 
«ir«A«y/» in Reiske Or. t. viii. Bekk. Dem. iv. App. 
Fabric* B» Gr, t. ii. p. 805. Manso Gesch. d» Rhet. 
p. 13. Clinton, p. 371. not. n. H. E. Foss de Gor- 
^ia Leontino comm, Hal, 1828. 8vo. 

{be) Ion, of Chios, about 01. Ixxxii, one of the 
five classic Tragedians. (On his fragments see Rich, 
Bentley Epist, ad Millium in his OptiscuL Philolog. 
Lips. 1781.). He was also the author of lyric 
poems, particularly Dithyrambs and Elegies. ( Brunch, 
Anal. i. p. 161). Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 126. 307. 

{bf) Pbotagoras, of Abdera, about 01. Ixxxiv. a 
Philosopher and Orator, the first who called himself a 
sage (rt^MTTiif), and gave instruction for money. Cic. 
de Orat. iii. 32. de Nat. Dear. i. 1. 23. Fabric. B. 
Gr. t. ii. p. 688. Clinton, p. 365. 

(bg) Cratinus, of Athens, obtained the prize 01. 
Ixxxvi. 1. (B. C. 476), one of the most distinguished 
poets of the Old Comedy, author of from 21 to 25 

82 PERICLES, 449-428. 

Comedies, though the titles and fragments of 40 are 
cited. Meineke qu, scenA. p» 22, sqq. See the Col- 
lectt. no. 16. 17.— Fra^m. coll, et ill, M, RunkeL 
Lips. 1827. Fabric, B. Gr, t. ii. p. 430. Meineke 
qu, seen. i. p. 14, sqq. 

(bh) EuPOLis, of Athens, about 01. Ixxxni. junior 
to Cratinus, a classic poet of the Old Comedy. 
Fragments of 20 Comedies, among which the most 
celebrated were ^dirrau, particularly directed against 
Alcibiades, {Meineke i. p. 42, sqq.) A«j(«m, in which 
he ridiciUed the scandalous maladministration of 
public affairs then prevailing at Athens since the 
death of Pericles, {Meineke p. 48, sq.), KoA«fjef(, in 
which he lashed the rich and gluttonous Callias, 
son of Hipponicus, and his parasites, especially Pro* 
tagoras, {Meineke p. 51.) Htt^tneh, against Hyper- 
bolus, (id. p. 66.) and TloXug resembling the AiT^. 
(id. p. 58.) See in Collectt. no. 17. Cratin, et Eup. 
scr, Guil. Lticasr Bonn. 1826. 8vo. De Eupolidis 
2ifMif ac vriXtirkf scr. CrusU Car, Henr. Raspe, Lips. 
1832. Cf. Gfr. Hermann in d. allg. Schulz. 1833, 
ii. no. 13. Cf. Pherecrates. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. 
p. 445. Meineke qu. seen. p. 35, sqq. 

{bi) Plato, of Athens, about 01. Ixxxviii. {Clint, 
p. 66.) also a classic poet of the Old Comedy. By him 

PELOPONNES. WAR, 431-404. 83 

ibere were 28 pieces, among which the most cele- 
brated were, 'EAAif ii »«!rw, 'Eo^tm {Meineke 2. p. 16, 
sq.) mxiopeif (id. ib. 17, sq.) Fabric, B, Gr» t. ii. 
p. 485. Meineke qu. seen, 2. p. 11 . 

{hk) Hegehon, of Thasos, contemporary with 
Alcibiades, the first poet who wrote Parodies. See 
Siudien von Daub und Creuz, 6, 2. p. 267, sqq. 

{bl) AcH-fitJs, of Eretria, one of the Tragic poets 
received into the canon of the Alexandrians, who 
wrote chiefly Satyric Dramas. Fabric, B, Gr. t. ii, 
p. 279. 

{bm) HippiAS, of Elis, a Sophist, who professed 
to know and to do every thing, jmiior to Pro- 
tagoras. Cic, de Oral, iii. 32. Fabric. B, Gr, t, ii. 
p. 657. 

{bn) Prodicus, of Ceos, a celebrated Sophist* 
Hercules ProdicitLS, Xen, Mem. S, ii. 1. Cic, Off, i. 
32* ad Div. v. 12. Fabric, B. Gr, t, ii. p. 718^ 
Welcker in Rhein, Mus, i. S, 532. 

{bo) DiAGORAS, of Melos, «^o(, banished from 
Athens 01. xci. 2. d. B.C. 415. 

{bp) Heropotus, 'Hg«?oTflf, of Halicarnassus, in 

84 PELOPOKNES. WAR, 431-404. 

Caria^ bom 01. Ixxiv. 1. B. C. 484. He wrote in the 
Ionic Dialect the first proper historical work in nine 
books^ of which the wars of the Greeks with the Per- 
sians up to the battle of Mycale constitute the principal 
subject. This he recited at the Olympic Games 01. 
Ixxxi. 1. (see, however, Dahlmann Forsch. aufd. Geh. 
d, Gesch, IL 1. p. 18 — 37. and on the other side 
Kriiger Leb. d. Tkuc. p. 24.) and at the Panathenaic 
festival at Athens (?) 01. Ixxxiv. I. B.C. 444. in 
parts, but he continued to improve and perfect it at 
Thurii in Lower Italy, whither he had gone with 
an Athenian colony 01. Ixxxiv. 2. B. C. 443. 

There is an Epitaph upon him in Anal. Br, iii. 
p. 263. no. 533. Anthol PalaL ii. p. 824. no. 212. 
see §. 11. Dahlmann Herodot. im 2ten B, der 

Ed. pr. Venet. ap. Aid. 1502. fol. — (The Lot. Version of 
Later, Vatta^ Venice, 1474. fol. \» of earlier date.) — ed. H. Ste- 
phani. 1670. 1692. fol.— ed. Th. Gale. Londin. 1679. foL—rec. 
Jac. Gronovius. Ludg. B. I7l6. fol. — cum annotat Th. Gulei 
et Jac. Ghron. curavit, et suas itemqae Lud. Casp. Yalcke* 
neerii notas adjecit Petr. Wesselingiufi. Amstel. 1783. fol. — 
Opera Frid. Volg. Reizii. ti. Lips. 1776. 1807. t. ii. contin. 
Godofr. Henr. Schsefer. Lips. 1800. — Histoire d'Herodote, trad, 
da Grec, aveo des rem. hist, et crit. iin essai sur la chronol. 
d'Her. et ane table geogr. (par Larcher.) Paris 1802. 7 vols. 
8yo. — ad vett. codd. fidem denuo rec. lect. var. interpr. Lat 
adnott. Wess. etValck. aliorumque et suis ill. Jo.Schweighaeii8er. 
Argent, et Par. 1816. 6 vols. 8vo. Lexicon Herodoteum .... 
iastr. Jo. Schweigh. Argent et Paris. 1824. Svo.— «od. Saner. 

PELOPONNBS. WAR, 431-^04.' 85 

MS. denoo coot. leet. Tariet. commodius dig. annot. Tarr. adj. 
Th. Gaisford. Oxonii 1824. 4 vols. 8yo. Lips. 1824, sqq. — ^textnm 
ad Gaisf. rec. recogn. perpetua turn Fr. Creazeri turn sua annot. 
instr. Job. Chm. Fel. Baehr. Lips. 1830, sqq. 8vo. For in- 
terpretation, Metmel on the Geographical gffttem of Herod, is 
particularly valuable. Lond. 1800. 4to. Cf. Niehtthr on the 
Geography of Herodotus^ Bonn. 1828. 8yo. Commentationes 
Herodotes. Scribebat Fr. Creuzer. p. i. Lips. 181^. 8to. 
C. L. Struve de dial. Herod. Spec. l-^. Regiom. 1828-30. 4to. 
Fabric, B, Gr. t ii. p. 327. 

[bq) Euripides^ bom at Salamis, 01. Ixxv. !• 
B. C. 480. first gained the prize in Tragedy B. C. 442. 
A pupil of Anaxagoras^ and the Sophist Prodicus^ died 
Ol. xciii. 3. B. 0. 406. at the Court of King Archelaus 
of Macedonia. Of his 123 Tragedies we have only 
eighteen (and the beginning of the nineteenth) extant: 

n h Tetif^dK, '?na-6f, T^tieQti, Btixj^M, Kv«A«^^» *H^ttxXu}m, 
'EXffn/^litf, *H^«ibAiis fuufifinoi, *Hxixr^», (A«r«if, ques- 
tionable. See Wolfs Anal. 4s st.) See §.12. 

£d. pr. Eurip. Medea, Hippolytos, Alcestis, Andromacbe 
Gr. Florent. (op. J. Lascaris). 4to. — Trag. XVIII. Venet. ap. 
Aid. 1603. 8vo. — Scholia Gr. in YII. Trag. ab Arsenio coUecta. 
Venet 1634. 8vo. Basil. 1644. 8vo.— Eur. Electra ed. P. Vic- 
torias Bomse 1646. 8yo. — Eurip. Trag. XIX. op. Gail. Canteri. 
Antv. 1671* 12mo. — Enr. Tr. XIX. ace. nnnc recens vicesimse, 
cai Danae nomen, initiam, e vetastis. bibl. Palat. membranis 
Gr. et Lat. (cum G. Canteri notis). Heidelb. ap. Commel. 1697* 
Svo^ — ^Eur. qace exstant omnia, Trag. XIX. fragm. scholia ed. 

86 FELOPONNSS. WAR, 431-404. 

Jos. Barnes. Cantabr. 1694. fol. — recens. fragm. coUeg. notad 
perpetuas subjecit Sam. Musgraye M.D. Osodu. 1778. 4 toI». 
4to. — Eur. Trag. fragm. epist. ex ed. Jos. Bamesii recusa et 
aucta appendice observationnm e variis doctorum viromm libris 
coUecta. Lips. 1778-1788. 3 vols. 4 to. — ^Eurip. Trag. et fragm. 
rec. interpr. Lat corr. scholia Gr. e Codd. MSS.partim supplevit, 
partim emend. Aug. Matthise. Lips. 1813-29. 8vo. Tom. i. ii. iii. 
text IT. V. scbol. yi. yii. yiii. not. ix. fragm. — ^rec. et comm. instr. 
A. I. Edm. Pflugk (Bibl. Or. car. Jacobs et Bost poet xi.) 
Goth, et Erford. 1829. 8vo. ' 

Edd. of separate Plays. Ear. Phcenissie. Interpretationem 
addidit H. Grotii, Grseca castigavit e MStis atque adnota- 
tionibus instraxit ; scholia partim nnnc primum eynlgata sab- 
jecit Lnd. Casp. V alckenaer. Franequ. 1755. Lugd. B. 1803.4to. 
Lips. 1824. 2 Tols. 8vo. — Ear. Hippolytns : — adnot instxuxit 
Lud. C. Valckenaer. Ace. L. C. V. diatribe in Enripidis per- 
ditorum dramatam reliqnias. Lugd. B. 1767. 4to. Lips. 1823. 
8vo.— Eurip. drama : Supplices mulieres ad Codd. MSS. re- 
censitum et notis aberioribas illustratam (ed. Jer. Marldand.). 
Lond. 1763. 4to. Oxon. 1811. 8yo. Lips. 1822.— Iphigenia in 
AuU et Iph. in Tauris : ad Codd. MStos recens. et notalas 
adjecit Jer. Maryland. Lond. 1771. 8vo. Oxon. 1811. Lips. 
1822. 8vo. — Eur. Trag. lY. Hecuba, Phoenisss, Hippolytus, 
et Bacchie, ex optimis exemplaribus emendate (per B. Fr. Ph. 
Brunck.) Argent. 178Q. 8vo. — Sophocl. El. et Eurip. Andro- 
mache ex opt exempl. emend. Argent. 1779. 8to. — Sophoclis 
O. T. et Eurip. Orestes ex opt. ex. em. ib. eod. — iEsch. Prom. 
Pers. et S. ad Th. Soph. Ant Eurip. Medea ex opt ex em. 
Argent. 1779. 8vo. Eurip. Hecuba ad fidem MSS. emendata 
et brevibus notis emend ationum potissimum rationem redden- 
tibus instructa. In usum studioss juventutis (edid. Rich. Por- 
son.) Lond. 1797. 1801. 8to. By the tame^ Eur. Orestes ib. 
1798. Phcenisss 1799. Medea 1800. AU fmr plays are prifUed 
together: Eur. Tragcediee — ed. Bich. Person, tom. i. Lips. 
1802. 1807. 1824. 8yo. — Eur. Hecuba. Godofr. Hennanni ad 
earn et ad B-. Porsoni notas animadversiones. Lips. 1800. 8to. 

P£LOPOKNKS. WAR, 431-404. 87 

•'—Ear. Hercules far. reeeus. Grod. Hermannns. Lips. 1800. 8to. 
£. Sapplices rec. G. Hermann, ib. 1811. 8yo. Bacche ib. 
1823. 8yo. Ion. 1827. Hecuba 1831. Iphig. Aul. 1831. Ipbig. 
Taur. 1833. — ^Eur. Troades ad optt. libr. fidem rec. et breyibus 
notis instruxit Aug. Seidler. Lips. 1812. 8yo,— E. Electra— 
rec. Seidl. ib. 1813. 8yor— E. Iph. in T. ib. eod.— Heracl. ex 
rec. P. Elmsley, qui annot. suas et alior. sel. adj. Oxon. 1813. 
8vo. Lips. 1821. 8vo. — Hipp, coronifer ad fid. MSS. et yett. 
edd. em. et anaot. instr. Jac. Henr. Monk. Cantabr. 1814. 
Lips. 1823. Gr. 8yo.— Ale. . . rec. Monk. ib. 1816. Gr. 8yo. 
cum int. Monkii suisqne annot. ed. Wustemann. Goth. 1823. 
8vo. c. del. annot. potiss. Monkii. Ace. emend. G. Hermanni* 
Liips. 1824. 8yo. — Androm. ed. Je. Lenting. Zutph. 1839. 8yo. 
— Electr. recogn. P. Camper. Lugd. B. 1831. 8yo. — Medea in 
as. stud. juy. rec. et ill. P. Elmsley, Oxon. 1818. 8yo. Ace. 
God. Hermanni adnotatt. Lips. 1823. 8yo. — ^Baccbse in us. 
«tud. juy. rec. et ill. P. Elmsley. Oxon. 1821. 8yo. Lips« 

1822 Fabric, B. Gr. t. ii. p. 234, sqq. NachMlge zu Sulz, 

V. B. 2. 

(Jbr) Antiphon, of the borough of Rhamnus in 
Attica^ bom 01. Ixxv. 2. (B.C. 479), accused of 
treachery and executed 01. xcii. 2. (B. C. 411), the 
most celebrated teacher of eloquence in his time. He 
also wrote speeches for others, for which he received 
pay, and speeches on fictitious events (or. sophistica 
declamationes), and spoke once only himself, in his 
own defence* There are still extant 15 oration* soph. 
See Ruknken. diss, de Antiphonte in his opusc. oral, 
philol. criL Lugd. B. 1807. 8vo. Fabric. B. Or. t. ii. 
p. 750. 

88 PBitOPOiJNES. WAE, 431-404. 

Ed. pr. Orationett Tetenzm oratcnrum. Ven^ ap. Al^^un. 
1618. fol.— ap. Henr. Stephanom. 1675. fol.— Orat. Gr. ed. 
J. Jac. Beiske. in toI, vii. p. 603. ed. Bekker in W. i. 

{bs) Thtjcydides, of Athens, b. 01. Ixxvii. 1. 
B.C. 473, a pupil of Antipbon * ? 01. Ixxxix. 1. B. C. 
424, be commanded an Athenian army in Thrace, 
but was banished because he came too late to prevent 
the surrender of Amphipolis to the Lacedaemonian 
Brasidas. He lived as an exile in different parts 
of Greece 20 years, and there, assisted by his 
acquaintance with Lacedaemonians and Athenians, he 
collected with the greatest care, and at considerable 
expense, the materials for his history of the Pelo- 
ponnesian war, of which, however, after his return, 
he was only able to complete 8 books to the beginning 
of the 21st year of the war, and died 01. xcvii. 2. 
B.C. 391. K. W. KrUger Untersuch. Uber das 
Leben des Thukyd, Berlin 1832. 4to. 

£d. pr. Venet. ap. Aid. 1602. fol. — Scholia ib. 1603. — cum 
scholiis ap. Henr. Stephan. 1664. 1688. fol. — ed. Jo. Hudson. 
Ozon. 1696. fol. — rec. Jo. Wasse ; edit. cur. Car. Andr. Duker. 
Amstel. 1731. fol. — reprinted Biponti, 1788. 6 yoIs. 8yo. — 
ad edit. Dukeri cum animadv. Jo. Christ. Gottleber edid. Car. 
Lud. Baver. Lips. 1790. 4to. et Chr. D. Beck. 1804. 2 toIs.— 
ad opt. Codd. fid. rec. et ill. Chr* Frid. Ferd. Haackius. Lips. 
1820. 2 vols. 8vo. ez rec. Imm. Bekkeri. Ace. seholia Gr. et 

P See Clinton, voL ii. p. 77»'\ 

^EioPOKNZs. WAR, 431-404. 89 

Dnkeii Wasriiqne annotationes. Berolini 1821. 3 vols. 8to. — 
ed. Poppo. Lips. p. i. ii. iii. proleg. et Thnc. 1. 1. 1621-26. p. it. 
Yol. iiF. v. vi. Thnc. 1. 2-8. 1826-28. p. iii. comm. vol. i. 1831. 

vol. ii. 1833 ed. S. T. Blomfield. Lond. 1830. vol. iii. 8vo. 

Sng. Trandl. of the same, Loud. 1828, 29. — ^rec. et ill. Franc. 
Goeller. Lipn 1826. ii. vols. 8vo. Fabric, B. Gr. t. ii. 
p. 721. 

{ht) Agathon, of Athens, about 01. xc. a tragic 
poet. Fabric. B, Gr, t. ii. p. 281. 

(hu) Socrates, of Athens, bom 01. Ixxvii. 3. 
B.C. 469. of poor parents, condemned to drink the 
poisoned cup, 01. xcv. 2. (B.C. 399.) see §. 13. 

(bv) Hippocrates, of the island Cos {'Itw. 
KSf), of the family of the Asclepiadae, b. 01. Ixxx. 
1. (B.C. 460.), d. at Larissa, 01. cv. 4=357, 
the first physician who reduced his science to a 
sj'^stem. He travelled much, and afterwards esta- 
blished a school of medicine at Cos, which continued 
in high repute many years subsequent to his death. 
Seventy-two compositions pass under his name, but 
many of them are spurious. Groddeck, i. p. 204, sq. 

Ed. pr. Yenet. Aid. 1526. foL^Basil. 1538. fol. edited by 
Janus Comarias.— opp. omn. reo. et illustr. Anutius Foesiiu. 
Francof. 1595. Genev. 1657. fol. — ed. Jo. Ant. van der Lin- 
den. Lugd. B. 1665. 8vo. ii. torn. — Hipp, et Galeni opera 
edid. Ben. Charterias (Chartier). Lntet. 1679. xiii. vols. fol. 
— cnm variet. lectt e Codd. Yindob. ed. Steph. Mackius. 

90 PELOPONNES. WAR, 431-404. 

Tiennae 1743-49. ii. vols, noi complet€d,-~ln the CoUecit. 33. 
vols. xxi. xxii. xxiii. 1825, sqq. — Fabric. B. Gr, t ii. p. 606, 


{bw) SoPHRON, of Syracuse, wrote fuffv^ «f- 
i^iiovs xct} yvimmiwi, representations in dialogue of 
characters, modes of life, manners, and customs, 
in a prosaic but yet m a rhythmical style. Fabric. 
B. Gr. t. iii. p. 493. Sophr. mimorum fr. in Clas- 
sical Journ. no. 8. p. 381, sqq. Mus. Cantabr. 
no. 7. p. 340, sqq. MUller Dorians ii. p. 371. 

{bx) Andocides, of Athens, b. 01. Ixxviii. 2. 
B. C. 467, a statesman and orator. There are four 
ai his orations still extant : ^t rSv fAvrm^ittp (de- 
livered 01. xci. 2. B.C. 415. in reply to the charge 
that he was privy to the mutilation of the Mercuries, . 
and the profanation of the Eleusinian mysteries, of 
which Alcibiades was principally accused), ««t« 'aa- 
iufiiadw (01. xci. 1.), 9rf^/ r^f; uivrtlv »x6i^»v (01. xcii. 
2* B. Chr. 411.), m^i rnt x^U Aeucticu^mvf u^nfm 
(01. xcvi. 4. B.C. 393). Reiske Orat. Gr. t iv. 
Bekker t. i. Andok. fibers, und erl&ut. von A. G. 
Becker. Quedlinb. 1832. 8vo. — Jan. Otto Sluiter 
lectiones Andocidea. Ltigd. B. 1804. 8vo. Fabric. 
B. Gr. t. ii. p. 758. Ruhnk, hist. crit. orat. p. 
xlix, sqq. 

(Jby) Pherecrates, a celebrated poet of the Old 

PELOPONNES. WAK^ 431-404. 91 

Comedy (in the canon of the Alex.) of whose pieces 
from thirteen to eighteen are quoted, among which 
^'Ay^iii exhibited 01. Ixxxix. 4. Plat, Protag. p. 327. 
D. See Heinrich Epimen. p. 192, sqq. Dess* de» 
monstratio et restitutio loci corrupti e Plat. Prot, 
Kiel, 1813. 4to. — Pher, et Eupol, fr, coll, et adnot, 
adj, M, Runkelitts, Lips, 1829. 8vo. Fabric, B, 
Gr, t. ii. p. 473, sqq. Meineke qu. seen, 2, p. 31, 

{hz) Aristophakes, of Athens, the wittiest and 
most spirited poet of the Old, and (in the Plutus) 
of the Middle Comedy, and, in regard to language, 
a perfect model of the Attic dialect. His eleven 
pieces which still remain out of sixty are: liXtvtHi 
Ki<p«A*i, (exhibited 01. Ixxxix. 2. B.C. 423), 

'£««Ai|rM^0tfO'«i, &t(rfM^$^ui^W9-m, Avrirr^tfrif. See 
Nachtr. zu Sulzers Th, vii. l.p. 113. 

Edm, Ed. pr. Aristoph. Corooedise ix. cam schol. Gr. Venet. 
ap. Aid. 1498. fol.—Flor. ap. Phil. Juntam. 1616. and Thes- 
mophor. and Ljsistrata ib. eod.— Arwt Com. xi. Gr. Lat. cum 
scholiis antiqu. et notis Virr. DD. recens. Lud. KUster. Am- 
stel. 1710. fol. — Ar. Com. xi. ad fidem optt. Codd. em. cum 
notis Steph. Bergleri nee non C. Andr. Dnkeri ad 4 priores. 
Ace. fragm. cur. P. Burmanno Sec. Lugd. 6. 1760. ii. vols. 
4to.— Ar. Com. ex optim. exemplarib. em. studio Rich. Fr. 
Phil. Brunck. Argent. 1783. iv. yoIs. 8vo.— Ar. com. auc- 
toritate libri prsecl. sec. x. emend* a Philippo Invemizio. 

92 PEtOPONNES. WAR, 431-404. 

Lips; 1794. n. yols. Bvo.^^The 2d andfolhwiftg vol, under the 
iUle : Commentarii in Arist. Com. — coUeg., digessit, auxit 
Chr. Dan. Beckius. Lips. 1809, sqq. 8vo. the Qth and following 
vol, by Dindorf. 1821. — c. schol. et var. lect. rec. Imm. Bek- 
kerus. Ace. noise Bninck. et reliqu. Londini 1829. 5 yds. Svo. 
Ubere, von J, H. Voss mil erldtdemden Anm, von SC* Vom. 
Braunschw, 3 vols. 1821. Svo. — Arist. com. Plutus cum schol. 
recognovit et notis instruxit Tib. HemsterhuiR. Harling. 
1744. 8vo. Lips. cur. Schaefer. 1811. 8vo. — Aves Gr. rec. 
et perpetua adnot. illustr. Chr. D. Beck. Lipe. 1782.^ — !Nuhes 
cam schol. rec. et annot. J. Aug. Emesti suasque add. Godofr. 
Hermannus. Lips. 1799. 1830. 8vo. — ed. Car. Beisig. Lips. 
1820. 8vo. — Acham. ex rec. P. Elmsley.— Pax, ex rec. Guil. 
Dindorfii. Lips. 1820. 8vo. Equites c. ei. ib. 1821. Aves 1822. 
Bans 1824. Eccles. 1826. Acharn. 1828. Ar. fragm. ex 
rec. Guil. Dind. ib. 1829. F. V. Fritzsche de Babyloniis Ar. 
comm. Lips. 1830. 8vo. — Arist, Wolken^ eine Comodie, Griech, 
tmd Deutsch {v. Fr. Aug, Wolf.) Berlin 1811. 4to. J. W. 
SUvem iiber Ar, Wolken. Berlin 1826. 4to. The same^ Uber 
Ar, Tn^m$ ib. 1827. 8vo. — Car. Beisigii conjectaneorum 
in Arist ii. 2. Lips. 1816. 8vo. Fabric, B. Gr, t ii. p. 356, 

(c) Antisthenes, of Athens, a pupil of Gorgias, 
and afterwards of Socrates, founder of the Cynic 
(iCvM9-«(yff) Sect, which taught a most austere system 
of morals, and restricted its followers to bare neces- 
saries, and a precursor of the Stoics. Two oratorical 
exercises (fif>Ar§ti), a7«$ and 'O^vT^vf, may be found 
in Reiske, t. viii. p. 52, sqq. Bekk. t. iv. 4, Append, 
p. 26. a letter of his in Orell, epp, Socr. p. 8. Fabric, 
B, Gr. t. ii- p. 697. t. iii. p. 512. 


(ca) Xenophon, of Athens, b. 01. Ixxxiii. 2. B. C. 
447, saved by Socrates in the battle at Delium, 01. 
Ixxxix. 1=424, conducts the return of 10,000 
Greeks from Asia, 01. xciv. 4. B. C. 401. d. 01. cvi. 
1 =356. A pupil of Socrates, a friend of Agesilaus. 

Editt, 1) of his entire works. £d. pr. Florent. ap. PhiL JuDtam. 
1516. fol. — ap. Aldum. 1626. fol. — ap. Henr. Stephanum. Paris. 
1561. fol. and better 1581. fol.— Gr. et Lat. cur. Leundavius. 

Basil 1669. 1572. Francof. 1694. fol Gr. et Lat cur. Ed. 

Wells. Oxon. 1703. Svo. 5 toIs.— .cur. Car. Aug. Thieme. Lips. 
1763, sqq. 1801. — 4to. 4 vols. — As a help. F. W. Sturz Lexicon 
XeDopbonteniD. Lips. 1801 — 3. 4 vols. — illastr. fienj. Weiske. 
Lips. 1798 — 804. 6 vols. 8vo. — qnse exstant, ex. 11. scr. fide et 
W. DD. conject. rec. et interpret, est Job. Glob Scbneider. 
Lips. 1829. 6 vols. Svo. (Frid. Aug. Bomemann). 2) separate 
treatises: a. Cyropsdia libr. viii. rec.*Thom. Hutcbinson. Oxon. 
1727. 4to. — e rec. Hutcbins. (ed. Moms.) Lips. 1774. Svo. 1784. 
8vo. — ^rec. J. C. Zenne. Lips. 1780. 8vo. — (Schneider. Lips. 
1800. 1816. 8vo.)>- ad fid. maxime Cod. Guelpb. ed. Em. Poppo. 
Lips. 1821. — J. Fr. Fiscberi comm. in Xen. Cyrop. ed. Christ. 
Tbeopb. Kuinoel. Lips. 1803. Svo. — ^rec. Fr. A. Bomemann. 
(m Jac. et Bost. bibl. Gr.) Gotb. et Erf. 1828. b. Anabasis 1. vii. 
rec. Tb. Hutcbinson. Oxon. 1735. 4to. 1745. Svo. atid with notes 
hy Person. Cantabr. 1785. 8vo. — e rec. Hutch, ed. Moms. Lips. 
1775. Svo. — ^rec. J. C. Zeune. Lips. 1785. Svo. — (Scbneider 
Lips. 1806. Svo. Bomem. 1825. c. anim. Porsoni)..— rec. Lud. 
Dindorf. Lips. 1825. — recogn. et ill. C. G. Kriiger. Halis 1826. 
Svo. — ed. Era. Poppo. Lips. 1827. 8vo. c. Historise Grsec. 1. vii. 
rec. Moras. Lips. 1778. 8vo. — (Scbneider. Lips. 1791. 1821. 
Svo.)— </. Memorab. Socr. 1. iv. ed. P. Victorius. Flor. ap. bsr. 
Juntse 1568. — ex rec. et cum notis J. Aug. Eraesti. 1737. 8vo. 
especially {with Valcken. and Rithnken's annot,) 1772. Svo. — 
cum notis Em. Kubnk. Valcken. Hindeburg. (Lips. 1769. 8vo.) 


suisque ed. J. C. Zeane. Lips. 1781. 8 vo.— (Schneider. Lips. 
1790. 8vo. 1801. 1816.8VO.— recogn. et ill. G. A. Herbst. Halii 
Sax. 1827. 8to. e, (Econom. Apol. Socr. Sympos. Hiero, Agesil. 
( VcUkenaer disputed the genuineness of AgesiL See on the other 
side Welske prief. Agesil.) c. animadv. J. Aag. Bachii. Lips. 
1749. 8vo. — ^rec. J. C. Zeune. Lips. 1782. 8vo. — (Schneider. 
Lips. 1806, 8vo.) — Hiero. Rec. et interpr. est C. H. Frotscher. 
Lips. 1822. 8vo.— Conviv. rec. et interpr. est. Fr. A. Bomemann. 
Lips. 1824. 8yo. Ace. ej. apol. S. — IttftT, recog. et ill. G. A. 
Herbst. Hal. 1830. 8vo. /. Opusc. politiea (de repuW. Athen. — 
Bdckh Pub, Econ, of Athen. i. p. 62. Not. — et Lacedtem. de 
reditibus) equestria et yenatica rec. J. C. Zeune. Lips. 1778. 
8yo.— (Schneider. Lips. 1817. 8vo.) Fabric, B, Gr, t. iii. 
p. 1, sqq. 

(cb) Ctesias, of Cnidos, private physician to the 
younger Cyrus, lived afterwards in the Persian Court 
till 395. He wrote a history of the Persians up to 
398 in twenty-three books, and a book on India, of 
which however only fragments are left, which may be 
foimd in the editions of Herodotus by Gale and 
Wesseling — .opp. reliquia. Coll. rec. ill. Jo. Chrn, 
Felix. Bahr. Franco/, ad M. 1824. 8vo. Fab. B. Gr, 
t. ii. p. 740. 

{cd) EucLiDEs, of Megara, a disciple of Socrates, 
who, however, chiefly practised Dialectics or the art of 
confuting others by subtle questions and conclusions, 
for the most part fallacies, founder of the Megariau 
school, the members of which were called 'E{io-ti««/ and 
Am}.vcTiK9L Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 715. t. iii. p. 625. 


{ce) Plato, of Athens, b. Ol. Ixxxvii. 3. B. C. 430. 
d. 01. cviii. 2=347, disciple of Socrates, and founder 
of the Academy. See §. 13, Respecting his travels 
see Clinton, p. 366. not. e, 

EdiU, Ed. pr. Aldina. Venet. 1573. fol. — ap. Henr. Ste- 
phanam. Paris. 1578. fol. 3 vols. — com veni. et argum. Marsilii 
Ficini. Lagd. 1590. Francof. 1602. fol.— ed. Bipontina 1781^ 
87. 11 vols. 8vo. toith dialogoram PI. argamenta exposita et 
iUustrata a Diet. Tiedemann. 1786. 8to. — Plat, opera ex rec. 
H.Stephani passim emend, adj. schol. et Dott. critt ed. Christ. 
Ban. Beck. Lips. 8 vols. 1813—19. 12mo.— Plat diall. Gr. et 
Lat. ex rec. Imm. Bekkeri. Berol. 1816. p. i. 1, 2. p. ii. 1, 2, 3. 
p. iii. 1, 2, 3. comm. crit. ib. 1823. 2 vols. 8T0.-^ad opt. libr. 
fid. rec. Lat. converdt Fr. Ast. Lips. Weidm. 1819^1830. 
i — ix. Text x. Annot. 8vo. — ad fid. codd. Florr. Pariss. Vindob* 
alionimque recogn. Godofr. Stalibaum. Lips. Wei^eL 1822, sqq. 
8 Tols. 8vo.— rec. et adn. crit. instr. C. £rn. Cbph. Schneider, 
Lips. Teabner. up to the present time 3 vols. 

Separate Dialog. Plat. Dialogi V. (Aroatores, Euthyphro^ 
Apol. Sbcr. Crito, Pheedo) rec. et illnstravit JS^athan, Forster. 
Oxonii 1745. 1765. 8vo.— PI. Euthydem. Apol. S. Crito, Phjaeda 
Gr. e rec. H. Stephani varietate lect et anini. crit. ill. J. Fr.. 
Fischer. Lips. 1760. 1770. 1783. Cratylus et Theset. Lips. 1770, 
8to. Sophista, Politicus, Parmenid. Lips. 1774. 8vo. Philebus 
et Sympos. Lips. 1776: 8vo. Plat. dial. IV. Meno, Crito^ 
Alcibiades 1. 2. cum anim. Gedicke, Gottleber, Schneider, cur. 
Biester. Berol. 1780. 1790. car. Biest. et Buttmann. ib. 1811. 
1822. 1830. — PI. Symposium verhessert ttnd mit kritischen und 
erkh Anmerk. herausg. v. F. A, Wolf. Leipz. 1782. 1828. 8vo.— 
Plat. lo, ad fidem cod. Venet vett, edd. revocatus et illustr. a 
M. Guil. Muller. Hamb. 1782. 8vo.— Plat dial, selecti cara 
L. Fr. Heindorfii. Berol. 1802—1810. 1827, sqq. 4 vols. 8vo. 
(I. Lys., Charm., Hipp, maj., PbsedruH. II. Gorgias et Theset. 
III. Crat., Euthyd., Parm. IV, Phsedo, Sophistes, Prota- 


goras).— -PI. FhspdoQ explanatas et emend, prolegom. et annot. 

Dan. Wyttenbachii. Lugd. B. 1810. 8vo. Lips. 1825.— Pi. Meno 

proleg. et comm. ill. God. Stallbaum. Lips. 1828. — PI. Politia 

8. de rep. 11. x. rec. atque explan. Fr. Astius. Lips. 1814. 8yo. — 

Plat. Leges et Epinomis ad opt. libr. fid. em. et perp. adnot ill. 

Fr. Astius. Lips. 1814. 2 vols. 8vo. — PL Philebus. rec. et ill. 

God. Stallbaum. Ace. Olympiodori scholia nunc primum edita. 

Lips. 1820. 8vo. — lo. prol. Tindic. et annot. instr. Gr. Chiil. 

Nitzsch. Lips. 1822. 8to. Euthyphro. proleg. et comm. ill. 

Godofr. Stallbaum. 1823.— dial. sel. (apol. S. Crit Phsed. 

Symp. de rep.) rec. et comm. in usum schol. instr. Godofr. 

Stallbaum. (Collectt, no. 1. vol. xi.) Goth, et Erf. 1827^ sqq. 

4 vols. 8vo. — Symp. ad opt. 1. fid. ed. c. D. Wyttenb. acimadv. 

addot. instr. P. A. Reynders. Groning. 1825. 8vo. — dial. IV. 

Lach. Euthphr. apol. S. Menex. adn. perpet. ill. Fr. Guil. 

Engelhardt. Berol. 1825. — Timseus, recogn. ill. A. F. Lindau. 

Lips. 1828. 8vo. — Scholia in Platonem ex Codd. MSS. primum 

coll. ed. D. Ruhnkenius. Lugd. B. 1800. 8vo. — Phil. W. van 

Heusde spec, critic, in Platonem. Lugd. 1803. 8vo. — C. Mor- 

genstern de Plat. rep. comm. III. Halis 1794. 8vo. Th. Gaisford 

lect. Platon. e membr. Bodleianis etc. Oxon. 1820. 8vo. — 

A. Boeckh. comm. in Platonis Minoem et libr. prior, de legibus. 

Hal. 1806. 8vo. — Groen van Prinsterer prosopographia Plato- 

nica.Lugd.B.l 823.8 vo. — Plat. Works y translated by Fr.Schleier' 

macher. Berl. ii. 1804. 1809. 1819—1828. i. I, 2. ii. 1, 2, 3. 

iii. 1. 8. Fab. B. Gr, t. iii. p. 57, sqq. j4st fiber Plato's Leben 

u, Schriften. Leipz. 1817. Socher iiber Plato's Schriften. 

MUnchen 1820. 8vo. PhiL Guil. van Heusde iniita phiioe. 

PlaUmieee, f^j. ad Rh. 1827. 

{cf) TiMJEUs, of Locri in Lower Italy, a Py- 
thagorean, under whose name a work has come down 
to us ^rf^^ ^v^cii xirftit. 

EdUians generally with Plato, S, Ocellus, Fabric. B, Gr, 


t i. p. 877. Memers Geteh, d. Wist. i. p. 587, eqq. On 
the other side BardUi Fpocken der vorz. philot. Begr. p. 166, 

(c^) Archttas, of Tarentum, a Pythagorean 
philosopher, mathematician^ particularly a mecha- 
nician, at the same time a great statesman and 
general. Hor, Od. I, 28. 

Fragm. m^t riii /MJneutrt»ntt ed. Jo. GTammias. Hafh* 
1707. 4to. — Vuia xiyu »m0*XiM»l (spurious) cum epidt Jo. Ca- 
merarii. Lips. 1564. Svo^^-and in Collecti. no. 30. II. p. 273. 
no. 30. Moral and oiher fragments in CoHectU no. 30. II 
p. 234. no. 30. Fabric, B, Gr. t. i. p. 831. Meiners Gesch. 
d. Wiss» u p. 596. BardUi de Arch, phiios. in Nod. ada sec. 
Lai. Jen. i. p. 3. sqq. 

{ch) Philistus, of Syracuse, eyewitness of the 
defeat of the Athenians at Syracuse, B.C» 415, then 
admitted to the councils of Dionvsius the elder, 
about 01. xciii.=405, but afterwards banished bv 
him, recalled by Dionysius the younger, 01. ciii. 
l=:367. maintains his ground against Dio, 01. cv. 
3=358. ZntiAMM in two parts. 1st, up to the cap- 
ture of Agrigentum, 406. B.C. seven books. 2d, 
reign of Dionysius the elder, two books, up to 01. 
civ. 2=303. Cic, Br. 17. ad Qu. fr. 11, 13.— 
Fabric. B. Qr. t. i. p. 730. 

De sita et origine Syraeu8.8cripAit atque Phil, et Timsi rer. 
Sicnl. fragm. adj. Fr. Goller. Lips. 1818. 8to. 


'9&r eAFFunn •or home bt thb gavls. 

{ci) Chobrilus, of SamoSy a celebrated epic poet, 
in the time of Plato, who took for his subject the 
Persian wa^. Vossitis de poetis Gr. c, V. de histar. 
Gr. iv. 7. p. 370. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 292, 
sq. Horace speaks of a later Choerilus. HoraL 
Epist ii. 1, 232. ^. P. 359. Chcerili Samii qua 
supersunt coll. et ill. — Au^. Ferd. Naecke. Lips. 
1827. 8vo. Additam. ih. 1827. 4to. 

(cA:) Antimachus, an epic poet, esteemed by 
Plato of Colophon. On account of his epic poem 
Bn^U, the Alexandrian grammarians reckoned him 
among the five classic epic poets. He was also the 
author of an elegiac poem Atdn, lamentadons on the 
death of his beloved. 

Antimachi Coloph. reliquise: coll. et explevit C. Ad. Gh*. 
Schellenberg. Hals. 1786. 8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 104, 

{ct) Philoxenus, 01. xcv, of Cythera^ at the 
court of Dionysius I. by whom he was imprisoned 
in the stone quarries at Sjnracuse^ a dithyxambic 
poet. KwexW'. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 134. Wyl- 
tenbach. diatr. de Philoxenis in Philomath. II. 
p. 64. 

{cm) TiMOTHEUS, of Miletus, about the same 


time^ but his junior, a dithyrambic poet, as was also 
Telestes, Diod. Sic. w* 46. 

(cw) Philolaus, of Croton, a disciple of Archy- 
tas, one of tbe most celebrated P3rthagoTeaii8. Plato 
received instructiou from him at Heraclea in Lower 
Italy, and Simmias and Cebes at Thebes. {Plat 
Ph^dan. p. 61. D.) He wrote on arithmetic, the 
anima mundi, and other subjects. Philolaos de» 
Pythctgoreers Lehen nebst den BruchstUcken seines 
Werks van A. Boeckh. Berlin 1819. 8vo. Cf. 
Ideler in the MtLseum d. Alterthumswiss, II. p. 405. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 862. 

(co) Aristippus, of Cyrene, a disciple of Socra- 
tes, though not a stedfast adherent to his moral 
principles, founder of the Cyrenaic sect, which placed 
the summum bonum in the enjo3anents of sense, 
and from which the epicurean school afterwards 
proceeded ; a man of the world, and a favourite 
of Dionysius the elder. Harat Epist i. 1, 18. 17, 
23. with WielantTs Kote. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. 
p. 700. 

{cp) Diogenes, of Sinope, (£«w«ni) b. 01. xci. 3. 
(B.C. 413.) d. 01. cxiv. 2. (323), a disciple of 
Antisthenes, and the most celebrated Cynic philo- 

100 PEL0PIDA8. IMOK. II. IN STRACUSB, 368-357. 

sopher. Twenty-seven letters are falsely ascribed 
to him. Fabric. B. Gr. t. m, p. 516. 

{cq) iBscHiNEs, of Athens, a disciple of Socrates. 
Under bis name we have three dialogues : on virtue, 
Ertxias^ en riches, Axioghus, on death, which, 
however, were probably the production of later and dif' 
ferent authors; ex. gr. the Axiochus posterior U> 
Grantor, See my verm, Schriften, p. 51. 

Edii.firtiintkeJEdiium»&fPlaio. Separately : Gr.TjtLU eH, 
Jo* Clerious. AiiuiteL 1711. 8vo. — ed. P. Horreiu. Leov. 
1718. 8vo.— Hnir. J. Fr. Fischer. Lips. 1786. 8to. See alto 
Simonis, Socratici Dialogi lY.— de lege, de lacri cupldine, de 
justo ac de virtate. Additi sant incerti auctoris dialogi Ery- 
nas et Axiochus. Becr Aug. Boeckhius. Heidelb. 1810. 8yo. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 091. 

{cr) Lysias, an orator,^ son of the Syracusan 
Cephalus, b. at Athens OL Ixxx. 3. (B.C. 458.) 
d. 01. c. 2. (B.C. 379.), accompanied Herodotus 
B.C. 443, to Thurii till 411 ; banished by the thirQr 
Tyrants 404; he lived in Megara tiU 403, after the 
restoration of the democracy B.C. 402. irTtXns^ 
Forty -four orations are extant^ see §. 15. 

EdUt. Ed. pr. ap. Aldnm. Venet. 151>3. fd. nnth otAew 
Oral. — ^rec. Jer. Marklandi et suas notas add. Jo. Taylor. 
Lond. 1739. 4to. — cum uotis Tayl. et Marklandi edid. Ke»ke 
in Oratt. 6t. torn. v. vi.— ed. Athan. Auger. Paris. 1783. 

PHILIP OF MACBDON, 360-^6. 101 

2 ^olfl. Svo. — ad eod. Tindbboii. expr. cora Fr. K« Alter. 
Viemue. 1785. 8vo. 2)ekk. orat Ajtt. t i. — Ljnm et .£8oh. or. seL 
conim. in juam schol. instr, a Joh. Henr. Bremi. Groth. et £rf. 
Id26. Syo. — orat. qnsB supers* onm. et deperd. fr. ed* et breri 
adnot. crit imitr. C. Foertseli. Lips. 1829. 8vo. — in ord. clironol. 
ved, «d. et adnot ont. instr. Jo. Fsans. Mooach. 1831. 8to. 
Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 760. 

(c«) Cebes (kM^), aTbeban^ disciple of Socrates^ 
author of a philosophical treatise under the title of 
jrif«|» which contains an allegorical picture of human 
life, the genuineness of which, however, some have, 
perhaps unreasonably, called in question. 

EdU, generaOy with EpicM. aUme. Cebetis Theb. tabula e 
MSStis restituta a Jac. Gronovio. AmsteL 1689. 8yo. — eoU. 
IV. Codd. Paris, ed. J. Schweigbaenser. Argentor. 1806« I2me. 
Fab, B. Gr. t ii. p. 702. 

{ci) Alcidamas, of Elea in Asia Minor (t,?nifinf), 
a rhetorician. Two declamations are ascribed to him, 
*O}v0v«v( KttTtk TIaX»iiiili»pf ir^Aritif and «t^i o^trrSf. 
in Reiske orat. Gr. U viiL and Bekker t iv. 4. Appendix 
p. 33. Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 776- 

{cu) Cbitias, of Athens, a disciple of Gorgias and 
Socrates, but the most despotic of the thirty tyrants. 
A (gnomic) elegy by him of little worth has been in 
port preserved by Athenaeus X. p. 432. Besides the 
4talante, some also ascrilted to him the Tragedies 

102 PHILIP OF MACBBOIO 360-336. 

Piritkaus and Sisyphus, which by others are assigned 
to Euripides.— ;/raym. disp, ilL em. JV. Bachius. Lips. 
1827. Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 294. 

[cv) IsocRATES^ of Athens, b. 01. Ixxxv. 4. (B. C- 
436.) d. 01. ex. 3=338. a disciple of Prodicus and 
Gorgias, ( Cic. or. 52. ) . A teacher of eloquence, whose 
school sent forth the most eminent orators and authors. 
Cic. Or. ii. 20. Brut. 8. Owing to a want of confidence 
and vocal power {Cic. Or. ii. 3.), he never spoke in 
public. His twenty-one extant orations he wrote 
partly for others, and partly as models for his pupils, 
see §.15. (The anecdote i-ecorded by Cic. or. iii. 35. 
or. 19, 62. Quint, in. 1, 14. is at variance with 

EdiU. Mediolani cur. Demetrio Chalcondyla 1493. fol. — 
Venet. ap. Aldum 1513. 1534. fol.— ed. Hieron. Wolf. Badl. 
1561. 15fO. foL— «p. H«iir. Stephanum. 1593. fol.->ed. GuiL 
Battle. Loud. 1749. 2 vols. 8vo. — ed. Afhan. Anger. Paris. 
1782. 3 Yolii. Svo. — ad optim. exempl. fidem emendavit (P) 
Wilb. Lange. Halis Sax. 1803. 8vo.— *IrM^. xiyM xmi l^i0T»)Lmi 
jfark 0%$xian ^mXmmv, «Tf irftairUnwaf wnfJMii^u% etc. iv Um^^Utg 
^{. (1807). 2 vols. Bvo. (ed. Adamant. Coray.) — ^Bekk. or. Att 
t. ii. — oratt. commentt. instr. a Jo. Henr. Bremi. Goth, et Erf. 
1831 ,8qq. — Is. Panegyricus rec. etillustr. Sam. Fr. Nath. Moms. 
Xiips. 1804. 8vo. c. Mori soisqtie ann. ed. Gtdl. Dindorf. Lips. 
1826. 8vo* c. Mori fniisqne aanot. ed. Fr. A. W. Spohn. £d. 2. 
cur. J. Qe. Baiterus. Lips. 1831. 8to. Areopagiticus ed. 
J. T. Bergmann. Lugd. B. 1819. 8yo. — or. de permutatione 
cujus pars iugenis primum Gr. edita ab A. Mustoxyde. Mediol. 
1812. 6yo«— ex codd. MSS. ilppleta ab Anci^. Mustox. ite<h 

PHiup OF ]fiCBDOW> 360-336. 103 

J. C. Oreiliusi. Toriei 1814. 8yo. — admon. ad Demooic. m 
CoUecU. no. 30. 2 Tola. Fab. B. Gr, t, ii. p. 777. 

{cw) Chion, of Heraclea on the Euxine, a disciple 
of Plato> slew- the Tyrant Clearchas of Heraclea, but 
was skdn by his gaards, 01. en. 4=353. Seventeen 
spurious letters pass imder his name. Chionis epist 
Gr. ad Codd. Mediceos rec. castig. notas et ind. 
adjecit Jo. Theopk. Coberus. Dresd. et Lips. 1765. 
8ro. in the Memnon of J. C. Orelli. Lips. 1816. Svo. 
Fab. B. Gr. t. i. p. 677. 

{ex) Antiphanes, about 01. xcviii. a celebrated poet 
of the Middle Comedy, (in the canon of the Alex.), 
author of more than 260 pieces. His country unknown. 
P. H. Koppiers obss. philol. in loca quadam Antiph. 
lAtffd. B. 1771. Svo. Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 414. Meineke 
qu, seen, 3. p. 49. 

(oy) EuDOXUS, of Cnidus, about 01. ciii. (B. C^ 
366.) a disciple of Plato, by whom also he was ac- 
companied in his travels to Egypt, (Clinton, p. 366. 
not. e.), a great mathematician and astronomer, whose 
work on astronomy was translated into verse by Aratus. 
Fab. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 10. 

icz) Ltcurgus, of Athens, of the noble family of 
the Eteobutadse, b. 01. xciii^ l=s408, a disciple of 

L04 PHILIP OF MACEDON, 360-^^6. 

Plato and Isoorates, a friend of Demosthenes^ esteemed 
for his integrity, love of liberty, and firmness of principle, 
died 01. cxiii. 1 =:d28, after having delivered in the 
senate an account of his political conduct. One Oration 
in Leocraiem, in Taylor and Reiske. vol. iv« — e tec. 
Taylori ed. J. Godofr. Hauptmann. Lips* 1 763. 8vow — 
miL teutschen Xoien von J, H, Schulze. Braunschv. 
1798. 8vo. — emend. C. F. H{einrich.) Bannae .ad 
Rken. 1821. 8vo. — recogn, Taylori prol. et anim. 
integr, Hauptm. Reisk. Schulz. sel. Mori ined, sums- 
que adj, oratt. coll, A. G. Becker. Maydeb. 
1821. 8vo. — rec. Frid. Osann. Jen. 1821. 8vo. — Bekk. 
or. Alt. t. ii. — Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 812. 

(d) IsjEus (of Athens or Chalcis), an orator, dis- 
ciple of LjTsias and Isocrates, instructor of Demosthenes. 
Ten speeches on hereditary property in Reiske Oral. 
Gr. t. vii. and the eleventh vFt^l t«v MtwtXuvf kA«^. 
(by Th. Tyrwhiit.) Lond. 1785. 8vo. and in Bibl. d. 
all. Lit. and K, 3s St. Ined. also at the end of Isoer. 
9r. itri^. by Orrell. — %t^\ r$u KXmuv^v »A«(m nunc 
pritnutn duplo attctior inv. et interpr. Any. Majo. 
MedioL 1815. Gr. 8vo. Bekk. oral. Gr. t. iiiw — 
recogn. annot. crit. et comm. adj. Gt. Fr. Schlhnann. 
Gryphisw. 1831. 8vo.— FaA. B. Gr.t. ii. p. 808. 

{da) Thbopompus, of Chios, a disciple of Isocrales, 
b, about 01. c. 3=378. one of the most celebrated 

PHILIP 07 MAOBDOM, 360-^6. 106 

historians, but negligent in style, {Meneike qu, seen. 
2. p. 71. Cic. Brut 17» de arat. ii. 23. iii. 9. 1. epit 
Herodotu Ruhnk. hist crit or. Gr. p. Ixxxidi. 
Frommel de Th. epit Her. in Creuzer Meletem. iii. 2.) 
'EXXammm in twelve books from the period at which 
ThiK^dides ends 01. xdi. 2. to the sea-fight at Cnidos 
01. xcvi. 3s:394. ^tXunruui in fif^-eight books 
history of Philip from 01. cv. 1=360. into which, 
however, many other irrelevant circmnstances were 
introduced, as the history of Dionys. the elder and 
the younger.~/r. colL disp. et expl. Eysson-Wiggers* 
Lmgd. B. 1829. 8vo. Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 801. Ruhnk. 
hist cr. or. p. 87. Clinton, p. 375. not. g. A. J. E. 
Pflugk de Theop. vita et scriptis, BeroL 1827. 8vo. 

(db) Ephorus, of Cuma, also a disciple of Isocrates, 
wrote a history of the Greeks firom the return of the 
HeraclidaB 1191 B.C. to 01. ex. 1=340.— ^ro^. 
colL atque ilL M. Marx. Carlsr. 1815. 8vo. (Cf. 
Friedem. et Seeb. Misc. cr. ii. p. 754, sqq.) Fab. B. 
Gr. X. ii. p. 355. 800. Clinton, p. 373. not./ 

(dc) AscLEPiADBS, of Tragilus in Thrace, a disciple 
of Isocrates, wrote T{iiyf)«vfMf«, i. e. an exposition of 
the subjects dramatized by the Tragic poets. Ascle^ 
piada Trag. Tragodumendn reliquue. Diss, posthuma 
Fr. Xav. Werferi in the Actis philol. Monac. t. ii. 
fasc. 4. Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 289. 

106 PHILIP OF MACEDOK^ 360-336. 

{dd) To this period also, subsequently to 01. cv. 
the 9n^i9rA«t)« of the Mediterranean sea, which is 
ascribed to Scykix of Caiyanda in Caria under Darius 
Hystaspes, appeal's to belong. See Niehuhr in the 
Ahh. der BerL Acad, hist phil. CI, 1804 — 11. p. 83. — 
Ed, pr, Dav, Hoeschelii, August Vindel, 1608. then 
in Collectt, no. 21. 22. Fab. B. Gr, t. iv. p. 606, 

[de) ^NEAS, sumamed Tactions, about 01. civ. 
(probably the general of the Arcadians, Xen. Hell. yii. 
3, 1 . ) . Two treatises by him, Tttnruca and wj x^n *•- 
}if^vfMnv ifvixtt^, were first published with Polybius 
by Is, Casaubon, Paris 1609.~r-^ toUr, obsidione lib. 
ad Codd, Paris, et Medic, tec, comm, int. Is. Casaub. 
not Jac, Gronov, Koesii, Casp, Orellii et suas adj, 
Jo, Conr. Orellius. Lips. 1817. 8vo. Fab. B. Gr, 
t. iv. p. 334. 

{df) Demosthenes, of Athens, b. 01. xcviii. 
4=385. first appeared as an orator against his guar- 
dians in 01. civ. 1=364. His first oration against 
Kmg Philip 01. cvii. 1 =352. (three Aoyw 'OXv%$um$l,) 
Pursued by Antipater, he took poison in the island 
Calauria, 01. cxiv. 3=322. Sixty-one orations. There 
are Scholia upon him which are attributed to Ulpian, 
of whom nothing further is known. Wolf, ad or. 
Lept p. 210. Clinton fasti Hell. App. p. 360. , 

PHIUP OF HACEDOK, 360-^6. 107 

JBkUL £d. pr. Aldina. Venet. 1504. fol.— cum comm. Ulpiani. 

Basil, ap. Hervag. 1532. fol Gr. Lat. cam Ulpiani comm. 

ed. Hieron. Wolf. Basil. 1649. 1572. Franc. 1604. fol.— cum 
Ulp. Patifi. 1570. ap. Beneuatum, fol. (cur. Morell. ed. Dion. 
Lambinus).>-ed. J. Taylor. Cantabr. 1748—57. 1774. 4to. 
2 vols. — ed. J. J. Beiske. Lips. 1770. 2 yols. Ed. corr. cur. 
Gr. H. Scliaefer. Loud. 1822. 4 vols. 8vo. Apparat crit 3 vols. 
Ind. 1 vol. 8vo. App. crit. exeget. ad Demosth. Obsop. Wolf. 
Tayl. Beisk. annot. tenens. Big. aliorumque et suis annot. 
auctom ed. God. H. Schaefer. Lond. 1824—27. 5 vols. 8vo.— » 
ed. Ath. Auger, torn. i. Paris. 1790. 4to. Bekk. or. Att t. iv. 
p. i. ii. iii. iv. — Demosth. or. adv. Leptinem cum scboliis veterib. 
et comm. perpetuo ed. Fr. Aug. Wolf. Halis 1789. 8vo. repet. 
J. H. Bremi. Turic. 1831. 8vo. — or. in Midiam, ed. notis crit. 
et exegeticis instruxit G. L. Spalding. BeroL 1794. 8vo. cur. 
Buttmann. lb. 1823. 8vo.— rec. M.H. E.Meier. Hal. 1831, sq. 
Svo. — or. de pace cum schol. et Andr. Banaei prelection, ed. 
Cbr. D. Beckius. Lips. 1799. 8vo. — or. pro corona rec. E. C. 
Fr. Wunderlich. Gott. 1810. 1820. 8vo.— .Sscb. et D. or. de 
corona. Ex recognit. Imm. Bekkeri. Ace scholia partim inedd. 
HaL 1815. 8vo.—- Bern. Pbilippice in usum schol. recogn. 
Bekkerus. Berol. 1816. 8vo.— Phil. I. Olynth. III. et de 
pace rec. et comm. ill. C. A. RUdiger. Lips. 1829. 8vo. — 
Philipp. oratt. v. ex rec. I. Bekk. ed. et ill. J. Th. Yoemel. 
Francof. 1829. 8vo. — in Androt. et C. H. Funkhaenel. Lips. 

1832. Svo.^ — oratt. sel. comm. in usum schol. instr. ab Job. H. 
Bremi. Goth, et Erf. 1829. 8vo. Dem, Political orations trans- 
hied into German, and tnth notes by F. Jacobs, Leipz. 1805; 

1833. 8vo. — Dem, as a Statesman and orator. HistoruHhcrit, 
Inirod. to his Works by Gerh, Becker, Halle 1816. 8vo. — Dem. 
as a citizen, orator, and author, by the same. Quedl, u, Leipz. 
1830. 8vo. Fab. B. Gr, t. ii. p. 816. 

{dg) Hyperides, of Athens^ a disciple of Plato and 
Isocrates, an orator distinguished for his eloquence 
and patriotism, put to death by order of Antipater,. 


108 ALEXANDER, 3d6--d2d. 

Ol. cxiv. 3=322. Of his fifty-two orations there is 
only one remaining, the seventeenth among those of 
Demosthenes, p. 211. Reisk. Fab. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 856. 
Ruhnk* L c, p. Ixix. ad Rutil. i. 19. p. 64. 

{dh) ^scHiNEs, of Athens, of mean extraction, 
the antagonist of Demosthenes, amhassador at the court 
of Philip, 01. cviii. 3=344. having lost his cause in 
the suit de corona against Demosthenes, 01. cxii. 
3=330. retired to Rhodes. Three orations. 

Edd, £d. pr. Aldnm. Venet. 1513. then with DemtMenet. — 
Beiske or. Gr. III. IV . Bekk. or. Att. t. iU. — oratt. sel. ad fid. 
Codd. MSS. recogn. et ill. J. H. Bremius. Turici 1824. 8yo. 
— or. in CtesiphoQtem rec. £. C. F. Wunderlich. Grott. 1810. 
6to. Fad. jB. Gr. t. ii. p. 850. 

{di) Demades, of Athens, an orator, an antagonist 
of Demosthenes, and in the pay of Philip ; put to 
death hy Antipater, whom he had derided, and Cas^ 
Sander, 01. cxv. 2=319. on the pretext of treachery. 
Reiske orat Gr. t. iv. Bekk. or. Att. t. iii. Fab. B. Gr. 
t ii. p. 868. Ruhnk. hist, crit or. p. Ixxi. 

{dk) Speusippus, nephew of Plato, and his successor 
in the Academy, 01. cviiL 1 =348. His posthumous 
works were purchased hy Aristotle for about three tal. 
Fab. B. Gr. t. iii- p. 187. 


§* 17. Every department of litertiture had hem 
now so assiduously cultivated^ as to leave little or no 
encouragement for future adventurers to hope for 
success in attempting to strike out a new path. On 
the other hand, the sciences properly so called were 
for the most part still in their infency; they had 
either as yet heen wholly unattempted^ as Geography 
and Physiology, or they existed only in a mass of 
single, unconnected, and often conflicting acquire^ 
ments, as Philosophy, Mathematics, and Astronomy* 
Then it was that an individual appeared, who, with a 
prodigious extent of knowledge, possessed in the 
highest degree the talent of systematic arrangements— > 
Aristotle (a)« He divided the whole range of Philo- 
sophy into the theoretical and practical, into Logic, 
Physics, (Cosmology, Psychology, Theology, Tr^tim 
^tKttr%^U, which his interpreters called t« ^it^ r« 
^vntU), and Ethics (properly speaking Moral, Poli- 
tical, and Economical science). Each of these parts, 
under the guidance of certain leading principles, he 
arranged in systematic order, but especially Logic, 


Rhetoric^ and Poetry, by accurately observing and 
reducing to rule the method of the earlier Philo- 
sophers, Orators, and Poets, while at the same time 
he exhibited in a connected form the precepts of the 
Rhetoricians ; so that in fact these sciences owe their 
origin to him. Be applied himself likewise with un- 
remitting ardour to the study of Natural History, in 
which he derived powerful support from his pupil Alex- 
ander {Plin. H. N. viii. 16.), the customs and political 
institutions of all the then known nations, and the 
literary history of his country, to which his work 
Tf^i «^<«Tikl», his history of Eloquence and Rhetoric 
{Cic, de inv. 2. 2. oraU 2. 38. Brut 12.), his 
2i^tunui)iU, belonged, and in which he was followed 
by several of his pupils, as Theophrastus and IHae- 
archus. He also exercised his ingenuity and zeal in 
the elucidation of Homer in his ^^«/3Aij^t« 'O^mi^mm. 
Thus the principal aim of his exertions was, to 
observe accurately every thing which presented itself 
to him, to compare and to generalize ; in Philosophy 
also properly so called he had the merit of col- 
lecting and arranging, rather than that of original 

§.18. But there is another respect also, in which 
Aristotle exerted a decided influence upon his own 
as well as on the following age. He was the 
first to establish a library, the same, which, after 
being augmented by that of Theophrastus, was 


conveyed by Sj^ki- to Rome, and gave occasion 
to that which Ptol^ny Lagus, governor, and after- 
wards king of Egypt, himself a man of letters, esta- 
blished in his capital, in that part of the city where 
the royal palace was situated (called Bruchion), and 
which after the additions made to it by his successors 
is said to have contained upwards of 400,000 volumes, 
i. e. distinct works. 

His successor Ptolen^ Fhiladelphus founded a 
second large isibaaf in the Serapeum, which was 
computed st 70,000 volumes *. Ptolemy Lagus also 
founded a museum at Alexandria, i. e. an academy 
ibr distinguished men of science, who might here 
in uninterrupted leisure devote their whole time to 
philosophical research ^. 

§. 19. Eumenes IL of Pergamus 197 — 108. 
founded a library in his capital likewise, and thus vied 
with the kings of Egypt, as did also his son and suc- 
cessor Attalus IL 168 — 138. until Antony made a 
present of the library of Pergamos to Cleopatra. {PIm^ 
tarch. Anton, c, 58 ^) In other states also and in the 
islands a revival of learning took place, in consequence 

> Beck specimen bistoris bibliothecaram Alexandr. lips. 
1810. 4to. G. Dedel hist crit. bibl. Alex. Lugd. 6. 1823. 

*» Gronov. ihes. antiq. Greec. t. viii. 2738, sqq. 

c Manso Uber die Attcder^ annexed to bis Leben. Conskmtins 
d. Gt. 


of many learned men having been obliged by the 
craelties of Ptol. Physcon 145 — 117. to quit Alex- 
andria, and seek a refuge in other places, {Athtn, 
iv. p. 184. c.) These favouring circumstances had 
the effect of directing attention, which had already 
been powerfully awakened, in a still greater measure 
to the master pieces of antiquity, and to scientific 
investigation, and Alexandria became the seat of 
learning. Euclidss (6) founded Mathematics as a 
science, in which also Arisiarchus of Samos {bu), 
Apollanius of Perga {by). Hero, Archimedes, {cc), 
and Hipparchus (ci), distinguished themselves: 
Eratosthenes (6z) founded Geography and Chrono- 
logy. The ambition to excel in every department, 
and to compass the entire field of knowledge, was 
particularly fostered. (Jl^XvUrr^^U. see Luzac, lect 
Att. p. 1^2.) The person most distinguished for the 
extent and variety of his attainments after the example 
of the Aristotelians, ex. gr. Heraclides Pontieus (ag), 
was the same Eratosthenes who for that reason 
acquired the nfidie of Philologus, also that of Beta, 
which was considered a more appropriate designation 
than Alpha, to which he might have been entitled, if 
he had confined himself to one particular subject. 
In general it was the custom of learned men to 
acquire by the study of ancient works such knowledge 
as was necessary for understanding and explaining 
the old authors. Grammar, Mythology, History, 


and especiaUy Archaeology, and to' apply these ac- 
quirements to the elucidation of the old Classics 
in matter and language {Grammarians), Men of 
letters, even Poets, were now, almost without ex- 
ception, Gramhiarians. {Heyne opttsc, 1. p. 98, sq.) 
It was owing to the Grammarians, and particularly to 
the conflux of strangers at Alexandria, the situation 
of which as a mart of commerce was upon the 
confines of the three quarters of the globe, that the 
language was preserved in its origmal purity: the 
emendation of the text of the Homeric poems, in 
which Anstotle (ii 9<«g^«0-i$ i ht fd^hfitcf) and Zen<h 
dotus {ay) had already occupied themselves, became 
an especial object of their attention, though the science 
of criticism made no considerable progress even under 
Aristaphanes {cf) and Aristarchus {ck). The 
Grammarians at Pergamos likewise pursued their 
studies with eminent success, among whom Crates 
of Mallus was particularly distinguished. As a guide 
for students in the great mass of writings which lay 
before them, the Alexandrian grammarians made a 
selection of those which they deemed the best authors, 


{cation) {Ruhnk. hist. criU or. Gr, p. xciv sqq. 
whose opinion is considerably modified in Cr^Ferd. 
Ranke comm. de Aristophanis vita, in the Leipzig 
impression of Rutilius Lup, ed, Ruhnken,), an 
arrangement to which we should probably owe the 
preservation of the most valuable monuments of 



antiquity^ if subsequent events had n&t is some 
degree neutralized this efiect. But tke same zeal 
which' prompted the Egyptian kings to purchase for 
their libraries the books of celebrated authors at a 
high price, had tempted many, even in the time of 
Ptoliemy Philad^, to ascribe to authors of note in- 
ferior productions, or even to compose works them- 
^ves and pass them off under their names- { Beniley 
9pusc^ p. 155, sqq. > lAfs^ Luzac lecL AtU 149» 

§» 20. The study of Grammar determined the 
whole course of Literatuse in Alexandria. By the 
study of the ancient Classics many were incited to 
attempt poetical composition themselves. Seven poets 
were considered worthy of distinction ^Pleias, not to 
be confounded with the Pleias tropica, Groddeck II. 
p. 4.). But, with few exceptions, they were more 
eminent for the great correctness of diction and 
structure which their poems exhibited,, for a skilfiil 
imitation of the language of poetry, and for their 
mjrthological learning, than for genuine poetical 
talent^. ApolUmius Rh, (,cd), and, among those 

d Jam multifl rebus- penitas conversa erat facies Grsecanim 
litteranim, uti ipetammr cvvitatcim. Pro foris, pro pnlpitu et 
8cenis et celehritatibus pnblicis musea et bibliothecie, pro inge- 
nio proprianim opum divite, trepida et mediocribus auaur^^e 
committens imitatio, pro poesis et eloqueDtiie concitatissimo 
spirita sobria et stepe fHgida emditio in omnesque partes doe^ 


of Pergaxnos, Aratu$ (bp), display most taste; Cal" 
limachus {bo), though preferred by the Romans, 
especially by Propertius, to all the other £legiac 
poets except Philetas {aq), abounds indeed in 
eradition and ornament, but is too often injudicious 
in its application ; the same observation may perhaps 
be extended to Etifhtmon (ce), while Li^Bpkrim {bky 
betrays an utter want of taste. Others applied the 
poetic style to subjects which did not at aH admit of 
being so treated, as Nicander, who, without belonging 
to the Alexandrian school, wrote after their model on 
Medicine, Scymnus {ct), and Dirniysius Periegetet 
{df), on Geography. The most , numerous were 
those who di^layed the sportiveness of their wit in 
short epigrammatic compositions,, but they no longer 
celebrated illustrious men and remarkable events with 
the same grace and dignity which characterized the 
ancient poets. One of these would-be wits and 
maudlin poets, Meleayer (cs), collected the ejpigrams 
of ancient and modem writers into a wreath, which 
he arranged according to the initial letters of their 
poems. Exaggerated demands which even in the 
time of Aristotle (see de poet.. Cr 18.) were not un- 

trinanim difiitsa lectio,, pro kiTeiiticaiis BoUertia sedolitas et 
cura et nitor qaidam dispositionis poeticique sennonis, pro ac- 
tium denique omnium magnifico et nativo flore corollse ex undi- 
que decerptis flosculis coUectse conspiciebantur. Wolf, proleg. 
ad Horn. p. clxxxix. 


frequently made upon poets, the effort to outvie 
their predecessors and to acquire distinction by 
novelty, an effect which they could only produce 
by a frequent affectation of wit and conceit, and a 
hankering after the approbation of the great, stifled 
every attempt to follow nature, and literature de- 
clined when kings and princes, not content to pa- 
tronize, began to assume its direction. 

§•21. In those places, on the other hand, where 
book-learning less prevailed, as ex. gr, at Athens, the 
poetic art exhibited its natural complexion. At the 
same period the New Comedy, which numbers sixty- 
four poets, adorned by the names of Philemon (a«), 
Menander {aw), Philippides {ao,) Dipkilus (bg), 
and others of whom we have imitations in Plautus and 
Terence was in full vigour at Athens. It amused, 
improved, and instructed by general portraitures of 
character, and owed its origin to the study of nature 
and mankind, which prevailed in the Peripatetic school. 
One Poet of this period was particularly distinguished 
for his genuine poetic genius and for his unsophisticated 
and vivid representation of nature, Theocritus {hm), 
of Syracuse, who appears, however, to have resided at 
Alexandria, though only for a short time. 

§. 22. The followers of Aristotle continued to 
tread in his steps, particularly Heraclides {ag), Tkeo- 
pkrastus (ak), ArUtoxenus {al), Dic(Barchus {at), 
though without his ability to grasp the whole circle 


of knowledge. But besides the Aristotelioa or Peri" 
patetic schools, there flourished or sprung up other 
sects of Philosophers. While Epicurus {be) carried 
out the S3rstem of Aristippus and set forth a life of 
pleasure, the i2§ni, as that aim of all> even of moral, 
action which nature herself prescribes, and in theo- 
retic philosophy laid down as the basis of his cos- 
mogony the fortuitous operation of mechanical 
causes {the Atomic system), Zeno (66) developed 
in its extreme rigour the moral system of Antisthenes, 
while he taught that virtue, the acting from pure prin- 
ciples of reason, was the only good, and vice the only 
evil ; that all else was indifferent, i. e. had no ground 
either of preference or rejection in itself, but only in 
external circumstances. Almost more eminent than 
the founder of the Stoic school were his successors 
Cleantkes {bs) and Chrysippus {bz), PatuBtius {cm) 
and Posidonius {ex). Among the Epicureans the 
fallowing obtained celebrity, Hermarchus, of Myti- 
lene, {Fabric. J5. Ghr. t. iii. p. 604. Grodd. ii. p. 1 18.) 
Metrodorus {bf), Zeno, whose lectures Cicero 
attended at Athens, and Pkilodemus {cx^). Charmed 
bv the confidence with which the Stoics above all 
others propounded their opinions, the middle academy 
under Arcesilaus {bd) dexterously exhibited the 
arguments for and against every proposition in a 
logical form, hoping thus, by carefully balancing 
bothj to arrive at the truth. The chief ornaments 


of this school were Cameades {co), who was also 
distinguished for hi» eloquence, Crcmtor {he), and 
Clitomachus, The Peripatetics and Academics were 
to a great degree the conservators of sound taste 
{Heyne opusc, t. i. p. 68.), and Athens continued to 
he the principal seat of Philosophy and Taste. At 
Alexandria the Academics, Peripatetics, and Stoics met 
with little encouragement, the Epicureans with rather 
more, while the Cyrenaics as courtiers, and the Cynics 
(as court-jesters P) were in high estimation* Philo- 
sophical investigations were principally pursued hy 
all parties and with no little acrimony, the more so 
as they appeared to offer a solitary compensation for 
the loss of liherty. • 

§. 23. Other kinds of literature, however, were 
not neglected. History, as well as Natural Philo- 
sophy and Geography derived fresh aliment from the 
expeditions of Alexander and his successors, though 
at the same time it encouraged a taste for marvellous 
Stories of foreign lands, and in general for extravagant 
tales, such as Lucian, particularly in his serious his- 
tories, so often ridicules. The Sicilian Tinusus (6t) 
first directed the attention of the Greeks to the 
growing power of the Romans. One historian was 
preeminent, Polybius {ch), who with a harshness 
of language was distinguished ahove his contempo- 
raries by his practical observation, his g^iuine 
liistoric spirit, and his sound critical discernment; 


qualities which he had acquired in the wars axMi 
political negociations of the Achaean league, hy his^ 
intercourse with the greatest generals and statesmen 
of bis time, and by foreign travel. The Samian 
Duris was also held in estimation. But in the last 
times of the Roman Republic and under Augustus 
there appeared Historians, who are entitled to con- 
sideration not so much for their lucid arrangement, 
their practical views, and their vigour of delineation, 
as from the importance of the circumstances which they 
narrate; as Dionysius of Halicar. (dd)^ in whom 
we observe a rhetorical style and a mind hampered 
with the prejudice that every thing Roman was 
derived from Greece, and Diodorus Sic, {de), who 
is too frequently inaccurate and frivolous. Elo- 
quence became mute, as its sphere became more and 
more contracted. At the commencement of this 
period besides Dinar chus {am), Demochoires {am), 
nephew to Demosthenes, was its chief ornament ; he 
wrote likewise, but in a rhetorical style, the history of 
his time. {Corsin, fast AtL IL p. 96. Ruhnk, ad 
Rutil. L. p. 7. Clinton, p^ 379, sq. Meineke qu* 
seen, 3. p. 52.) With so much the greater zeal was the 
study of Rhetoric pursued, particularly by Hegesias, 
{genus Asiaticnm. Cic, arat c. 67. Brut 83. 
Ruhnk, ad Rutil. L. p. 25.) but it was of a character 
which aimed more at figures and tropes, witty anti- 
theses, bombast and false ornament, than aX truth 


and vigour of conception, the nervous style of anti- 
quity having been already reduced by Demetrius of 
Phalerus, to an effeminate and fascinating delicacy. 
{Cic. Brut. 9. §. 37. 38. 25. cf. or. 27. 69. de 
orat. II. 23. 95. QuintiL X. 1, 80. XII. 10, 
16 — 20. Plut. Anton, c. 2.) In Cicero's time the 
brothers Menecles and Hierocles of Alabanda, and 
Apollonius Molo, Cicero's master, were eminent pro- 
ficients in this style. (Cic. in loc. cit.) 

§. 24. Even after Greece had become a Roman 
province, it continued to be the fashion for young 
Romans, who wished to form their minds by the study 
of Philosophy and the Sciences, or even to acquire 
only an exterior polish, to pass some time at Athens. 
At Alexandria the study of Grammar still prevailed, 
but instead of an all-embracing Philology, it became 
more and more confined to investigations upon the 
elements of language and verbal inflexions. The 
master spirits of the age chose Rome for their 
residence, as the historian Dionysius of Halicar- 
nassus, the geographer Strabo, and the philosophers 
Comutus and Musonius ^ 

^ On this period see Heyne de genio stecuU Ptolenutorum 
in his Opmc. aocuk Vol. I, p. 76. VL p. 436. Luzac lecU. AU, 
Lugd, B. 1809. *;;). 133, sqq. Manso verm. Schr. I. p. 321. 
11. p. 323. Beck de philologia smcuU Ptoiem. lAps. 1818. 
4to. Matter eseai kuiorique tur Vecole d' Alexandria Parity 
1820. 2 vols. 8yo. 

ALEXANDER THE GREAT, d3t>-d2«5. 121 

(a) Aristotle, of Stagira in Macedonia, b. 01. 
xcviii. 4. (385), a pupil of Plato from 01. ciii. 2. 
(367), afterwards preceptor of the young Alexander. 
After 01. cxi. 3. (334), he established a school at 
Athens in the Lyceum {^iwar^s. ni^is-tfrnrMMi), d. 
Ol. cxiv, 3. (322) at Chalcis in Euboea, see §.17. 
His writings (esoter. and exoter. ^iebuhr rhein, 
J\fu8,' /. p. 253. Rom. Hut L p. 20.) are : 

1) logiccU: Organon: ntttny^ttu, «*!{) X^fAnnuit &*a>.vTMk 
«-^Vff« 2 B. ftVAA.. vrri^ft 2 B. r»*Mk 8 6. 9*^ ^•^tfrtxmt 
Xxiyx^* 2 B. 2) rhelorical: a. rt;^ni fnr, 3 B. ex rec. et cum 
coimn. P. Yictorii. Yenet. 1548. Basil. 1549. Flor. 1679. 
fol. — cum comm. M. A. Majoragii. Yenet. 1572. 1591. fol.*- 
<>d. Chrph. Schrader. Helmst. 1648. 1661. 4to.— cur. Garve 
et Beiz. Lips. 1772. 8yo. J. Sev. Yater anim. et lectt ad 
Arist. 1. III. rhet. c. auctar. F. A. Wolfii Lips. 1794. 8vo.— 
ad fid. MSS. reeogniti c. vers. Lat. Ace. animady. varior. Oxo- 
nii. 2 Tols. 1820. Gr. 8yo. Die r. fur. *^it 'AXi^. is spurious, b. 
irf^i ^MnrMtift fragment of a larger toork, com comm. P. Yic- 
torii. Flor. 1560. fol. — e rec. Dan. Heinsii Lugd. B. 1611. 
8vo. 1643. 12mo. — ex rec. et cum animadverss. Thph. Chrph. 
Harles. Lips. 1780. 8vo.— e rec. Thom. Tyrwhitt. Oxon. 1794. 
4to. and 8yo.~ cum comm. Godofr. Hermann!. Lips. 1802. 8yo. 
c. comm. Yal. Herm. etc. ed. £. A. Guil. Graefenham. Lips. 
1822. 3) physical: physics auscidtat. libr. 8. de coelo lY. de 
generatione et corruptione II. Meteorologica lY. de anima. 
III. parva naturalia XI. The work de mundo (c. J. Ch. Kap- 
pii. Altenb. 1792. 8vo.) is fwi genuine. 4) on natural hisUnryi 
Historie animalium 1. X. (textum rec. J. C. Scaligeri vers, 
dilig. recogn. comm. et indd. adj. Jo. Gottl. Schneider. Lips. 
1815. 4 vols. 8vo.).— de partibus animalium lY. de generat. ani* 
malt Y. de plantis II. (de mirabilibus auscultationn. spurious 

122 ALEXANDER THE GREAT^ 336-323. 

ed. J. Beckmann. Gott. 1786. 4to.) etc. 6) metaphysUxU : 
fi%rk rk ^u0t»k 14 B. of wHch^ ftowever^ several are spurimu, or 
relate to a different subject, Aristot. et Theophrasti Metaphjs. 
ad fid. vett. Codd. MSS. rec. C. A. Brandis. Berol. t. i. 1823. 
6) ethicO'polUical: 'Hfitnmf HtKo/iax*'^* ^* c* comm. P. Yictorii. 
Flor. 1684. — ad codd. et edd. vett. fidem recogn. ill. Lat. Lamb, 
interpret, castig. adj. Car. Zell. Heidelb. 1820. 2 voIr. 8yo — 
recogn. var. lect. adj. ill. ind. orn. Edw. Card well. Oxonii 1828 
— 1831. 2 vols. 8vo. — translated and explained by Chr, Garoe. 
Breslau 1798 — 1806. 2 vols. 8vo.— de republica V'lll. cum 
comm. P. YictoriL Flor. 1676. — cum paraphrasi Dan. Heinsii. 
Lngd. 6. 1621. 8vo. — cnra Herm. Conringii. Helmst. 1666. 
4to. — rec. emend, illustr. J. Glo. Schneider. Francof. ad V. 
1809. 2 vols. 8vo. — ad Codd. fid. ed. et adnot. adj. Car. Got- 
tling. Jense 1824. 8vo. Cf. Gnst. Pinzger de iis, qas Aristot. 
in Plat. Politia reprebendit. Lips. 1822. — OltuwfuMis. *A«w- 

ed. et adnot. adj. Cor. Gdttlingius. Jense 1830. 8vo. — iraXtrtu/t 
va vmt^ifAiifct coll. ill. proleg. adj. C. Fr. Neumann. Heidelb. 
1827. 7) ^v^uywfuzh, Scriptores pbysiognomici veteres; 
rec. J. G. Fr. Franzius. Altenb. 1780. 8vo. 8) miscellaneous 
writings : Problemata. Anonymi CEconomica, que vulgo Arist. 
falso ferebantur. e 11. scr. et vers. ant. em. et enarr. J. Glo. 
Schneider. Lips. 1816. 8vo. His 'T/iwt tig Ji^rkv has been 
published separately by C, A, G. Gr&fenham* Muhlhus. 1831. 
4to. Progr. 

Complete Editions of his Works : Ed. pr. ap. Aid. V enet. 
1496, sqq. 6 vols. fol. — Basil. 1660. fol. — cur. Jo. Bapt. Ca- 
motio. Ven. ap. Aid. 1662. 6 vols. 8vo. — op. et stud. Fr. 
Sylburgii. Francof. 1687* 11 vols. 4to.— ex bibl. Is. Casauboni. 
Lugd. 1690. fol.— ed. Guil. du Vallius. Paris. 1619. 1629. 
1639. 4 vols. fol. — ad optim. exemplarinm fidem rec. annot. 
crit. librr. argum. et nov. vers. Lat. adj. Jo. Thph. Buhle. 
Biponti 1791 — sqq. as yet 6 vols. 8vo.— ex rec. Imm. Bekkeri. 
Berol. 1831. 2 vols. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 196. Ch. A, 
Brandts fiber die Schicksale d, Bristol, BUcher «. einige Kri" 

JllEXANDBR THE GREAT, 336-^23. 123 

^erien ikrer Aechiheii in the Bhein Mw. I. p. 236. Greek ex- 
fionion ef Ariet. wkote commentaries are HiU exkaU are 
Aleaander of AphrodU, Ammoniusy Eudratiut, and others^ See 
Bm/Ue Arittat, t. i. p. 286, sqq. 

{ali) Xenocrates, of CbsJcedon, a pupU of Plato 
and successor of Speusippus in the Academy, 01. 
ex. 2. (339). Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 191. 

{ac) Alexis, of Thurii, about 01. cxi. B. C. 334, 
a poet of the middle Comedy, is said to have written 
about 245 pieces. Fabric. JB. Ghr, t. ii. p. 406. 
Meineke qu. seen. 3. p. 27, sqq. 

(ad) Anaximenes, of Lampsacus, a disciple of 
Diogenes Cyn. a companion of Alexander, a rke- 
forician and historian (in the Alex, canon,) 1. s-^m- 
rtu trf^Ut, A history of the Greeks from the earliest 
times to the battle of Mantinea. 2. A history of 
Philip. 3. A history of Alexander. Vossius de 
hisior, Gr. I. 10. p. 45. Rtihnk, hist crit, oraU Gr. 
p. Ixxxvi. in ed. Rut L, Clinton, p. 376. 

(ae) Hecatjsus, of Abdera, a companion of Alex- 
ander the Great, an historian who is said to have 
written upon the history and religious antiquities 
of the Jews* Hecat, Abd» ecloga c, n. Jos. Scaligeri 
stioqtie comm. perpetuo ed, P. Zomius, Mtona 
1730. 8vo. 

124 ALEXANDER THE GREAT, 336-^23. 

(af) Callisthenes, a companion of Alexander, 
put to death by his order B.C. 325. He described 
the expedition of Alexander, and also 'EXkufuU from 
the peace of Antalcidas 01. xcviii. 2=387, to the 
capture of the Delphic temple by the Phocians in ten 
books. See Vossius de histor, Gr. p. 35. Fabric, 
B, Gr, t. iii. p. 36. Clinton^ p. 376. not. k. His 
veracity was as little approved as his style. 

Among the most eminent of Alexander's historians 
at this period may be reckoned also Aristobulus, of 
Cassandrea {Fabric. B. Gr, t. iii. p. 35.), and the 
king of Egypt, Ptolemjeus Lagi, f 284. {Fabric, 
ib, p. 50.) both of whom Arrian principally followed 
as most worthy of credit, and Clitarchus, who 
was esteemed for his talents at least if not for his 
fideHty. {Fabr, ib. p. 38. Sainte-Croix examen 
crit des anc. histories (TAlexandre le Grand- 
Paris. 1804. 8vo. Conr. Mannerts Gesck, der 
unnu Kackfolger Alex. Leipz. 1787. 8vo. p. 

(ay) Heraglides Ponticus, of Heraclea, a pupil 
of Plato, Speusippus, and Aristotle. Of his numerous 
philosophical, historical, grammatical, and political 
writings there is extant only a fragment, ^t^i wXtruSf. 
Gr. ei Lat. ed. Nic. Cragius. Lagd. B» 1670. 8vo.-^ 
ed. e Codd, em. et illust. Gi D. KQler. Hales 

ALEXANDER THE OREAT^ 336-^23. 125 

1804. 8vo. — also in the ^lian of Coray. Fabric. B. 
Or, t. iii. p. 495. 

(ah) Crates^ of Thebes, a pupil of Diogenes and 
a Cynic, about 01. cxiii. B.C. 328. His wife Hip- 
parchia was of the same sect. Fabric. B. Gr, 
t. iii. p. 514. Clinton, p. 179. 

(at) Chameleon, of Heraclea on the Pontus, a 
Peripatetic, wrote upon several ancient poets, the 
Iliad, the lyric poets, the old comedy, hence a literator. 
Boeckh, Pr<Bf, Pind, schoL p. ix. 

{aJc) Theophrastus (formeriy Tyrt&mus), of 
Eresus in Lesbos, a pupil and successor of Aristotle, 
Ol. cxiv. 2. (321). Of his numerous philosophical, 
especially moral, physical, physiological, and political 
productions there have been preserved only historim 
plantarum X. besides de cattsis planiarum VIIL 
etc. and 31 ti$ut»} %Kt^et%tn^%i, which, however, have 
more the appearance of being extracts of a later date 
from the moral writings of Th. Fabric. B, Gr, t. iii, 
p. 408. Clinton, p. 366, not. g. 

EditU \) of kU enHre works : ed. pr. ap. Aid. 1497. fol. 

1552. 8vo. with Aristot ^rec. Dan. Heinsius. Lagd. B. 1613. 

fol. — rec. J. G. Schneider. Lips. 1818, sqq. 6 vols. SVo. 2) 
a. Hist, plant, cum notis Jul. Cses. Scaligeri et Bob. Stephani 
«d. Jo. Bodaens a Stapel. Amstel. 1644. fol — ed. Job. Stackr 

126 ALEXANBBR THE OREAT^ 336-323. 

hoase. Cantabr. 1814. 2 vols. 8yo. b. Cbaract Nttmberg ki 
Bilib. Pirkheymer 1527. {onhf 16.) In tbe Arist. of Camotius widi 
8 new. — rec. et comment, instrnzit Is. Casaabonns. Lagd« 1592. 
8yo. and with 5 new, Cb. 1598. 8yo. and often. — rec. Tb. 
Gale in Opnsc. mytb. etc. Cantabr. 1671. 8to. — rec. P. Need- 
ham* Cantabr. 1712. 8vo. — c. ined. Aug. Buccberl notis, yarrr 
lectt. MSS. et commentatt ed. Jo. Conr. Scbwarz. Cob. 1739. 
4to. — rec. et ill. add. comm. Is. Casanb. J. Fr. Fischer. Cob. 
1763. 8vo. — Char. etb. Theopb. capita II. bactenns anecdota e 
Cod. MS. Vaticano ed. Jo. Chpb. Amadutins. Parm. l7S6. 
4to. — The Characters of Theoph,fw upper tchooU, a new EdU. 
by Jae, H. Nasi, SluUg, 1791. 8yo. — ^rec. Jo. Grotd. Schneider. 
Jense 1799. 8yo. — ad optt libr. fid. rec. — ^Fr. Astios. Lips. 1818v 
Svo. On the Mumeh Cod, see Acta Monac. t. iii. p. 365. 

(a/) Aristoxenus^ of Tarentum, a pupil of 
totle ; lives of philosophers ; a collectien of Pytha- 
gorean maxims; on the tragic poets; mathematical 
works^ of which one upon music, ^^•nxSf mtx%Un 
3 B. is still extant See AntiqutB musica atic tores 
VII, ed, M, Meibomius, Amst 1652. 4to. — Aristoxr 
rhythmic, elem, fragm, e hibl, Veneta D* Marci nunc 
primum ed, Jac, Morellius, Venet, 1785. 8vo- — 
(jhdl, Leon, Mahne diatribe de Aristoxeno, AmsteL 
1793. Svo.^Fabric. B. Gr, t. iii. p. 632. 

{am) DiNAROHUs, of Corinth, a pupil of Theo- 
phrastus, h, 01. civ. 4. (360), d. 01. cxv. 2. (319),.an 
orator. His three orations, see Reiske or, Gr, IV, 
Bekh, U iii. Ruhnk, ad Rutil, L, 11. 5. p. 88. 126. 
Chr, Wurm comm* in Din, orat* 3. Norimb,r 8vo« 

ALEXANDER THB OBBAT, 336-323. 127 

— IHn. arr, 3 ed, C, Em, Aug. Schmidt Lips. 
1826. 8?o. 

(an) Demetrius Phalereus (^rnXn^vf), a pupil 
of Theophrastus^ esteemed for his eloquence, ( §. 23.) 
from 01. cxv. 3. (318), governor of Athens under 
Cassander, but banished by Antigonus and Demetrius 
Poliorc. 01. cxxi. 1=296. d. at Alexandria 01. cxxiv» 
1. (284). A rhetorical work vi^i i^nnimf, is impro- 
perly ascribed to him. (Probably by Demetrius of 
Alexandria. Fabric, B. Gr, t. vi. p. 63.) See in 
the Collectt. no. 39. 40. — cum cotnm, ed, P. Victorius\. 
Flor. 1562, fol. 1594. /o/. Dem. de elocutione libr, 
cur. Jo. Glob. Schneider. Altenb. 1779. Svo. Fahr. 
B. Gr. t. vi. p« 63. Ruhnk. hist. cr. or. Gr^ p. 

{ao) Philippides, of Athens, an eminent poet of 
the new comedy (in the Alex, canon). Fabric. B, 
Gr» t. ii. p. 479. Clinton, p. 177. 

{ap) To this period probably belongs also, if we 
may judge from the notice of him by Stratokles in 
the fragm. in Atken* IV, p. 137. C. (see Ruhnk. 
ad Rutil. L. p. 32.) Matron, a celebrated parodist. 
See Studien IV. p. 293, sqq Osann. anaL crii. 
p. 73, Fab. B. Gr. t. i. p. 550. His fragments pre- 
served in Athenseus are no.. 7. of the Collectt. 

128 REIGM OF DEM. POL. PTOL. LA6I> 323-284. 

(aq) Philetas (<P<a«t£$)^ of Cos^ a distmguished 
elegiac poet, and as such a model of Propertius ; also 
a grammarian, preceptor to Ptolemy II. Phil. Cot 
fragm, qutt reperit$ntur, coll. et not, ill. K. Ph. 
Kayser. Gotting, 1793. 8vo. PhiL Hermesian. ei 
Phanoclis reliquia* Dispos. em. ill. JV*. Bachius. 
Hal(B 1829. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 618. ii. 
p. 874. iv. p. 490. vi. p. 37 J. 

(ar) Hermesianax, of Colophon, an elegiac 
poet, wrote three books of elegies under the title, 
Af«»ri»v. One fragment preserved by Athenseus vid. 
in Rvhnken. Ep. criL App. and in Ilgenii optuc. 
and in PhiL of Bach. Cf. Hermann, opusc. t. iv. 
p. 239. Fabric. B. Or. t. ii. p. 873. . 

(as) Phanocles, also an elegiac poet, whose poems 
bore the title, "Events § je«X«/. A very beautiful 
fragment has been preserved by Stobasus, tit. 62. See 
Ruhnken. ibid. See Philetas. 

{at) DicJEARCHUS, of Messana in Sicily, a pupil 
of Aristotle, who chiefly occupied himself in historical 
researches. Of his numerous writings there are still 
extant fragments of a geographical poem in Iambics, 
«y«y(»«^)f th; '£AA«^«$, and of a treatise in prose, fiUf 
*EXX. a description of their systems of goyemment, 
manners, and customs, in three books. Die* Geo- 

RTOLEMY LAGI IN EGYPT, 323-284. 129 

^raphica quwdam, see de vita Gr. Ei. descriptio Gr, 
Exc, H, Stepkanus. Paris, 1589. 8vo. — cum L. 
Hohtenii lucuhraU ed, GuL Manzu Roma 1819. 
4io. — Btu *EAA. aliaque fr, geogr, emend, atque 
illustr, a M, Marx in Creuzeri meleL iii. p. 171, 
sqq. Collect t no. 22. in the 2d vol. Fabric, B. 
Or. t. iii. p. 486. 

{au) Philemon (^ixifun), of Soli in Cilicia, 
a celebrated poet of the new comedy, d. 01. cxxix. 3. 
<262) aet 90. 97 Comedies. Fabric, B. Gr. t. ii. 
p. 476. 

(aw) Menandek, of Athens, son of the Athenian 
commander Diopithes, the most distinguished poet of 
the new comedy, a pupil of Theophrastus, b. 01. cix. 
3. (342), d. 01. cxxii. 2. (291). 

Men. et Phil, retiquise, qaotquot reperiri potuerunt 6r. et c. not. Hug. Grotii et Joh. Clerici. Amstel. 1709. 8to. 
On the other side Phileleutheri Lips. (Bentley) emendationes in Phil.reliqu. Traj. ad Rh. 1710. 8vo. Cantabr. 1714. 8vo. 
Cf, Infamia emend, in Men. rell. (by J<zc, Gronov.) Lugd. B. 
1710. 12mo. — Philargyrii Cantabr. (Jo. Corn, de Pauw) emen- 
datt. in Men. et Phil, reliqu. Amstel. 1711. 8vo. Men. et Phil, 
reliqu. £d. Aug. Meineke. Berol. 1823. 8vo. Fabric. Bibl. 
Gr. t. ii. p. 454. 

(az) Apollodorus. There were three, come- 
dians of this name,* of whom one was of Gela in 


130 PTOLEMT LA6I IN EGYPT, 323-284. 

Sicily, a contemporary of Menander, another of 
Carystus in Eubcea, the third of Athens. Terence 
was indebted to one of these for his Hecyra and 
Phonuip. He was also in the Alexand. canon. 
Fabric. B, Gr, t. ii. p. 419, sqq. 

(ay) Zenodotus, of Ephesus, a pupil of Philetas, 
and director of the Alexandrian library under Ptolemy 
PhOad., one of the most celebrated grammaiians who 
attempted to amend the text of the Homeric poems. 
(>«{^i»Tisf, Jifl'^tfi^a-if.) Fabric, B, Gr, t. i. p. 362. 

{az) EuHEMERUS {Evifti^df), of Mcssaua, a 
favourite of Cassander, wrote a history of tlie Gods, 
in which he endeavoured to prove from inscriptions 
on monuments in temples, especially in the fabulous 
Panchaia in India, that all the gods of the Greeks were 
formerly kings and generals; thence «tffo(. This 
probably poetic work was translated by Ennius. 
Fabric, B, Gr. t. iik p. 616. 

(6) .EucLiDES (EwcXuhi), about 01. 118. B.C. 
308, the creator of Mathematics as a science. His 
principal work is ar^xjutt ftahft, 15 bks. (of which 14, 
15, are by Hypsicles of Alexandria). 

Ed. pr. Bud. op. Gr. c. Theonis expositione cura Sim. Grj^ 
nei. Basil 1530. fol.— Gr. Lat. ex rec. Dav. Gregorii. Oxoor 

PTOIEMT LAGI IK B6TPT, 323-284. 131 

1703. foL— Elements rec. et ad umim tinm. aecomm. (G. F, 
Barmann.) Lips. 1769. 8yo,— ^Gr. et Lat. Comm. instr. edid. J. 
W. Camerer et C. Fr. Hauber. Berol. t. ii. 1824. 26.— sex 
W, prior, c. XI. XII. rec. glossarioque instr. J. G. C. Neide. 
Halse l%25t. — ex opt II. in asum tiron. Gr. ed. £. Fi August. 
Berol. 1826^-29. 2 vols. 8to« trarulaied by J, F, Lorenz, Halle 
1809. 8vo — trad, par F. Feyrard, Faris. 1804. Fabric. B. (Jr. 
t. iv. p. 44. 

(6a) SiMMiAS^ of Rhodus, a Grammariair, a writer 
of Epigrams^ and of some poems constructed in. the 
form of an egg^ a hatchet, and a wing. See Brunck, 
AnaL t. i. p. 204. ii. p. 525. Jacobs, ir p. 139, sqq. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 808. A similar curiosity of 
art was constructed hy Dosiada» in his IRmficg, 
Brunck, t. i. p. 412. Jacobs, i. p. 202. Fabr. ib. 
p. 810. 

(bb) Zeno, of Citium in Cyprus, b. 01. civ, 3. 
(361.), d. 01. cxxix, 1. (264.), a pupil of Crates, 
Polemo, and other phil., founded a new School at 
Athens, which from the o^m 9-»m/xii, where he taught, 
was called the Stoic (Staiixm), and embraced all parts 
of Philosophy, particularly the Moral (§. 22.) and 
Dialectic. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 679, sqq. Clinton, 
p. 368. not. i. 

{be) Epicurus, of Gargettus in Attica, brought 
up at Samos, where his father Neokles had landed 


possessions, (*Au{«i/;i»5), from his 18th year 01. cxiv. 2. 
=323. at Athens. From 01. cxviii, 3. (307.) he 
taught in a garden at Athens, §. 22. He died 01. 
cxxvii. 2. As an author he had little merit. Epic. 
Physica et ineteorolog. duab, epist, ejusd. compre- 
hensa, Gr. ad Jidem lihr, scr, et edd. em. atque in- 
terpr. est J, Glo. Schneider. Lips. 1813, 8vo. Ep. 
fragni, lib. II. et XI. de natura — ill. a Car, Rossinio 
( Voll. Herculan. t. ii. Neap. 1809. fol.) — em. ed. 
J. C. Orellius. Lips. 1818, 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. 
p. 582. hy Knehel, prefixed to his Transl. of Lucretius. 

[bd) Arcesilaus, of Pitana in ^olis, ahout 01. 
cxx. (300), a pupil of Theophi-ast and Polemo, and 
school-fellow of Zeno, founder of the new Academy. 
§. 22. Fabric, B. Gr, t. iii. p. 162. Clinton, p. 367. 
not. h. 

(be) Grantor, of Soli, one of the most celehrated 
Academic Philosophers. Among his numerous 
writings that xi^i Trv^ovg was particularly esteemed 
which supplied materials to Cicero in his Consolatio. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 169. 

{bf) Metrodorus, of Athens or Lampsacus, the 
most celehrated pupil of Epicunis. Fabric. B, Gr, 
t. iii. p. 606. 

PTOL. II. PHIL. 284-246. ANTiocHus, 281-262. 133 

{bff) DiPHiLUS, of Sinope, a poet of the new 
Comedy, about 01. cxv.=320. See Terent. Adelphi 
Prol. Fabric. BibL Gr, U ii. p. 438. 

ibh) Rhinthon, of Tarentum, parodied the 
Tragedies with much wit. (iA«{«T{«yy^/«, ^Aw»{, ^Xvu- 
jc6y^u(p6(). Fabric. B. Gr. t. ii. p. 320. Osann. anal, 
crit p. 70. Mnller Bar. ii. p. 375. 

(bi) TiM^us, of Tauromenium in Sicily, in the reign 
of the tyrant Agathocles of Syracuse (317 — 285), by 
whom he was banished, a celebrated, but a rhetorical 
and censorious Historian. (Polyb. t. iii. p. 398, sqq. 
Schweigh. Diod, Sic. xiii. p. 211. Cic. de or. ii. 
14. Brut. 95.), wrote 'Utthucu, ku} XutOuiU 8. B. 
*E?iP<nuiui xctt Si«iA^*« (of both 28 bks. in Aihen.), 
also the war of the Romans with Pyrrhus 280 — 275. 
Cic. ad Famil. v, 12. Vossius de histor. Gr. i. c. 12. 
p. 67. His fragments, see in F. Goeller de sitiv et 
orig. Syracus. Lips. 1818, 8vo. 

(bk) Ltcophron, of Chalcis in Euboea, in the 
reign of Ptol. Philad., (see however Niebuhr Rhein^ 
Mus. i. 108.) a Grammarian, author of a learned poem, 
a Monologue, Alexandra or Cassandra, on which Is. 
or Joh. Tzetzes has written a learned Commentary. 

Ed. pr. Venet. ap. Aid. 1613. 8vo. — cum Tzetzis comm. 
(et not. GuiU Canteri, Meursii et edit.) ed. Joh. Potter. Oxoh. 


1697* 1702. fol. — cum vers, et comm. G. Canteri, paraphra* 
sin, notas et iad. Gr. adj. H. God. Beichardt Lips. 1788. 
Sto. cmd cu a help 'IrMi». »«} *lm. tm T{[lr{«ir ^x*^^^*^ *'^ Amm^^. 
ed. Chr. God. MUUer. Lips. 1811. 3 vols. 8vo. — ed. Leop. Se- 
basdani. Bom. 1803. 4to. ed. Bachmann. vol. 1. Lips. 1830. 
8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 750, sqq. 

{bl) HiERONTMUS^ of Caidla in Cherson. Thrac. 
a favourite of Antigonus and Demetrius, related the 
exploits of Alexander and his successors. Fabric. B, 
Gr, t. iv. p. 43. Mannert Gesch, d. untniti. JSTachf. 
Alex. p. 352, sqq. Clinton, p. 177. 

{bm) Theocritus, of Syracuse, under King 
Hiero, 269—214, in the time of Ptolem. Philad., the 
most eminent hucolic poet: 30 Idylls. Nachtr. zu 
Sulzer 1st B. p. 89. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 764. 
G. F. Naeke de Theocr. Bonn. 1828. 4to. 

£d. pr. Mediol. 1493. fol. {with Jtocr.) — ap. Aid. Manut 
Venet 1495. fol. — op. Musuri. Flor. ap. Juntam. 1515. 8vo. — 
op. Zach. Calliergi. Bomce 1516. 8vo. at first with the Scholia — 
ed. H. Stephanas in Princ. poet. Gr. her. carm. Latet. }566. 
fol. and separate 1579. 12. — cum em. J. Scaligeri et Is. Casau- 
boni lectt. Heidelb. ap. Commel. 1596. 8vo. — ^cum not Pan. 
Heinsii. Heidelb. ap. Comm. 1604. 4to — cum schol. Gr. 
comm. Hent. Steph. J. Scaligeri et Is. Casaub. cur. et emend. 
J. J. Beiske. Yienn. et Lips. 1765, sq. 2 vols. 4to. — ed. Thorn. 
Warton. Oxon. 1770. 2 vols. 4to.— Th. X. Eidyll. cum notis 
ed. ejusd. Adoniazusas uberioribus adnot. instrnzit L. C. 
Valckenaer, Lugd. B. 1773. 8vo.— Th., Bionis et Moschi 
carm. hue. Gr. et Lat. emend, var. lectt. instrnzit L. C. 


Valckenaer. Lagd. B. 1779. 8vo. — e rec. Valcken. ed. Fr. 
Jacobs. Groths 1808. 1821. 8yo. — Th., Bion et Hosohus ad 
.opt libr. fidem em. cnr. God. Henr. Schaefer. Lips. 1809.— 
Th., B. et M. carm. Gr. cam comm. int. Valcken., Bnmelui, 

Toupii (ed. Heindorf.) Berol. 1810. 2 vols. 8yo Theocr. B. et 

M. in Poet. Gr. min. ed. Gttisf. t. ii. Oxon. 1814. — and t. iv. 
1820. Scholia in Theocr. e Codd. MSS. em. et suppl. Th. 
Gaisf. — Th. rel. Gr. et Lat. Textum recogn. et c. anim. Har- 
lesii) Schreheri al. excerptis suisque ed. T. Kiensling. Lips. 
1819. 8to. — c. Tctt. schol. ad fid. opt. edd. rec. annot. crit. in 
schol. adj. J.Geel. Amstelod. 1820. 8vo. — Th. Bion. et Mosch. 
qnae supen. c. schol. Gr. ad fidem optt. edd. et Codd. MSS. 
cur. etc. J. A. Jacobs. HaL 1825.— recogn. et ill. £m. Frid. 
Wiistemann. Goth, et Erford. 1830. Svo^—Theocrii. Bion 
and Moschtta by J. H. Vom, Tub. 1808. 8vo. Fr. A. W. 
Spohn led. Theocrit. Ups. 1823. 4to. 

{bn) MosRO or Myro, of B^^zantium, a poetess, 
mother of the younger Homer, a tragic poet. See 
Fabric. B. Gr, t. ii. p. 131. Jacobs animadv, ad 
anthol. t. xiii. p. 920. Her fragments are No. 5. of 
Collectt. and in Schneider*s Movraly jyln. Giess, 1802. 
8vo. p. 207. 

(6o) CALLiMACdus, of Cyronc, about 01. cxxv. 
(280), a Grammarian, member of the Museum, in 
high estimation with the Romans as an elegiac poet. 
{Propert. iii. 1.) Of his numerous works there remain 
only 6 Epic Hymns and Epigrams. Nachtr* zu Sulz. 
ii. p. 86. Fabric. B. Gr. X. iii. p. 814, sqq. 

£d. pr. Flor. per. Lascarim. 4to. — H}nnni) epigr. et fragm. 
cum not. int. H. Steph. Bon. Vnlcanii, Anne Fahri, Th. Grte- 


Tii. R. Bentleii : quibas ace. £z. Spanhemil comm. et note 
nunc primum editse Tib. Hemsterhusii et Dav. Rohnkenii: 
rec. Lat. vert, et notas anas adj. Jo. Aug. Emesti. Lugd. B. 
1761. 2 Yols. 8vo. — Call, quse supersunt. rec. et c. not. delecta 
ed. Car. Jac. Blomfield. Lond. 1815. Svo. — Call, elegiaruin 
fragm. cum elegia Catulli Callim. coll. atque illustr. a L. C. 
Yalckenaer. ed. Jo. Luzac. Lugd. B. 1799. 8yo. A. F. Naeke 
de Callim, Hecale. Banna 1829. 4to. 

{hp) Aratus^ of Soli in Cilicia^ lived with King 
Antigonus, and by his order versified with ahility the 
^Mffitfci of Eudoxus. {Cicde oraU \, 16.) ^tctvifiifet 
x»i AioTnfiuec, translated hy Cicero, Caesar German., 
Avienus. Kachtr, zu Sulz, VI. p» 359. Grauett im 
rhein. Mus. I. p. 336. 

Ed. pr. ap. Aid. 1499. fol. — Syntagma Arateorum c. Hog. 
Grotii. Lugd. B. 1600. 4to.— Gr. et Lat. ad Codd MSS. et opt 
edd. fidem rec. cum Theonis scbolii» et version. Cic. Css. G. et 
Av. cur. Jo. Theopb. Buble. Lips. 1793. 1801. 2 vols. 8to.— 
Ar. Phsen. et Diosem. Eratostii. Catast. Dionysii orb. terr. 
descr. — —cur. notasque adj. F. C. Mattbise. Francof. 1817. 
Svo. — c. annot. crit. ed. Ph. Buttmann. Berol. 1826. 8vo. — e. 
achol. recogn. Imm. Bekkerus. Berol. 1828. 8vo. Translated 
and explained by J. H. Voss, Heidelb, 1824. Svo. Fabric. B. 
Gr. t. iv. p. 87. 

(bq) TiMON, of Phlius, about 01. cxxvii. (272), a 
pupil of Pyrrho, wrote among others satirical poems 
upon the Dogmatic Philosophers («XAd/), in which he 
usually parodied the Homeric style of verse. In 

ANTIGONUS 278-243. PTOL. EVERGET. 246-222. 137 

Brunck*s Anal, II. p. 67. are 39 Fragm. Fabric, B. 
Gr. t. iii. p. 623. 

ijyr) Antigonus, of Car)^stus, author of a com- 
pilation of Natural History, wfotymyli itrf^iSf 9r«^«- 

cum ann. G. Xylandri, J. Meursiiy R. Bentleii, J. G. 
Schneideri, J. N. Niclas saisque ed. Jo. Beckmann. Lips. 
1791. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 303. 

{bs) Cleanthes, of Assus in Troas, a pupil and 
successor of Zeno at Athens from 01. cxxix. (264). 
A sublime philosophical Hymn on Jupiter, the pro- 
duction of his genius, is still extant. See Brunck, 
poet, gnom, gT„ p. 141, — KAMytf«t;$ v^tv*; i<$ A/«, gr, 
and German by Herm. Heinr. Cludius, GOtt, 1786. 
8vo» Fabric, B, Gr, t. iii. p. 550. 

(60 BiON, native of a Greek colony on the 
Borysthenes {Dnieper), thence Borysthenita, a pupil 
of Theophrastus, about 280 B.. C. Author of satyric 
Dialogues, whose pungency is noticed Hor, Epp, II. 
2, 60. and as such the prototype of Lucian. Fabric, 
B, Gr, t. iii. p. 165. Welcker prasf, Theogn, p. Ixxxv, 

{bu) Aristarchus, of Samos, inventor of the 

138 AKTiGONUS 278-243. ptol. eyerget. 246^-222. 

Sun-dial^ and of the theory that the earth revolves round 
its own axis and round the sun, on which account he 
was arraigned by Cleanthes of impiety. One of his 
productions, on the magnitude and distance of the sun 
and the moon, is still extant. Gr. cum F, Comtnandini 
versione LaU notisque suis atque Comm. ed, Jok. 
Wallis, Oxon, 1688, 8vo. Fabric. B, Gr. t. iv. p. 18. 

{bw) Mavethos or-oN, of Sehennytus or Helio- 
polis in Lower Egypt, about 01. cxxix. High Priest at 
Mendes or Heliopolis, author of an £g3rptian history, 
Aiyv^rimxti in 3 books, from the earliest times to the 
reign of the last Persian King Darius Codomannus, 
Fragments of whose works are collected in the 
Eusebius of Scaliger, and in Scaliger de emend, tem- 
porum. Another Latin work under his name de 
regibus JEgyptiorum is by Annius of Viterbo. An 
extant poem under his name on the influence of the 
stars, 'A9r«TfAMy(«T<iu» in 6 books first appeared, it is 
probable, in the last period of the Roman empire. — 
e cod. Mediceo primzts ed. Jac. Gronovius. hugd. B. 
1698. 8vo. recogn. comm. de Maneth. ejusque carm. 
brevesque annot. crit. adj. C. A. Maur. AxHiu ei 
Fr. Ant. FUgler. Colon, ad Rh. 1828, 1832, 8vo. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p- 128. 

(bx) Berosus, a contemporary of Manetho, Priest 
of the temple of Baal at Babylon, about 260, wrote 


3 books, de antiquitaiibiu Chaldaieis et Babyloniis, 
fragments of which have been preserved by Josephus 
and Eusebius, collected by Scaliger for his Euseb. de 
emendai, temporum and in Fabric, B, Gr, t. xiv. 
p. 175. of the old edit. Ber. Chaldcearum hist, qua 
supersunt cum comm, de Ber. vita et librorum ejus 
indole auct. Jo. Dan. GuiL Richter, Lips, 1825, 8vo. 
To him also were falsely ascribed by Annius of Viterbo 
antiquitatum IL V, 

{by) Apollonius, of Perga in Pamphylia, a Mathe- 
matician : 8 books, Conicorum, of conic sections, of 
which only the first 4 are extant, but the 5th, 6th, and 
7th, are known from the Arabic translation. — ed, Edm. 
Halley, Oxon. 1710. folJ Apoll, P. locorum plarw- 
rum lib, II, ed, Rob, Simson, Glasgow, 1749. 4to. by 
Joh, W, Camerer, Leipz, 1796.— c/« sectione determi- 
nata, restored, by R, Simson, — freely ed. by W, A, 
Diesterwey, Mainz 1822. 8vo. — <ie inclinationibus, 
i-estored by S. Horsley, ed. by W, A, Diesterwey, 
Berlin, 1823. 8vo. — de sectione rationis, according to 
Edm, Halley, freely ed. Berlin 1824. 8vo. — de sect, 
spatii, restored by the same, Elberf. 1827, 8vo. Ap. 
de tactionibus, qua supersunt, nunc primum edita e 
Codd, MSS, a Jo, Guil, Camerer, Goth, et Amst. 
1795. 8?o. Fabric, B, Gr, t, iv. p. 192. 

{bz) Chrysippus, of Soli, b. 01. cxxv. 1. (280.) 

140 PTOL. IV. PHILOPATOR 221-204. 

d. 01. cxliii. 2. (206. ) A pupil and successor of Cl( 
thes, the greatest dialectician and most voluminoi 
writer among the Stoics. Fabric. B. Gr. t 
p. 547. Buguet de Ckrys. vit doct et reliqu. Lomi 
1822. 4 to. Ckm, Petersen philosophias Chrysippi 
fundamenta. Hamb, 1827. 8vo. 

(c) Eratosthenes, of Cyrene, b. Ol. cx3 
1. (272.) A pupil of Callimachus and Zeno, curaU 
of the Alexandrian librar}' from cxxxviii. 1 . (226.) 
01. cxlvi. 1. (192.) distinguished in all departments 
knowledge, (thence called the Beta,) especially in' 
geography, mathematics, and astronomy. 

Er. Geographicoram fragm. coll. et ill. Gunth. C. Fr. Sei- 
del. Grott. 1789. dvo. G. Bernhardt Eratosdienica. Berol. 
1822. 8to. — Er. Catasterismi. (Eoffplan. of the ConsteUaiims 
an Excerpt, from Bygin. Cf. Miiiler Prol, p. 199.) first hy 
Jo. Fell, annexed to his Aratus, Oion. 1672. 8yo. then m Gale 
opusc. mythol. Amstel. 1688. 8to. — cum interp. Lat. et comm. 
cur. J. Kr. Schaubach. Gott. 1795. 8to. See also Arattts. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 117. 

(ca) Rhianus, of Bene in Crete, a grammarian 
and historical poet. His principal production in 
poetry was MwrntiiU, then Otvo-c^XuU, 'Ajc»t»», 'HA*- 
atU. A beautiful fragment may be found in Brunck's 
\omic. p. 131. (188. Lips.) and with others in 
of the t i. p* 479. {Jacobs i. p. 299.) Gaisf. p. Gr. 

r.v.EPiPH. 204-281. phil. of mac. 221-173. 141 

in. t. iii. p. 274, sqq. Epigrams in the Greek 
.nthol. See Jacobs ^nimadv* in Anth. Gr. iii. 3. 
. 945. Kh, qucB supersunt. Ed. Nic, SaaL Bonn. 
831. Sv^o. C G. Siebelis de Rkiano. Budiss. 1829. 
\vo. Fubric. B. Gr, t. i. p. 734. 

{cb) Philochorus, of Athens, under Ptolem. IV, 
aid v., a pupil of £ratosth.> an historian and gram- 
narian. His principal work was 'At^iV. Phil, lihro^ 
^umfragm. a Lenzio coll. ill. Car. Godofr. Siebelis. 
Ups. 1811. 8vo. 

(cc) Archimedes, of Syracuse, put to death 
at the capture of Syracuse by Marcellus in the second 
Punic war, B. C. 212. a great mathematician, especially 
versed in mechanics. 

0pp. cam Eutocii commentariis Gr. Lat. Basil. 1544. fot. — 
Arenarias et de dimensione cireuli cum vers, et not. Jo. Wallis. 

OxoD. 1676. 8vo.— Ed. Sam. Barrow. Oxon. 1667 ed. Torelli. 

Oxon. 1792. translated into French with explanatory notes hy F. 
^eyrard, Paris. 1807. 4to. 1808. 2 vols. 8vo — Archim. Di^ 
mensio Cireuli with the Comm. of Fuiokius with notes by Joh, 
OuienUcker. WUrzb. 1826. 1828. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. 
p. 170. 

(erf) Apollonius Rhodius, of Naucrates in 
^^§* (0* a pupil of Callim. a teacher of rhetoric and 
a citizen of Rhodes, succeeded Eratosthenes in the 

142 PT. V. KPiPH. 204-181. PHIL. OF nLkC 221—173- 

librarianslrip at Alex. 192 B.C. Author of a highly 
finiabed poem, *A^y»f«vTi»«, 4 books. 

£d. pr. com scholiis Gr. Florent. 1496. 4to. — Venet. in led. 
Aldi. 1621. 8vo. — c. schol. ed. H. Stephani. 1674. 4to. — cum 
schol. et not. var. ed. Jo. Shaw. Ozon. 1777. 2 yoIr. 4to. — e scr. 
8 vett. libbr. nunc primum emendate ed. R. Fr. Ph. Bninck. 
Argent. 1780. 4to. and 8vo. — cum schol. Gr. comm. indie, ed. 
Chr. D. Beck. Lips. 1797. (at first one vol.) — e rec. et c. not. 
Br. aco. schol. Gr. e cod. bibl. Paris, nunc primum evulg. 
Lips. 1810 — 12. 8yo. — rec. int. lect. var. adj. scholia aucta et 
emend.add. A.Wellauer. Lips. 1828. 2 vols. 8 vo. Weicherliiber 
das Leben tend Gedichi d, Ap. v, Rh, Meissen. 1821. Sto* 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 262. Nachtrage zu Stdz. vi. p. 179. 

{ce) EuPHORiON, of Chalcis, librarian to King 
Antiochus the Great of S}Tia, a learned and con- 
sequently an obscure poet, wrote x^Xtuitti in 6 books, 
on mythological subjects, also irro^ixti V9r«^n|^r« 
(Athen, iv. p. 154. C.) De Euph, Ckalc. vita 
et scfiptis disser. etfragm. coll. et ilL A, Meineke. 
Gedani 1823. 8vo. Fabric, B. Gr. t. i. p. 594. 
ii. p. 304. 

(cf) Aristophanes, of Byzantium, a pupil of 
Callim. and Eratosth., curator of the Alexandrian 
library under Ptol. Philometor, (not Philadelphus, 
as stated in Fabric.) He exercised his critical 
powers upon Homer, and is said to have introduced 
the Greek accents. (Villoison anecd. Gr. t ii. 
p. 31, sq.) Pahricx B, Gr. t. i. p. 364. iv. p. 359. 

▲NTIOC.THE GR.224-*187.PT. V, EPIPH. 204-181. 143 

(eg) Agatharchides^ of Cnidos^ had charge of 
tlie young king Ptol. Alexander (107 — 88) ; history 
of Alexander and his successors^ rit 'AvMTi%i and 
tm T^v^itwituui, description of the Red Sea, and the 
adjacent countries, fragments of which may be seen 
in Htuhan. Geogr. Gr. min, torn. i. Fabric* B, Gr. 
t. iv* p. 32. 

(ch) PoLYBius, of Megalopolis in Arcadia, bom 
Ol. cxliii. 4. (204.) ; in the art of war a pupil of 
Philopoemen, filled the most important offices in his 
native city, and was sent as ambassador to Ptolemy 
Epiphanes, 01. cxlix. 4. (180). Becoming an object 
of suspicion to the Romans, he was brought with 
other chiefs of the Achasan league to Rome 166, 
where he became the friend and adviser of the 
younger Scipio. Through him he obtained access 
to the public archives of Rome, and from them 
as well as in tlie course of his travels in Bgypt, 
Gaul, and Spain, &c. he collected materials for an 
universal history, beginning with the second Punic war 
and ending with the defeat of Perseus (218 — 168), in 
40 books, in which he exhibited the model of a 
practical history. After the death of Scipio 128 he 
returned to his country, and died OL clxiv. 2. (122). 
Of his history only the firat five books have been pre- 
served complete. 

144 EUMEN. OF PERG. 197-158. 

£d. pr. Hagen. 1530. fol. per Vine. Obsopoeam witk the 
Version of Nicol. Perottus. — ed. Is. Casaubon. Paris. 1609. 
fol. — cum not Casaab., F. Ursini, H. Valesii, Jac. Palmerii 
«t suis ed. Jac. Gronovius. Amstelod. 1670. 3 vols. 8vo. — rep. 
oum gloss. Polyb. J. Aug. Ernesti. Lips, et Vindob. 1763, 
sq. 3 vols. 8vo. — rec. Jo. Schweigbauser. Lips. 1789, sqq. 
8yo. 4 vols. Tenst and iv. Comm* gloss. Indd. — Pol. bistoriarom 
excerpta Vatic, (in Maji scr. veti. coll. t. ii. p. 369, sqq.) Bee. 
Jac. GeeL Lugd. 6. 1829. 8yo. — P. et App. bist. exc. Vatic, 
recogn. a J. Fr. Lucbt. Alton. 1830. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. 
t. iv. p. 313. 

(ci) HiPPARCHUs, of Nicaeea in Bithynia, an 
astronomer (?) 01. cliv. — clxiii. (160—124.) observed 
the Mquinoctia and left behind him a catalogue of 
fixed stars according to their longitude and latitude^ 
and of the solar and lunar eclipses. There is extant 
a comment, upon the Phoen. of Eudoxus and Aratus 
in three books* ed. P. Victorius. Flor. 1567. fol. 
and Dion. Petavii Uranologium. Paris. 1630. fol. 
Amstel. 1703. fol. 

(ck) Aristarchus, of Samothrace, about 01. 
clvi. B.C. 154. a pupil of the grammarian Aristo- 
phanes, one of the most celebrated grammarians, who 
exercised his criticism upon Homer but in an arbi- 
trary manner. From him and Aristophanes the se- 
lection of classical authors {canon) derives its origin. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 357. Wolfproleg. ad Haw. 
p. 244. 

▲TTAL. II. 07 PBBO. ld&-138. 145 

(c/) Cbates, of MaUus (M«AAaw) in Cilicia 
{Mallotes), a grammarian^ preceptor of Panatius^ 
He made a recension of Homer. Being sent by 
Attains II. to Rome, he introduced there the study of 
Grammar. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 558. vi. p. 362. 
Wolf, proleg. ad Horn. p. 276, 

(cut) Pan£tius, of Rhodes, about 01. clviii. B.C. 
145, preceptor and friend of the younger Scipio, 
and several other Romans, a Stoic philosopher, 
but with many distinguishing peculiarities. His 
treatise «-f(i tav xttiiMpTf was adopted by Cicero 
as the basis of his book De Officiis. — de Panatio 
Stoico diss. F. G. van Lynden, Lugd. B. 1802. 
8vo. Fabric. B. Gr, t. iii. p. 567. 

^Idyl poets, imitators 

^^ V of Theocritus. Se^ 

-^M ' /> « ' "S NdtekeinAllg.Schulz. 

MoscHus, of Syracuse, J ,^^^ .. ,^^ 

^ 1 1828. ii. n. 100. p. 

^827, sq. 

Generaiiy with Theocrii. Separate^ by Heskm. Oxon. 1748. 
8to» — c. notis int-F. Ursini, B. Yuloanii, H. Steph., Jos. 
Seal., Is. Casaub., D. Heinsiiy G. Xylandri, Jac. Palmerii., 
neo non sel. Loiigapetr»i, N. Schwebelii'et Jo. Heskin car. 
J. Ad. Schier. Lips. 1762. 8T0.~ex rec. Valek. o. var. lectt. 
cd. F. Jacobs. Gotha 1796. %vQ,-^tramlaied and eapUnned by 
J. Kp. F. Mantfi. Leipzig 1807. 8to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iiu 
p. 800, Bqq. 


146 PT. PHTS. 145-1 17. CARTH. AND COR. DESTR. 146. 

{co) Carneades, of Cyrene, an eloquent Aca- 
demiCf and founder of the third Academy, com- 
bated chiefly the Stoics with the method and prin- 
ciples of Arcesilaus (iTa;^4). 01. cItI. 2. B.C. 
156, he went with the peripatetic Criiolaus of 
Phaselis as ambassador to Rome. Fabric. £. Gr. 
t. iii. p. 166. 

(cp) Philo, of Byzantium, a mechanician, about 
151 B. C. Mechanicorum lib, iv. v. G/. ^^ JLa^. in 
Maihemat. vetL Paris. 1693. fol. p. 49. A work 
of little importance xi^i rSf iwrtt ButfuirMw is also 
ascribed to him: — Ph, Byz. lib. de septem orbis 
spectaculis, Gr. cum vers, duplici Dem. Salvagnii 
Boessii et Leonis Mlatii. {Rom. 1640. 8vo.) Textum 
recognovit, not. Lean. All. Bastii aliorumque et suas 
adj. Jo. Conr. Orellius. Lips. 1816. 8vo. Fabric. 
B. Gr. iv. p. 131. 

(cq) NiCAKDER, of Colophon, about 01. clviii. 
B. C. 147. a Physician, Grammarian, and Poet. Fw^- 
ytxci, Cic. Or. i. 16. 'Eit^^uvfitw 5 B. Two didactic 
poems are extant, Qn^m*^ and *AAi{i^«(^»«. J^achtr. 
zu Sulz. vi. p* 373. 

Ed. pr. com schol. 6r. ap. Aldom. Ven. 1499, fol. on the 
Dioteorida, — c. scbol. interpr. «t annot. Jo. Gromei. Paris. 
1667. 3 vols. 4to. — Aleziph. emend, anim. et Eutecaii paraplir. 


ill. J. Glo. Schneider. Hale. 1792. 8to. — Theriaca c. schol. 
G-r. Enteon. metaphr, et fragm. rec. em. ill. Jo. Glo. Schneider. 
IL.ip0. 1816. Svo. — c. not. Bentl. ined. in Mui, crit. Cant, III. 
IV. Fabric. B. Gr. t iv. p. 344. 

(cr) Apollodorus, of Athens, a Grammarian and 
Historian : x^^nxA in iamb, verse up to 01. clviii. 4. 
There is still extant 3tfiXf$i*n in 3 books, legends of 
the Greeks up to the Trojan war. 

Ed. pr. Bened. ^gii. Koxnie 155A. Svo. — em. e cod. Palat. 
ab Hieron. Commelino. 1A99. Syo. — Tanaqu. Fabri Salmur. 
1611. 8to.-- Th. Gale in CoUectt no. 31.— ed. Heyne. Gott 
1782. small 8to. 4 torn. 1803. Gr, 8yo. 2 torn.— n^y Clavier 
wUh the French Transl, Paris. 180A. 2 vols. 8Y0._Fabric. B. 
Gr. t. iv. p. 287. 

{cs) Meleager, of Gadara in Syria, an Epigram- 
matic Poet, about 01. clxx, B. C. 96, collected the 
Epigrams and short poems of 46 authors into an 
anthology, rri^utcf, 

Mel, genuine poems in Brunches Anal. t. i. — Mel. reliqnie 
ed. J. C. F. Manso. Jensp 1789. 8yo. — com obss. crit ed. 
JFrid. Gnefe. Lips. 1811. 8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. t iv. p. 416. 

{ct) ScTMNUS, of Chios, wrote a Geography in 
Iambics {in^tiyn^t^ ▼!< aiiMv/ism;,) which he dedicated 
.to the King of Bithynia, Nicomedes III. (92 — 75.) 

Ed. Day. Hoeschel Aug. Vind. 1600. 8yo.— m Hadson. 
Geogr. Gr. min. vol. ii. Fabn'c. B. Gr. t, iy. p. 613. 


(cu) DiDTMUS, a pupil of Aristarchus^ author of 
4000 treatises; thence called x*x«svn^«(. The 
Scholia min, in Horn, are ascribed to him, though 
they are rather extracts from his own and others' com- 
mentaries. Fabric, B. Gr. t. i. p. 386. vi. p. 363. 

{cw) CoNoy^ contemporary with Cffisar and 
Antony, wrote 50 Mjrthological narratives^ (^myvftif) 
which Photius has preserved. Collectt no. 31. — ilL J. 
Am. Kanne. Gott 1798. 8vo. 

(ex) PosiDONius, of Apamea, resided at Rhodes. 
A pupil of Paneetius, contemporary and friend of 
Cicero and Pompey, a Stoic Philosopher, and also a 
Statesman and Historian. As such he wrote rk ^jk 
TltXvfiuf in 52 books. 

Posid. Bh. reliqnie ooll. atqne ill. Jan. Bake. Ace. D. 
Wyttenbaohii ann. Lagd. B. 1810. Svo. Fabrie. B. Gt. t iii. 
p. 672y 8q. Heeren de/oni^t Plui, p. 138. 

{ca^) Philodemus, of Gadara, friend of L. Piao, 
the subject of one of Cicero's Orations, an Epicurean. 
Epigrams by him see Anthol. Or. Brunch, ed. Jacobs. 
t. ii. p. 70, sqq. On the passage of Horat. Sat. I 2, 
121. see Jacobs in Wolfs Litt Anal. i. p. 357. A 
fragment wt^t fvr^tziif has been published from the 
MSS. found at Herculaneum in AntiquU. Hercul. t. v. 


p. 721. and another in^} ftwruuU also, t. i. Neap. 1793. 
fol. m^} MtuuSr Kcti rSr »fti»uftif0f M^nSir, Also t. iii. 
^eap. 1827. and in Aristotelis (Econom. ed. Gdttling, 
p. 41, sqq. p. 151. st^i ^infUrttf in Voll. Hercnl. 
Oxonii, Clarend. 1824, 25. 2 vol. fol. See Fabric. 
JB. Gr, t. iii. p. 609. Jacobs, AnihoL Gr. t. xiii. 
p. 936. 

(cy) Apollokius Sophista, of Alexandria, a 
pupil of Didymus, a Grammarian. Lexicum Gr. 
Iliad, et Od. 'primus e Cod. Sangerman. ed. Jo. Bapt. 
Casp. d'Ansse de Villoison. Paris. 1773. 4to. — rec. 
Herm. Tollius. Lugd, B. 1788. 8vo. ex rec. Imm. 
Bekkeri, Berol. 1833. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. 
p. 505. 

(cz) DiONYSius Thrax, (of Byzantimn?) a 
Grammarian. His n^m y^of^/MtrtKii, a classical work 
in his time, may be found in Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. 
p. 311. and cum Chcerobosci, Diomed. Melampodii, 
Porphyr. Stephani schoL in Imm. Bekkeri Anecd. 
Gr. t. ii. p. 627. 645. the Scholia also in Villois. 
anecd. II. p. 99. 138. 

{d) Gbhinus, an astronomer, of Rhodes, about the 
01. clxxviii. B. C. 66. tivMyMyh li; rii ^tuilfiML ed, Edo 
Hildericus, Ltigd. B. 1603. 8vo. Petavii Uranologion. 
Paris. 1630. Amstel. 1703. foL 


. {da) Andronicus, of Rhodes^ a Peripatetic^ ar- 
ranged the works of Aristotle and Theoplurastus, and 
wrote exegetical commentaries on several works of the 
former. Fabric. B, Gr. t. iii. p. 464. 

. (dh) Parthenius^ of Nicaea^ in the time of Au- 
gustus; ^n^ l^mrtxmf 9r«^«T«»^ dedicated to Cornelius 
Gallus, his pupil. 

£d. pr. interpr. Jan. Comario. Basil. 1531. Svo. — Th. Gale 
hist. poet, script. — em. stud. L. Legrand ed. C. G. Hejne. 
Gt>tt 1798. 8yo. F. J. Bast lettre critiqae sur Anton. Liher. 
Parthenias et Arist^nete. Paris. 1805. Lot. by Wieddntrg^ 
Lips. 1809. 8to. Cf* Aristoph. Plut ex ed. Hemsterh. ed. 
Sohsefer at the end. p. xlv. Fabric. B. Gr. t iv. p. 305. 

{dc) Babrius^ in the time of Augustus, translated 
the fahles of iBsop with much taste into Choliamhics. 
The prose fahles of iBsop now extant are for the most 
part taken from the Choliamhics of B. ; also the fahles 
of Syntipas, a Persian, translated out of the Syriac by 
Mich. Andreopulus, edited by C. Fr. Matthai, Lips. 
1781. Svo. 

Th. Tyrwhitt diss, de Babrio. Lond. 1776. 8vo.— Eriang. 
1786. 8yo. Twenty Fables of B. from a Vatican. Cod. in Fabals 
^sopice, qnales ante Planndem ferebantor — c. 
Furia. Lips. 1810. 8yo. ▼. p. 143, sqq. Babrii fiibb. ed. 
F. X. Berger. Monach. 1816. 8yo. A/rMrfiWv wumyttyii ed. 
A. Coray, Paris. 1810. 8vo.— .£s. fab. nunc primom e Cod. 
Aug. ed. Jo. Gottl. Schneider. Bresl. 1812. 8yo. Fabric. B. 
Gr. t. i. p. 628. Nachtr. mt Subt. Y. p. 296. 

AUGUSTUS^ 31 B. C— 14 A. J>, 151 

(dd) DiONYSius, of Halicarnassus in Caria, a 
Rhetorician and Historian in the time of Cssar 
and Pompey, lived 22 years at Rome from 31 B. C. 
(^Batt« of Actimn), where he diligently collected the 
materials for his Roman Histoiy> u^xf^x^U *VmfMun^ 
UK 20 hooks, from the foundation of the city to the 
first Punic war, of which however only the first 11 
books, to the year of the city 312, have come down to 
us. His rhetorical writings also are particularly 
valuahle, especially his critiques upon distinguished 
orators, Thucydides, &c. 

1. Complete eM<m of Ms works, £d. pr. (Lai. Transhiion of 
JLapus Bvmgta, Tarvis. 1480. ibl.) Gr. c. Bob. Stephani Lntet. 
1546. fbl.—Frid. Syibnrg. Francof. 1586. 2 toIs. fol. — e rec. 
Sylb. ed. Job. Hudson. Lond. 1704. 2 vols, fol.— J. Jac. 
Beiske. Lips. 1774 — 77. 6 vols. 8yo. 2. Separate worksj 
Bom. antiqa. pars bactenus desiderata, nunc deniqae ope codd. 
Ambros. ab Ang. Majo (Script, vett. Coll. t. ii. p. 465, sqq.) 
restitata. Mediol. 1816. Francof. ad M. 1817. Syo. — vif) ww 
iUuH hfftMrm ex rec. Jac. Uptoni. Lond. 1702. 1728. 8yo. 
1747. 8yo.— cum prioram editorum suisque annotationibus ed. 
God. H. Scbsefer. Lips. 1808. 8yo.— e copiis bibl. Monac, em. 
ed. Fr. Goeller. Ace. var. lect. in Themist. orat e cod. Mod. 
excerptsp! a Fr. Jacobs. JensB 1816. Svo. lix^n fnr$f. emend, 
et illustr. H* A. Scbott. Lips. 1804. €rr. 8to. — Dion, bistorio^ 
grapbica.— ed. C. Guil. KrUger. Hale 1823. 8vo. Fabric* B. 
Gr. t. iv. p. 882. 

{de) DiODORUs SicuLus, of Argyrium in Sicily, 
in the time of Caesar and Augustus, wrote a general his- 

162 AUotrsTus^ 31 b* c.-~14 a. d. 

tory of the early Greek and Latin Historians, arranged 
according to Olympiads and the succession in the 
Roman consulate, but not so carefully compiled as 
might be desired, B«)8A<«#«aui iWa^oji in 40 books, 
from the most ancient times to 01. clxxx. (B. C. 60,) 
of which only books 1 — 6, incl. 1 1—20, inch hare 
come down to us entire. 

Ed. pr. Basil. 1639. 4to. (B. 16— 20.)— H. Stephani. 1669. 
fol. (1 — 5. 11 — ^15 B.)— ed. Laur. Bhodomannus. Hanov* 1604. 
fol. — ad fid. MSS. rec. P. Wesseling. Amstelod. 1745. fbL 
2 vols. — e reo. Wessel. ed. Jer. N. Eyring. Bip. et Argent. 
1793—1800. 10 vols. Syo. — ed. H. K. Abr. Eichstiedt. Hale 
2 vols. 1800.— 1802. (to B, 14.) 8yo.— ed. Lnd. Bindorf. lips. 
1826, sqq. 4 vols. 8vo.— Exc. libb. VII. VIII. IX. X. XXI— 
XL. in Maji Script vett Coll. t ii. Fabric. B. Grr. t. iy. 
p. 361. 

(df) DiONYsius Periegetes, probably of Charax 
in the Arabian Gulph, whom Augustus sent as the 
companion of his adopted son Caius Agrippa to the 
East. He wrote a Geography, m^iiyn^tf •Uivfttms, in 
Hexameters, upon which Eustathius, Archbishop of 
Thessalonica, about 1 160, wrote a learned commentary. 
3^<u:htr. zu Sulz. vi. p. 388. "Schirlitz, in Seebodes 
neuem Arch, iii. 2. p. 32. 

Edd. prr. Ferrara 1512. 4to. Venet. ap. Aid. 1513. 8to. wUh 
the Eusiat, hf Bob. Stepb. Lutet. 1577. 4to. — m CoBeeU, 
no. 2. — ed. Ed. Thwaites xoith Eust. Oxon. 1697. 8yo. — ed. 
Job. Hndson. {with Eutt.) Oxon. 1710. 1712. 1717. Sto.^^. 

AUGUST. TIBEBIUft, 14^37. CALiaULA-^l. 163 , 

vet. oomm. et inferpr. rec. (rod. Bemhardj. m CoBeeU. no. 21. 
2. 3. See alto Aratus, Fabric. B. 6r. t. !▼. p. 686. 

(jdg) NiGOLAUs^ of Damascus^ a Peripatetic and 
Historian, much beloved by Caesar Augustus. Author 
of a Universal History in 142 books, and of a rufnymyn 
n$S$9, dedicated to King Herod, fragments of which 
are preserved in Stobaeus. — XicoL Dam. historiarum 
exc* etfrutgm. Gr, c. not. H, Valesii al. et suis ed, Jo. 
Conr. Orellius. Lips. 1804, and Supplem. c. n. Cor ay, 
Fr» Creuzeri, Jo. Schweighauser etc. Lips. 1811. 
Fahric. B. Gr. X. iii. p. 500. 

(jdK) Strabo, of Amasea in Pontus, in the time of 
Augustus and Tiberius: yuty^^^txiL libr. 17. a work 
written in a critical and philosophical spirit, and also 
an exposition of the history, manners, and constitu- 
tions of ancient nations. He had previously written 
an historical work, ri fttrti n»}ivfiitf. Heeren defontt. 
Plut. p. 142. 

Ed. pr. ap. Aid. Tenet. 1516. fol. — ed. Is. Casaubonus 
(sospitator Str.) Genev. 1587. fol. Paris. 1620. fol.— wiVA the 
AnnotaHiMU of aU former Editore ed. Th. Jansson van Almelo- 
veen. Amsterd. 1707. fol. — ^rec. J. Ph. Siebenkees, K. H. 
Xzschacke et Friedemann. Lips. 7 vols. 8yo. 1796 — 1819. — 
jnxta edit. Amstel. Codd. MSS. collationem, annot. tab. Geogr. 
adj. Th. Falconer. Oxon. 1807. 2 vols, fol.— ed. Coray. Paris. 
1817—19. 4 vols. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 558, 

154 AUGUST. TIBEBIUSy 14 — 37. CALIGULA— 41, 

(di) Lesbonax, a Rhetorician in the time of 
Tiherius^ by whom are still extant two Orations, or 
rather Declamations^ exhortations to bravery against 
the Thebans and Lacedaemonians in the Peloponnesian 
war. See Reiske oratt Gr, t viii. Bekk. t. iv. p. 4. 
App. He is a different person from a later Gramma- 
rian of this name, whose work, xt^i v^nftcirm, is found 
in the Ammonius of Valckenaer. 

{dk) Philo, a Jew of Alexandria^ eminently versed 
in the Platonic Philosophy, which he applied in aUe- 
gorical interpretations to the explanation and vindi- 
cation of Judaism, particularly in his treatises de 
mundi opificio, de vita Moysis, ifc. In the year 41, 
an Ambassador to the Emperor Caligula* 

Ed. pr. Paris, ap. Adr. Turnebum. 1562. fol. — e Cod. ree. 
suppl. illastr. Th. Mangey. Lon^. 1742. 2 vols. fol. — Aug. Fr. 
Pfeiffer. Erlang. 1786—92. 5 vols. Svo. not complete, -^tL 
Car. E. Bichter.) Lips. 1828—30. 8 vols. 8to. iri^} i^triif m2 
rm mMt fu^wf inv. et interpr. Ang. Majns. MedioL 1816. de 
providentia etc, from the Armen. ed. A. B. Ancfaer. YeDet 
1822. 4to. Fabric. 6. 6r. t. iv. p. 722. 

{dl) Apion, an • Alexandrian Grammarian, a pupil 
of Didymus, accuser of the Jews before the Emperor 
Caligula, wrote, besides an Egyptian history in 5 
books, Xiius 'Oftn^tMi, from which the Lexicon of 
Apollonius appears to be taken. Excerpta ^fiomt 

CALIGULA. CLAUDIUS — 64, WERO — 68. 155 

glossaruni Homericarum in Etymolog, Gudianum 
by Sturz. p. 601. Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 504. 
Addit. ad Gregor. Cor. ed. Schae/er, p. 891. 894. 

{dm) Onosander, in the time of the Emperor 

Claudius : err^«Ti)yi»o$. 

Ed. pr. Nic. Rigaltii. Paris. 1699. 4to.-.(mra Nic. Schwe- 
belii. Norimb. 1762. fol. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 336. 

[dn) Pedanius Dioscorides, of Anazarbus in 
Cilicia, about 64, a Physician, and the most eminent 
of the Greek Botanists : de materia medica libri VI- 
xf^i v>i%q mr^ixtis, etc. 

Ed. pr. Aid. Yenet 1499. fol. — ^rec. J. Ant. Saracenius. 
Francof. 1598. fol. — ^rec. Cart Sprengel. in CoUectt, no. 33. 
t. XXV. vi. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 673. 

{do) Erotianus, in the time of Nero : rSf ir«^' 
'l^netK^dru As|Mr avfet^myi, Friedem. et Seeb, Misc. 
crit. i, 2. p. 271. 

£d. pr. Henr. Steph. PariR. 1664. 8vo. — ^rec. Jo. Ge. Frid. 
Franz. Lips. 1780. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 233. 

{dp) Annjeus Cornutus, of Lepds, instructor 
of the poet Persius^ a Stoic, banished by order of 
Neroi A«D. 66. vn^i rHi rm hSt ^icws. See Col* 


lectt, no. 31. Fabric. B, Gr. t. iii. p. 554. Ger. 
Jo. de Martini disp. de L, Ann. Comuto. Lugd. B. 
1824. 8vo. 

(dq) MusoNius Rufus^ a celebrated Stoic, ba- 
nished by Nero, but recalled by Vespasian* Dan. 
Wyttenhachii (N'ieuwland) de Musonio JR. pktl. 
Stoico Amstel. 1783. 4to. Mvlsou. anecdota in 
Wyttenh. Philomath, i. p. 157. ii. p. 3. — reliqu. el 
apophth, cum annot, ed* J. V, Peerlkamp. Harlem. 
1822. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iii. p. 666. Cf. Studien v. 
Daub. u. Creuzer. vi. Tb. p. 74. 

(dr) Fl. Josephus, a Jew of Jerusalem, a Phari- 
see ; being taken captive by Vespasian in the year 67 
at Jotapata in Galilee, he recovered his liberty when 
his prophecy that Vespasian and Titus would become 
emperors was accomplished. He accompanied Titus 
in the year 70 to the siege of Jerusalem, of which he 
wrote a description: de hello Judaico libr. VII. 
Antiquitatum Judaicarum libr. XX. etc. 

Ed. pr. Basil. 1544. fbl. — ^rec. Sig. Havercamp. {with the 
Annotations of cUi former Editors.) Amstel. Lngd. B. et Ultraj. 
1726. 2 vols. foL^ed. C. £. Richter Lips. 1825—27. 4 vols. 
Syo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 1. 

{ds) Epictetus, of Hierapolis in Phrygia, at 
first a slave of Epaphroditus, being afterwards set 

VESPASIAN, 69-79. TITUS, -81. DOMITIANUS,-96. 157 

at liberty he lived at Rome till 94, after that at 
Nicopolis in Epirus, a Stoic estimable for the purity 
and integrity of his life. His discourses were 
written down after his death by his pupil Arrian. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 64. 

(df) Aretjeus, a Cappadocian, and an eminent 
Physician, between 81 — 96. de caussis et $ignis acut 
marhorum iv. b. de curatione iv. b. not come down 
to us eiitire. 

Ed. pr. Jac. Groupyli. Paris. 1664. 8vo. — ^rec. Job. Wigan. 
Oxon. 1723. fol. — e Group, rec. car. Herm. Boerbave. Lugd. 
B. 1731. fol.— ed. C. Glob Ktibn in CoUectt, no. S3. toI. xxiy. 
1828. c. Petiti etc. comm. et ind. Fabric. B. Gr. t. It. p. 708. 

[Note. For a valuable collection of facts and testimonies 
relating to the authors of this period, see cb. 12. of the Ap- 
pendiz to vol. iii. of Clinton's Fasti Hellenici.] 


§. 25. The peculiar taste of the Emperor Hadrian 
(117 — 138) introduced at this time among the 
Greeks, particularly at Alexandria, a fashion of speak* 
ing and writing on a variety of suhjects in a language, 
which, though artfully constructed in imitation of the 
Attic, by an affectation of florid ornament often inter- 
changed poetic with prosaic expressions, and even 
affected those anomalies of diction which occur in 
Attic writers, as Atticisms,, (Sophists). The most 
ingenious of this class, and at the same time the most 
worthy of commendation for their style, are Lucian 
(b), and the Emperor Julian (cr). Most of them, 
however, contented themselves with Speeches and 
Declamations upon scientific, especially philosophical, 
suhjects, e.g. Dio Chrysost. (a), Aristides {ba). 
Maximum Tyritis {bk), Himeritts (cw), Libanius 
{sc), Themistius (ex); they likewise composed for 
amusement forensic or political orations after the 
model of the ancients. Others sought to display their 
rhetorical talent in amatory epistles, as Aristmnetus 
{ct) and Alciphron (ct); others wrote letters under 


the name of ancient statesmen, philosophers, &c. as 
the letters of Phalaris, of Themistocles, of Pythagoras 
and his disciples, the Socratics, Euripides, and others. 
(See Bentley opusc, philoL Lips, 1781. 8vo.) Mar- 
vellous histories, aud narratives of love adventures, 
{Milesian tales, which Aristides of Miletus is said to 
have first introduced before the time of Sylla,) com- 
posed without any semblance of reality, whether we 
regard invention or arrangement, and in a studied 
but insipid style, came more and more into vogue ^ 
As an aid to the acquisition of the Sophistical style, 
the Grammarians compiled Dictionaries, in which 
they carefully distinguished words and phrases pecu- 
liar to the Attics from those in general use {AtUcista), 
but often represented as genuine Attic what was 
chiefly to be met with in the writings of the Sophists. 
Other dictionaries also for the elucidation of expres- 
sions occurring in particular authors, e. g. Homer, the 
Orators, &c. or of antiquated words, began to abound 
in proportion as language degenerated, and became a 
subject of learned cultivation. 

§. 26. Other learned men collected the ^brions of 
the earher poets, particularly Epigrams, as Philip of 
Thessalonica in the time of Trajan, who' in imitation 
of Meleager (§• 20.) collected the minor poems of 13 
authors, and, like him, arranged them alphabetically 

'» Manso Uber den Griech. Homan in dessen Verm, Schriften. 
Leipz, 1801. 8yo. part ii. p. 201, 8qq» 


with his own in a rn^nff, or wreath^ Strata of Sardis 
(M«ur« ^miutn), Agathicis {ef) in the time of Jastinian, 
who collected the poems of later writers, particularly 
of his contemporaries, and arranged them according 
to their suhject matter {wm^), Constantinus Cepha- 
las {el), who compiled a similar Anthology from the 
older collections with the addition of some more recent 
poems, and a few others of earlier date, and the 
Monk Maximum Planudes {/), whose Anthology 
was for a long time the only one known till that of 
Constant. Cephalas also came to light. Sentences 
fix>m the ancient poets, especially tragic or comic 
writers, together with choice passages of philosophers, 
historians, and orators, were collected hy Joh, StobiBus 
(dx), and extracts from authors with tahles of contents 
hy the patriarch Photius {ek). There were, however, 
in this period authors of considerahle eminence, ahove 
all Plutarch (aa), in his moral, i. e. philosophical 
writings, and especially in his hiographies, which, from 
the extent and variety of knowledge and erudition 
which they display, though applied in undue measure^ 
and with a style occasionally cramped, may he held up 
as models, the Historian Arrian {of), Dio Cassius 
(c), the Geographer and Astronomer Ptolemy {an),, 
the philosophical and accomplished Physician Galen 
{ay), the Philosophers M. Aurelius Anton, (at), and 
Sexlus Empir, {bg), and the acute Critic Longinus 
(c(f). During the conflict hetween Paganism and 


TRAJAN 9&-117- HADRIAN 117-138. I6l 

Chnstianity, men of reflecting minds sought repose in 
Philosophy, and hence there arose, likewise at Alex- 
andria, a Philosophy of fancy and feeling which led 
directly to fanaticism, {TTie JSTew Platonic or Alex* 
andrian Phil.) Athenatts {bt) and Pausaniets {az) 
merit consideration only for the valuahle information 
which they contain, and for the fragments of antiquity 
which they have preserved. The Mathematical 
Sciences also were cultivated with success; Poetry 
continued what it was in the former period, and the 
poets Oppian {br), Xonnus {dm,) Mtuasus ((^n), Qu, 
Smymaus {e), are only of value to professed scholars 
and philologists. After the capture of Alexandria hy 
the Emp. Aurelian, the Alexandrian school ceased, and 
Byzantium (Constantinople) hecame henceforth the 
seat of learning, where from the time of Constantine 
it was subject to the influence of the Church and the 
Court. But after the time of Julian, in despite of 
the exertions of Grammarians, language and literature 
began 'rapidly to decline. 

{a) Dio Chrtsostomus, of Prusa in Bithynia, 
particularly esteemed by Trajan, a Sophist. There 
are 80 speeches by him upon general philosophical 
and other subjects. 

£d. pr. Yenet. 1551. 8yo.— e rec. atque emendatione Fed. 
Morelli. Paris. 1604. 1623. fol. — ez rec. J. J. Beiske. Lips. 
1784. 2 vols. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. t. p. 122. 


162 TRiUAN 98-117. HADRIAN 117-138. 

(aa) Plutarch, of Cliseronea, b. 60, d. 120, an 
eclectic philosopher ; Hadrian, to whom he was pre- 
ceptor, appointed him procurator GrcecuB, I) viUr 
parallels 44. 2) moralia, philosophical, antiquarian, 
and other dissertations, miscellaneous treatises 92. 

Pint, opusc. mor. Tenet. 1599. foi.^yitse parall. Flor. Jant. 
1517. fol. — opera ed. H. Stephanos. 1572. 10 vols. 8^0.^ — 
Francof. ap. Wechel. 1599. 1620. 2 vols, fol.— ed. J. J. Beiske. 
Lips. 1774—79. 12 vols. 8vo.— Jo. Ge. Hutten. Tubing. 1791 
— 805. 14 vols. 8vo. — Yitse parall. ed. Aug. Bryan, et Mos. du 
Soul. Lond. 1729. 5 vols. 4to. — moralia emend. Dan. Wytten- 
bach. Oxon. 1796 — 800. 5 vols, in 10 parts. 8vo. — Animadv. t. i. 
(or Plut. t. vi.)Oxon. 1810. vol. ii. p. 1. 1821. Index GrrsBcit, 
(or Plut. t. viii.) ib. 1830. 2 vols. 8vo. — Vitee parall. ed. Coray. 

Paris. 1809 — 1811. 3 vols. 8vo cur. God. H. Schaefer. Lips. 

1826. 5 vols. 12mo. — ^v. par. Themist. et Camilli, Alezandri et 
Cses. ed. K. H. Jbrdens, Berol. 1788. 97. 8vo. — ^Theseus et 
Komul. Lycurg. et Numa Pompil. rec. £. H. G. Leop<dd. 
Lips. 1789. 8vo. — MariuS) Sulla, Lucnllus et Sert. ed. Leopold. 
Lips. 1795. 8vo. — AgesU. et Xenoph. encom. Agesil. ed. Detl. 
C. Guil. Baumgarten-Crusins. Lips. 1812. 8vo. — Alcib. e 
codd. Paris, recogn. perp. ann. instr. J. C. F. Bahr. Heidelb. 
1822. 8vo. — Philop. Flamin. P3n:rh. recogn. perp. ann. instr. 
J. C. F. Bahr. Lips. 1826. 8vo.— Arist. et Cato ro. rec. et 
anim. crit. instr. Car. Sintenis. Lips. 1830. 8vo. — ^v. Themist. 
rec. et ill. idem. Lips. 1832.- 8vo. — ^v. ^mii. P. et Timol. 
recogn. J. C. Held. Solisb. 1832. — de sera num. vindicta ed. 
Dan. Wyttenbach. Lugd. B. 1772. 8vo. — ir»^afttfhTt»»g v^*; 
'A«'«XXwiiM>. recogn. et conmi. ill. Leon. Usterius. Turic. 1830. 
8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 153. A. H. X. Heeren de fontt. et 
auctoritate viU, parall, PL Chtting* 1820. B\o: 

{ah) Theon^ of Smyrna, a Mathematician and 

TRAJAN 98-117. HADRIAN 117-138. 163 

Platonic Philosopher, aboat 117, wrote upon the 
application of Mathematics to the elucidation of PlatOr 
Some fragments ed, Ism.Bullialdus, LuL Paris. 1644. 
4to. lecL div, suamque annoL add. J. J. de Gelder. 
Lugd. B. 1827. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 35. 

(ac) Cleomedes, an Astronomer: nwt?uKnf $*»- 
^lee^ fitrf»^m lihr, II. Basil. 1533. 8vo. — ed. M. 
Hopper. Basil. 156 L 8vo. rec. et ill. a Rob. Balforeoi 
Bur dig. 1605. 4to. — ex rec. Jani Bakii c. potior, 
script, discrep. et annot. ed. C. Chr. Thph. Schmidt. 
Lips. 1832, 8vo. Fabric. B. G. t. \\\ p, 38. 

{ad) Alcinous, a Platonic Philosopher : eV^y^yi 
wp hyfAeeT»¥ IIa«t*»wj-c. Apnleia Venet. ap. Aid. 
1551. 8vo.— ^o: rec. Heinsii {Lugd. B. 1607. 8vo. 
1614. 8vo.> Oxon. 1667. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. 
p. 523. 

{ae) Cl. ^lianus, m the time of Nerva, Trajan, 
and Hadrian : recjcrtjtd. 

Ed. Robortell. Venet. 1662. 4to,— c. amm. Sixti Arcerii. 
Lugd. B. 1673. 4to. 

{af) Fl. Arrianus, of Nicomedia in Bithynia, 
governor of Cappadoeia 134, Senator (and Consul ?) 
at Rome, a pupil of Epictetus, whose philosophical 
disquisitions he committed to writing, dissertatt. 

164 HADRIAN 117-138. ANTONINUS PXU8-16I. 

Epictetea 4 books; Epict, Enchiridion; also de 
expeditione Alexandri M. Indica &c. An imitator 

of Xenophoii, 

I) Diss. Epict. Venet. 1636. 8vo.— ed. Hieron. "Wolf. 1661. 
2) Diss, et Enchir. Venet. 1668. Svo. ap. TrincaT.— ed. 
Hieron. Wolf. Basil. 8yo. s. a. (1660). cur. Jo. Upton. Lend. 
1741. 2 vols. 4to.— 3) Enchir. ed. pr. Venet. 1628. 4to. cam 
Simplicii comm. — ed. Dan. Heinsii c. notis Salmasii. Lugd. 

B. 1640. 4to — ed. Heyne. Dresd. 1766. 1776. Svo Epicteteie 

phil. monumenta ed. J. Schweighseuser. LipR. 1779, sq. 3 vols. 
Svo. 4) de exped. Alex. Venet. ap. Trincav. 1636. Svo. — ed. 
Nicol. Blancard. Amstel. 1688. Svo.— ed. Jac. Gronovins. 
Lugd. B. 1704. fol.— ed. 6e. Rapheiius. Amstel. 1767. Svo. 
maj. — ed. F. Schmieder. Lips. 1798. Svo. rec. et annot. crit. 
tum al. sel. turn suis instr. Jo. £rn, Ellendt. Begim. 1832. 

2 vols. 'Svo. — opp. Gr. studio A. C. Borheck. Lemgo. 181 1> 

3 vols. Svo. Fabric. B. Gr. t, v. p. 89. 

(ag) Artemidorus^ of Ephesus, in the time of 
Hadrian and Antoninus Pius: cfu^cx^ittxti, upon the 
interpretation of dreams. 

Ed. pr. Venet. ap. Aid. 1618. Svo. — cum n. Nic. Bigaltii. 

Lutet. 1603. 4to ^rec. J. Gottfr. Keiff. Lips. 1806. 2 vols. Svo. 

Fabric. B. Gr. t v. p. 260. 

(ah) Marcellus, of Side in Pamphylia (Sidetes), 
wrote fitfixitt Ur^tKti, 42 books, a fragment of which vi^tf 
ix^vv^ ed. Fed. Morell, Paris, 1691. Svo. It is also 
appended to Plutarch, de educ, puerarum, and also to 

HADRIAN 117-138. ANTONINUS 13^161. 166 

the Oppian of Belin du Ballu. Fabric. B. Gt* t. i. 
p. 15. 

{ai) Draco Stratonicensis, a Grammarian. 
His only extant work : xt^i for^mf — primum ed. God, 
Hermannv^. Lips, 1812. 8vo. is an extract from a 
larger work interpolated with the remarks of later 
Grammarians. As an Appendix thereto Tricha, 
EliiB Monacki et Herodiani tract, de metris cd. 
Franc, de Furia. Lips. 1814. 870. 

{ak) Apollonius^ of Alexandria, with Bein. Dts- 
COLUS, a celebrated Grammarian in the reigns of 
Hadrian and Antonin. Pius. 

1) «rs^) ^yvralutt U. 4. Yenet. ap. Aid. 1495. fol. — in Theod, 
GctziB introd. gramm. op. Ft. Sylbarg. Francof. 1690. 4to. — ex 
rec. Imm. Bekkeri. BeroL 1817. 8vo. — ^2) de pronomine liber, 
primum ed. Imman. Bekkeros in Mtueum Aniipiit, studiorum 
vol. i. Fasc. 2. Berol. 1811. 3) de conj. et de adv. 11. in 
Bekkeri anecd, Gr. t. ii. 4) histurise mirabiles. cnm ann. Guil. 
Xylandri. Basil. 1568. 8vo.— ed. Jo. Meursius. Lugd. B. 1620. 
4to. — ed. Xeucher. Lips. 1792. 8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. yi. 
p. 271. 

 (a/) Antonius PoLEMO,of Laodicea, a celebrated 
Sophist at Smyrna^ in the time of Trajan^ Hadrian, 
and Antonin. Pius: A«7«« iTrtrti^fi, upon Cynaegi- 
rus and Callimachus* — ed. P. Possinus. Tolosa 1637. 
8vo. — c, n. Poss. Steph. Cant, et Reisk* ed. Jo. Conr, 
OreU. Lips, 1819. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. id. p. 2. 

166 HADRIAN 117-138. ANTONINUS 138-16U 

(am) Phlegon, of Tralles^ a freedman of Ha- 
drian ; Frag, de Olympiadibus, a treatise tie mirabili- 
bu8 and ^t^t f&cut^tfiim9.-—ed» et ill. GuiL Xyiander. 
Basil. 1568. 8vo. — ex rec. Jo. Meursii, c. ei. et Ouil. 
Xyl' anim. ed. Jo. Ge. Frid. Franz, Halm 1775. 8vo. 
Ed. 2da emend. F. J. Bastii. ib. 1822. Fabric. B. 
Gr. t. V. p. 255. 

(an) Claudius Ptolemjeus, of Pelusium, a 
Geographer and Astronomer, about 140. 1) yuty^et- 
^MHs v^nyioitf^ libr. viii. c. Erasmi Roterod. Basil. 
1533. 4to. Paris, ap. Week. 1546. 4to. c. »• Ger. 
Mercatoris. c. tabb. geogr. et castig. P. Bertii. 
Franco/. {Lugd, B. Amsfel.) 1618. fol. — cum tabb. 
geogr. per Gerard. Mercatorem et P. Montanum. 
Franco/. {Amstel.) 1605. fol. 2) fityeixm ^utTti^trnf s. 
almagisti [al. and fdyirr^f). libr. XIII. (System of 
Astronomy >) cum Theonis Alex, comment. Ubri XI. 
Basil. 1538. fol. Ilr. ftuhif/tttTMn vlrr^fyi, trad, tur les 
MSS. du roi par Vabbe Halma et suivie ties notes de 
M. Delambre. Paris. 1814. 2 vols. 8vo. 3) a chro- 
nological work upon the Kings of the Assyrians, 
Medes, Persians, Greeks, and Romans, up to Antoni- 
nus P. and others, ^t^o^^m^m jmmm^ — e MSS. ed. cum n. 
H. Dodwellii in Dodw. dissert. Cyprianicce. Oxon. 
1684. 4to. Amstel. 1700. fol. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. 
p. 270. 

HADRIAN 117-138. ANTONINUS PIUS 138-161. 167 

(ao) Tiber. Cl. Atticus Herodes^ of Marathon 
i]i Attica, Consul at Rome in the year 141; a Sophist. 
A Declamation by him> ir. vMruttt, may be fomid in 
the 8th book of Reiske Oratt. Gr, in Bekk, t. iv. 
Append.— -Hisrcxf. Attici qtuB supersunt ed. et ilL 
RapL Fiorillo. Lips. 1801. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. 
I. V. p. 4. 

{^ap) Appianus, of Alexandria, in the reigns of 
Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius, an advocate at 
Rome, and one of the procuratores imperatL i. e. 
Finance-directors in the provinces, wrote a history of 
the Romans, arranged according to the nations con- 
nected with il;, in 24 books, but of which only half 
are extant. 

Ed. Car. Stephani. Lutet. 1551. fol. — ed. H. Stephanas. 
1592. fol.-.ed. Alex. Tollias. AmsteL 1670. 2 vols. 8vo.— ed. 
J. Schweighseuser. Argent. 1785. 3 toIs. Byo. — exc. Vatic. 
See Polyb. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 244. 

{Aq) NicoMACHUS, of Gerasa in Arabia, about 
147, a Pythagorean and Mathematician. By him we 
have, 1) ti^i6finnKnf UTuyttyni IL 2. — ed, Chr. Wechel, 
Paris, 1538. 4to. (Comm. in Jamblich. de vit. et phil. 
Pythag. 1. iv. ed. Sam. Tennulius Amh. 1668. 4to.) 
2} fy%i<gi%0y k^fuunSii libr. II. — AnUqiUB musiccs 
aiACtores VII. ed. M. Meibomius. AmsteL 1652. 4to. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 629. 


(ar) Antonintts Liberalis, in the reigns of the 
Antonines: fttrtifi^^^^v'ii, 41 narratives of transfonn- 
ations, extracted from different authors, principally 

£d. pr. Ghiil. Xylandri. Basil. 1568. Svo.— ed. Th. Mnncker. 
Amsterd. 1676. 12mo. — ed. H. Yerheyck. Lagd. B. 1774. 
8vo. — c. not. Xyl. Abr. Berkelii. Th. MuDck. et H. Yerb. ed. 
Teacher. Lips. 1791. 8vo. — Gr. e cod. Paris, aact. atque 
emend, ed. adn. int. . Xyl. Berk. Th. Galii, Munck* Yerh. 
sel. Fr. Bastii et suas adj. Ge. Aenoth. Koch. Lips. 1832. 
8vo. also in CoUecH, no. 32. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iy. p. 309. 

{uLs) Hefhjestion, of Alexandria, a Grram- 
marian, preceptor to the -3Elius Verus, who after- 
wards became Emperor. Enchir, de metris. 

Flor. ap. her. Jnntie. 1526. 8vo. — cum schol. ed. J. Com. 
de Pauw. Traj. ad Kben. 1726. 4to.— ad fid. MSS. rec. e. n. 
var. cur. Th. Gaisford. Oxon. 1810. 8yo. Ed. noy. et aact 
Lips. 1832. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 299. 

{at) M. AuRELius Antoninus, b. 121, Em- 
peror 161, d. 180, a Stoic philosopher, wrote rm %U 
l«vroy lihri xii. Rules of life from the Stoic philo- 

Ed. pr. Guil. Xylandri. Tiguri 1658. 8vo. (Lugd. 1626. 
12mo.) afterwards Basil. 1568. 8yo>-^d. Th. Gataker. Can- 
tabr. 1652. 4to. Traj. ad Bh. 1697. fol.-<ad fidem Codd. 


MSSt. em. J. Matth. Schulz. Sehlesw. 1802. toI. i. 8yo. no 
more pnblisfaed. Ed. D. Coray. Paris. 1816. 8vo. maj. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. y. p. 500. EicliBtaedt exercit. AntoDiane 
I — VI. Jen. 1820, sqq. 

(au) PoLTiBNUS, a Macedonian, Advocate and 
Rhetorician, about 163. rr^attnytifMrucSf lihri viii. 

£d. pr. c. n. Is. Casanboni. Lngd* B. 1689. 12mo. — e Codd. 
em. c. n. Cas. et snis ed. Pancr. Masyicins. Lngd. B. 1690* 
Svo. — ed. Coray m Hmfyymf 'EXXunmSit fiifi^^inMiit r§/n, m'. 
Paris. 1809. 8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. y. p. 321. 

(aw) Hermogenes, of Tarsus, a Rhetorician, 
wrote, when in his 17th year, his Tt;^ piiT«^<M, but 
lost in his 27th year both memory and speech. 
His Rhet. consists of five parts : the first (^^•'yvfiftir- 
fiMw) is printed from a Turine Cod. in BibL der 
alL Lit und Kunst t. viii. ix. Ined. and from 
2 Par. Codd. in Classic. Journ. no. 10. p. 381. 
no. 12. p. 396. no. 14. p. 417. no* 15. p. 155. 

Ed. pr. m CoUeett, no. 34. — c. yers. et scholiis Jo. Starmii 
ed. Jo. Cocinas. Argent. 1570. 8yo. — c. comm. Gasp. Lau- 
rentii. Col. Allobr. 1614. 8yo.— ed. Walz in CoUecM, no. 41. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. yi. p. 69. 

(oar) iEiius Herodianus, of Alexandria, son 
of ApolL Disc, a Grammarian, was in favour with the 
Emperor Marcus Antoninus. Portions and fragments 

170 COMMOD. 180-193. SEPT. SEYES. 193-211. 

of his wiitings may be found in ColUctL no. 34. Bek- 
ker, anecd, iii. p. 1086, 1142. annexed to the Phiy- 
nichus of Pauw and Lobeck. (Cf. Btichmann. 
anecd, ii. p. 402.) more in Pierson's App. to Mceris, 
and in the App. to God. Hermanni de emend, rat, 
Gr. gramm. Lips, 1801. dvo. in Villoison Anecdot, 
Gr, t. ii, p. 85. 86. 175. — xt^i ^ni^wi As^Mr; in 
GuiL Dindorf. Gramm, Gr, t, i, 1823. bvo. — «{/ 
Ty^^i^rm in the App. to *ltt, tviikm Trt^etyyi^^l'untL. 
ed, Guil, Dindorf, Lips. 1825. 8fo. — 'H^, ixifo^ufui. 
Her, partition's ed. Jo, Fr, Boissonade, Lond. 
1819. Gr, 8vo. Fabric, B, Gr, t. vi. p. 278. 

{ay) Cl. Galenus, of Pergamos, 131 — 201, 
lived for the most part at Rome, a philosophical 
Physician, Mathematician, Grammarian. 

Ed. pr. Aid. Yenet 1625. 5 vols, fol.— Basil. 1638. 6 vols. 
foL— ed. Ren. Chartier. Paris. 1679. 13 vols. fo\,—wiih 
Bippocr, — ed. Car. Glob. Kiihn. t. i — zz. Lips. 1821, 
&o. 8vo. (m CoUedt. no. 33.) Hit Lexicon on Hippwr, ed. 
Franz. See Erotianns. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 378. 

{ay^) Memnon, of Heraclea on the Euxine 
wrote the history of his country in more than 16 
books, of which some carefully selected extracts 
are found in Photius. — c. Ctesia et Agatharch, ed. 
H, Stephanus. Paris. 1557. 8vo. 1594. 8yo. — Memn. 
exc. Ace, Nymphidis, Promathidae, Domit. Catli- 

COMMOD. 180-193. SEPT. SEVER. 193-211. 171 

strati Jr, et Chianis epist coll. et ill. Jo. Conr. 
Orellius. Lips. 1816. 8vo. 

(az) Fausakias^ of Csesarea in Cappadocia, 
about 174^ travelled much in order to make himself 
acquainted with monuments^ and wrote at Rome 
Tii; 'EKXtti^i wt^tiynrtf 10 hooks. 

Venet. ap. Aid. 1616. fol. — c. Xyl. Sylb. et snis anim. 
ed. Joach. Kuhnias. Lips. 1696. fol.— e Codd. em. J. F. 
Facnns. Lips. 1794 — 96. 4 vols. 8to. — ed. Gr. em. adnot 
atque indd. adj. Car. God. Siebelis. Lips. 1822 — 28. 5 vols. 
8to. — ^recogn. Imm. Bekkenis. Berol. 1826. 2 vols. 8vo.— 
trad, par Clavier. Paris. 1815 — ^21. 5 vols. 8yo. Fabric. B. 
<xr. t. V. p.307. 

(6) LuGiAN, of Samosata in Synai, between 122 — 
200^ an advocate at Antioch> then a Rhetorician^ 
in which character he taught in Gaul, Macedonia, 
and Greece, an eclectic philosopher, in the reign 
of Marc. Anton. Actuarius and Procurator of a 
port of Egypt. In his writings he ridiculed the 
follies, foibles, and vices of men, especially of the 

Ed. pr. Florent. 1496. fol. — ed. Jo. Benedictas. Salmur. 
1619. 2 Tols. 8yo. — ed. Tib. Hemsterbasius et J. Fr. Reitzins. 
Am8telod.'l743. 4 toIs. 4to. reprinted Bipont. 1789—91. 9 vols. 
8yo. — ex fide Codd. Pariss. rec. Fr. Scbmieder. Halse 1800. 
2 vols. 8to. (Hemst. animadv. appendix in Aneqd. Hemst. 
Ed. J. Geel. Lugd. B. 1826. 8vo. p. 1—163.)— post Tib. 
Hemst. et Beitz. denuo castig. c. var. lect. schol. Gr. W. 

172 coMMOD. 180-193. sept, seter. 193-211. 

miisque adn. et indd. ed. J. T. Lehmann. Lips. 1822, sqq. 
7 yols. 8vo. — Toxaris Gr. proleg. instr. annoL et quiest. adj. 
C. Gr. Jacob. Halee 1826. 8vo. — Grdttergesp. — von E. Fr. 
Foppo. Leipz. 1825. 8vo. — dial. deor. cam schol. Gr. brevibas 
not — ed. F. V. Fritzsche. Lips. 1829. — Alex. Demon, etc. 
ex conform. F. Y. Fritzsche. Free. queestioDes Liician. 
Lips. 1826. 8vo. — Alex. prol. instr. annot. et exc. adj.- C. 
G. Jacob. Colon. 1828.— quomodo hist, conscribi oporteat, ed. 
C. Fr. Hermann. Francof. 1828. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. 
p. 326.' 

(ba) JEl. Aristides^ of Hadrianopolis in Bithy- 
nia, 129 — 189, lived at Smyrna, a much esteemed 
Sophist; 53 of his speeches and a rhetorical work 
are still extant. 

£d. pr. Flor. ap. Junt. 1517. fol. — c. n. Ghiil. Canteri. 
Genevae 1604. 3 toIs. 8yo. — opp. omn. rec. Sam. Jebb. Oxen. 
1722. 1730. 2 Yols. 4to.— ex rec. Guil. Dindorfii. Lips. 1829. 
3 vols. 8to. — declam. Leptinese. £m. atque annot. cnm snisi 
tum A. Maii et Jo. Morellii ill. ed. Guil. H. Graaert Bonns 
1827. — scholia in Arist. oratt. Fanath. et Flaton. plurima ex 
parte nunc priinum e Codd. MSS. ed. Guil. Frommel. Fran- 
cof. ad Mcen. 1826. 8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. yi. p. 12. 

{bb) JusTiNus Martyr, of Sychem or Flavia 
Neapolis in Palestine, became a Christian, but being 
calumniated, particularly by the Cynic Crescentius, 
was beheaded by order of the £mp. Marc. Aurel. 
Anton, in the year 165. 

Opp. ex offic. Rob. Stephani. Faris. 1551. fol.^ — c. notis 
et indd. Fr. Sylbnrgii* Heidelb. 1593. fol. Faris. 1615. 

COMMOD. 180-193. SEPT. SEVER. 193-211. 173 

Colon. 1686. fol. — c. MSS. Codd. coll. et illustr. op. unia* 
e monachii) congreg. S. Mauri (Pnidentitui Maraniu) Paris* 
Hag. Com. 1742. foL— ed. Fr. OberthUr in 0pp. Patmm 
Oraec. t. L — ^iii. Wurzb. 1777 • 8yo. — Apologis e rec. Gra- 
biaoa (Oxod. 1700. Sto.; yarr. ledt et eonject. YV. DD. 
add. Chrn. Guil. Thalemann. Lips. I7u6. 8to. Fabric. B. 
Or. t. yii. p. 62. 

{be) Athenagokas^ of Athens^ a Platonic pbilo* 
sopher and Christian, whose efforts were principally 
directed to the elucidation of Christian ideas by 
Platonic, Tr^fitm wt^t X^irrMWf, 

Ed. ex offic. H. Steph. 1657. dvo. — c. emend, yar. lectt. ad- 
nott. Tar. ed. £d. Dechair. Oxon. 1706, cUso in the Justin M. of 
IVLaran. — deprec. pro Christ, c. Tar. lect. et comm. perp. ed. 
Jo. Glieb. Lindner. Longosalissse 1774. Sto. Fabric. B. Gr. 
t. Tii. p. 96. 

{bd) Tatianus, a Syrian, a man profoundly 
versed in the Greek philosophy and literature, 
became a Christian at Rome, a follower of Justin M. 
afterwards the founder of a new sect from the year 
172. xiyti jT^ij "EXXntttt — ed, Canr. Gemer, Tiguri 

1646 ed. W. Worth. Oxon. 1700. 4to. Fabric. B. 

Gr. t. vii. p. 87. 

{be) Phrynichus, of Bithynia, a Sophist, in the 
reigns of M. Aurelius and Commodus, made a 
selection of Attic words, in alphabetical order, hcXoyn 

174 COMMOD. 180-193. sept, sevbr. 193-211. 

Ed. Zach. Callier^ 8. a. (I'tir) Sto. — c. n. Jo. Nunnesii, 
DaT. Hoeschelii, Jos. Scalig. et suis ed. Jo. Corn, de Panw. 
Traj. ad Rh. 1739. 4to. — c. r. Nunn. Hoesch. Seal, et de 
Pauw. ed. ezplic. Chr. Aug. Lobeck. Lips. 1820. 8yo. — 1» ^Sf 
O^. r»S 'A^aCiw r«r trt^t^TMMt T^a^m^Mttmt in Bekkeri cmeed, 
Gr. i. p. S. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 175. 

(hf) Julius Pollux, of Naucratis^ in the time 
of M. Aurelius and Commodus^ teacher of rhetoric at 
Athens, wrote a catalogue, arranged according to the 
classes of subjects, of idiomatic and synonymous 
words, 'OvA^MM-Tflcov. 10 books. 

Yen. ap. Aid. 1502. fol. — edd. Jo. H. Lederlinus et Tib. 
Hemsterhuis. Amstel. 1706. fol. — cur. Guil. Dindorf. Lips. 
1824. 6 vols. 6 pp. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 141. 

(Jbg) Sextus, a physician {Empiricus) and P)t- 
rhonic philosopher, under Commodus, about 190. 
Uvfftfwtn tnr^Tvxiivwf lihr. III. «-^o$ ftctSnfc^Ttxws 
(Dogmatists, Sages, and Philosophers) libri XI. 

£d. pr. Paris, ap. H. Steph. 1621. fol e Codd. MSS. 

em. Jo. Alb. Fabricius. Lips. 1718. fol. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. 
p. 527. 

[bh) -iELius McERis, Atticista, a Grammarian, 
about 190 : Af|f<s ^Amxmit %ett ^ZxyJgtm, 

Ed. Job. Hudson. Oxon. 1712. 8to.— c. Jo. Hudson!, St 
Bergleri. CI. Sallierii et all. suisque notis ed. Jo. Piersonns. 
Lugd. R 1759. 8yo. reprint* Lips. 1831. cum annot. suis et 

GOMMOD. 180-193. SEPT. SEVER. 193-211. 175 

plerisqae J. Fr. Fischeri denno ed. G. A. Koch. 1830, fiq. 
2 vols. Sto. — ex rec. Imm. Bekkeri. see HarpocratioD, p. 147* 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. ti. p. 171. ^ 

{bi) Arcadius, of Antiochia^ wt^} ritm primus 
ed. Edm. Henr. Barker. Lips. 1820. 8^0. also in 
CollectU no. 35. 

{hk) Maximus Tyriu^, lived at Rome in the time 
of Commodus^ a Sophist and Platonic Philosopher. 
Of his treatises^ ^M(Af{t<$ or >.iyM upon philosophical 
subjects, there are 41 extant. 

Par. ap. Henr. Steph. 1557. Svo. — e codd. Parr. em. Jo. 
Davisiufl c. annot. Jer. Marklandi. Lond. 1740. 4to. — e rec. et 
cum notis Davis, et Marklandi ed. J. J. Keiske. Lips. 1774. 
8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 516. 

(hi) (Flav. ?) Philostratus the elder, in the 
time of Septimius Severus, Philippus (244), a Sophist, 
taught eloquence at Rome and Athens : vita Apol- 
lonii Tyanensis, 8 books. (G. T. Becker spec. 
var. led. et obs. in Phil. v. Apoll. I. I. adj. schoL Gr. 
MS. ad VII. libr. prior es. Ace. Fr. Creuzeri 
annot. Heidelh. 1821. 8vo.) Heroica, Dialogue 
between a Vine-dresser and a Phoenician upon 21 
Homeric Heroes; rec. J. Fr. Boissonade. Paris. 
1806. 8vo. Imagines 66. Description of a picture 
gallery at Naples. Philostratorum imagines et 
Callistrati statuce ad fid. vett. II. rec. et comm. 
adj. Fr. Jacobs. Lips. 1825. 870. Cf. Chr. GottL 

176 COMMOD. 180-193. sept, sever. 193-211. 

Heynii Philostrati Im. illustratio in Opusc. ac 
vol. V.) vitas Sophistarum, 2 books. Fabric* B, Gr. 
t. V. p. 540. • 

{bm) Flat. Philostratus, the younger, nephew 
on the mother's side to the former, of Lemnos, in the 
time of Caracalla : imagines. 

Philostratorum opp. ed. Grottfr. Olearius. Lips. 1709. fol. 
Tabric. ib. p. 664. 

{bn) Zenobius or Zenudotus, a Sophist, about 
200, made extracts from the proverbs collected 
by LuciUus Tarrhseus and Didymus. 

{bo) DiOGENiANus of Heraclea, a contemporary 
of the former, author of a large dictionaiy. Out of this 
an anonymous writer made a collection of proverbs. 
Acccording to Suidas, Diogen. also compUed an 
ifUxiyitv, See both those works together, Zenobii 
epitome parcsmiarum {Lucilli) Tarrhai et Didymi, 
Flor. ap. JunU 1497. 4to. — wa^tifilm t>M9Mm illustr. 
ah Andr, Schotto. Antwerp. 1612. small fol. Fabric. 
B, Gr. t. V. p. 108. 

{bq) T. Flavius Clemens, Presbyter at Alex- 
andria, a learned man who attempted to recommend 
Christianity by comparing it with the doctrines of the 

GOMMOD. 180-193. SEPT. SBYER. 193-211. 177 

ancient Greek philosophers. ir^^r^firTMcW A«y«(. ir«u- 
2uytty6f II, III. rr^nf$t$TUf (writings of a miscellaneous 
character) IL VIII, 

Ed, pr. Flor. car. P. Victorio 1560. fol. — ex rec. Fr. Syl- 
burgii. Heidelb. 1692. fol. — c. n. Fr. Sylh. et Dan. Heinrii. 
Lugd. B. 1616. fol. Paris. 1629. fol.-^. n. Heins. Wilb. 
Lowihi et aliomm saisque ed. Jo. Potter. Lond. 1716. fol. 
Venet. 1767. 2 toIs. fol. — ^recogn. Keinh. Klotz. Lips. 1831, 
6q. 3 vols. 8yo. Clem. Al. liber quis dives salatem connequi 
possit, perp. comm. ill. a Car. Segaario. Traj. ad Kb. 1817. 
8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. tH. p. 119. 

(br) Oppianus, of Corycus in Cilicia, in the 
reigns of M. Antonin. and Commodus^ author of 
a poem ixuvraui in 5 hooks. Oppian, of Apamea 
in Cappadocia^ who lived in the time of Caracalla 
(211 — 217) and wrote a poem xvntyiTfiMt in 4 hooks, 
is a different person. Of the poem iitvntU, there 
is extant only the paraphrase hy Euteknius. ed, 
Er. Vinding, Havn, 1702. 8 vo. Nachtr, zu Sulz. vi. 
p. 379. 

Ed. pr. Halieutica Gr. Flor. ap. Junt. 1616. 8yo. — Hal. et 
Cjneg. Venet. ap. Aid. 1617. 8yo. — ap. Hadrianam Tume- 
bum. Paris. 1666. 4to.— rec. et c. comm. ed. Conr. Bitter- 
shusias. Lngd. B. 1697. 8to. — em. Jo. Gottl. Scbneider. 
Argent. 1776. large 8yo. Lips. 1813. 8yo. — ed. Belin. du 
Ballu. Argent. 1786. 4to. and large 8to. Fabric. 6. Gr. t. v. 
p. 590. 

{bs) DosiTHEUs commonly Dosith. Magister. 


178 coicMOD. 180*193. sbpt. sever. 193-211. 

Att9't$. 7«v y^itftftttruulv i^fogHifUvmf ^Si/Sa/m y. nunc 
primum int. ed. comm. et indd, instr. Ed. Boekvug. 
Bonn. 1832. 12mo. 

(bt) Athena us, of Naucratis in Egypt, about 
210, a Grammarian and Sophist. iumw^MrSf 
libri XV. Dialogues of several learned men at a 
banquet upon different subjects of literature, par- 
ticularly valuable for the frequent introduction of 
fragments of lost poets. The first 2 books and 
the beginning of the dd are extant only in an 

Ed. pr. Aldina. Venet. 1514. fol. — cam comm. Is. Casau- 
boni. Lagd. torn. i. 1612. t ii. 1621. fol. 1667- 1664. foL— 
ed. Schweighaeuser. Bip. ISOl— 1807. Teat. 6 B. Comm. 9 a 
8vo. — ex rec. Gull. Dindorfii. Lipi*. 1827. 3 vols. 8yo. — 
Fr. Jacobs additamenta animadv. in Ath. Deipn. Jens 1809. 
8vo. Aug. Meineke corse crit. in comic, fr. ab Athen. servata. 
Berol. 1814. 8vo. Fabric. B. <xr. t, v. p. 602. 

(bu) Alexander, of Aphrodisias in Caria, teacher 
of the peripatetic philosophy at Athens and Alex- 
andria in the time of Septim. Severus and Caracalla. 
He wrote chiefly Commentaries upon the writings of 
Aristotle and other works, m^i ^J^l/;c& libri II. and 
vi^i ufcct^fns L I. which ai'e extant in the Venet. 
Edit, of Themistius, (1534. yb/.), the latter also in 
Htig. Grotii 0pp. theoL Amstel. 1679. fol. t. iii. 

COtfMOD. 180-193. SEPT. SEVER. 193-211. 179 

J^totifd, Bardesanis Syri et Ge. GemisL PUthonis de 
J^ato qua supersunL Rec* Jo, Conr, Orellius. Turic^ 
1824. 8vo. defebribus lib, in Germ, nunc pr, ed, Fr» 
Passow, VratisL 1822. 4to. Fabric, B, Gr, t. v. 
p. 650. 

(bw) Diogenes, of Laertius in Cilicia, in the 
reigns of Septim. Severus and Caracalla, wrote an 
insipid and uncritical compilation, de vita, placitis et 
dicUs claroruM philosopkorum libr, X. 

£d. pr. Basil, ap. Fioben. 1533. 4to. — c. n. Aldobrandini. 
(Rom. 1594. fol.) Is. et Merici Casaubon. et comm. ^gid. 
Menagi ed. Marc. Meibomius. Amstel. 1692. 2 vols. 4to. — 
P. Gassendi comm. in libr. X. Diog. L. Paris. 1646. fol. — ed. 
P. D. Longolius. Curise Begn. 1739. 2 vols. Svo. — em. append. 
crit. et indico. instr. H. G-. Huebnems. Lips. 1828, sqq. 8vo. 
Is. Cas. et JEg, Men. obss. et em. ed. id. ib. 1830. 8yo. Fabric. 
B. Gr. t. Y. p. 564« 

{bx) Agathemek, a Geographer in the time of 

Septim. Severus: vTr^ivwtietiff tn^ yw/^a^itii h itit»« 

fir, libr, II. — ed, Sam, Tennulius, Amstel, 1671. Svo. 

— ^in Hudsoni geogr, script, min, vol. ii. Fabric, B. 

Gr, U iv, p. 615. 

{by) Ammonius Saccas, a man of low extraction^ 
but great talent, founder of the new Platonism, whose 
aim was the union of the Platonic and Aristotelic 


philosophy, the contemplation of and an intimate union 
with the Absolute. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 701. 

{bz) Cl. iBLiANus, of Praeneste in Italy, a So- 
phist, in the time of Severus Alex, varice historia: 
libri XIV, extracts from Athenaeus and others in an 
ornate style. 

£d. Cam. Perusoas. Komie 1545. 4to. — ed. Joach. Kuhn. 
Argent. 1685. 8yo. improved by Joh, Heinr. Lederlin. ib. 1713* 
Svo. — ed. Jac. Perizonius. Lugd. B. 1701. 8vo.— ed. Abr. 
G-ronoTius. Lugd. B. 1731. 4to. — ed. Coraj. Paris. fM (1806). 

Histor. Animal, libri XVII. ed. Conr. G-esner. Tigari 1556. 
fi)l. — ed. Abr. Gronovius. Lond. 1744. 4to. — Jo. Gottl. Schnei- 
der. Lips. 1784. 8to. 2 vols.— ad fid. U. MSS. constit. Fr. 
Jacobs. Jens 1832. 2 vols. 8yo. Fabric. B. G-r. t. v. p. 611. 

{c) Dio Cassius Cocceianus, of Nicsea in 
Bithynia, from 180 a Roman Senator, in the years 
222 and 229 Consul, though the Praetorians demanded 
his death. He wrote a Roman history in 80 books, 
from the arrival of iBneas to the year 229, but of 
which only the 36 — 54 books remain ; of the 66 — 60 
there is only an extract by an anonymous hand; of 
the 1st books to 146 B. C. there is one by Zonaras in 
his Hist. From books 35 — 80, which contained the 
History of the period from Pompey to Alexander Se?. 
Jo. Xiphilinus of Trapezus made an extract in the 
11th Cent. 

£d. pr. Rob. Stephaai. Lutet. 1548. fol. — cnm n. Lean- 
clavii, R. Steph. XyL Sylb. H. Steph. F. Ursini. Hanov. 1606. 


foL — em. et c« n. YY, DD. ed. Herm. Sam. Reimanis cum 
annott J. Alb. Fabricii. Hamb. 1750. fol. 2 vols. — em. — Job. 
Jac. Beiskii al. et suas notas adj. f r. Guil. Sturz. Lips. 1824. 
8 -vols. Sto. — ^Dion. C. bist. Bom. ezc. m Ang. Mail scriptt. 
▼ett. coll. t. ii. p. 136, sqq. p. 627, sqq. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. 
p. 138. 

{ca) Origbnes^ Presbyter at Caesarea, b. at Alex- 
andria 185^ d. 263^ bestowed his critical labours upon 
the Greek Translation of the LXX, and wrote besides 
several phUosophical works. 

Opp. omnia, rec. et ill. Car. Delanie. Paris. 1733 — 1769. 
4 Tols. fol. — ad ed. Par. ed. Obertbiir. Wiirzb. 1786. 16 ycIs. 
8vo. — ex yar. edd. et Codd. rec. atque ill. C. et C. Y. Delarae, 
denuo rec. em. cast. C. H. £d. Lommatzscbt Berol. 1831. 8vq. 
Fabric. B. Gt. t vii. p. 201. 

{cb) Herodianus, about 238, lived chiefly at 
Rome, and wrote a Roman History from the death of 
the £mp. M. Aurel. to the reign of Gordian. (180 — '- 
238) m 8 books. 

Ed. pr. Aldina. Yenet. 1603. fol. — ed. H. Stepbani. 1681. 
4to. — m Sylburg. scriptt. bist. rom. min. Francof. ad Moen. 
1690. fol. t iii.— Jo. Henr. Boeder. Argent. 1644. 1662. 1672. 
8vo.— Fr. Aug. Wolf. Halis 1792. 8vo.— ed. Tbeopb. Guil. 
Im^scb. Lips. 1789. Gr.8vo. 2 books. (on^I, II. III. lY. to c^ 
16.) — ad cod. Yenet. a se excuss. recogn. I. Bekkerus* Berol. 
1826. 8to. 

(cc) Plotinus, b. 206 at Lycopolis in Egypt 
pupil of Ammonius Saccas^ lived chiefly at Rome 


He is the most eminent among the New Platonists. 
His works were revised, arranged, and published 
under the name of Enneades, by his pupil Porphyiius. 
Edit Basil. 1580. fol. — PL liber de pulckritudine 
ad Ciidd, MSS. jidem em, annot. perpet interjectis 
Dan. Wyttenhachii notis — adj. Frid. Creuzerus. 
Heidelh. 1814. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 676. 

{cd) [DiONTSius Cassius] Longinus, b. 213, 
perhaps of Athens, pupil of Ammon. Saccas, applied 
himself particularly to Grammar, Criticism, and 
Eloquence, became the Counsellor of Zenobia Queen 
of Palmyra, and as such put to death by order of the 
Emp. Aurelian, 273. Ruhnkenii diss, de Longino» Of 
his numerous writings there only remains that xi^i 

£d. pr. Franc. Kobortelli. Basil. 1654. 4to.— -ed. Jac. Tollias. 

Traj. ad Ehen. 1694. 4to ed. Zach. Pearce. Loud. 1724. 

4to. — ed. Sam. Fr. Nath. Moras. Lips. 1769. 8to. libellus ani- 
madverss. ib. 1773. 8vo. — ed. Jo. Toup. Oxon. 1778. 4to. and 
8'vo.— ed. Benj. Weiske. Lips. 1809. large 8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. 
t. vi. p. 79. 

(ce) Tiberius, a Rhetorician : wt^t rm r«c^ Lnfu- 

dim o-x,iifMTH9 in Collecti. no. 34. Tib* rh. de 

Jiguris, altera parte auctior, una cum Rufi arte 

rhetorica. Ed. Jo. Fr. Boissanade. Lond. 1815. 8vo. 

Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 118. 

(c/*) In the second century after Christ we may 

AUREIIAN 270*275. DIOCLETIAN 284-^05. 183 the appearance of the aracula SilfyUina 
11. XIII. by Christian authors, — ^11. VIII. ed. Xyst 
BetuUiug. Basil. 1545. 4to; Jo, Opsopcsus, Paris. 
1589. 8to. Sermi. GalUtus. Amstelod. 1689. 4to.— 
lib, XIV. ed, Anjf, Mai. MedioL 1817. 8vo. See 
Birger Thorlacius de libris SibylUstarum vei. eecles. 
Havn. 1815. 8vo. — Fabric. B, Gr. t. i. p. 238> sqq. 

(eg) Achilles Tatius, of Alexandria, about 300, 
wrote a Romance de amoribus Clitophontis et Leu- 
cippes I. VIII. also m^i trfm^tt^ or urteyttyn tU tm 'A^. 

Ed. Jo. Commelin. Heidelb. I(i01« 8vo.— ed. Benj. Glieb. 
Lanr. Boden. Lips. 1776. Gr. 8to. — Christ. Gail. Mitscherlich. 
Bip. 1792. 8vo. — textam ad MSS. fidem rec. not sel. Salmasii, 
ineditas Fr. Guyeti, Goettlingii, Hasii et suas adj. Fr. Jacobs. 
Ups. 1821. 8vo.~-ci^ r^«Mc«r ed. P. Yictorius. Flor. 1567. fol. 
Dion. Fetavii Uranologium. Paris. 1630. Amst. 1703. fol. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 41. t. viii. p. 130. 

{ch) PoRPHYRius, prop. Malchus, a S3nrian, b. 
233, d. 305, pupil of Plotinus and Longinus, who 
distinguished himself as a New Platonic, lived chiefly 
at Rome. Besides several smaller philosophical and 
grammatical writings, {Scholia in Horn, at the end of 
Virgil, collat. scriptt. Gr. ill. ed. Valckenaer. Leov, 
1747. 8vo.) are extant : 1) lib. de vita Pythag. — c. 
n. Luc. Hohtenii (Rom. 1630. 8vo.} et C. Ritiershusii 
ed. Lud. KUster. Amstel. 1707. 4to. See Jamblichus. 


2) de abstinentia ab esu anim. L IV. — rec, at c. ft. 
P. Victorii, Jo. Valentini, Jo, J. Reiskii suisque ed. 
Jac, de Rhoer. Traj. ad Rhen. 1767. 4to. 3) de 
antro J^ympharum in Od» — rec. R. M. van Goen$. 
Traj. ad Rh. 1765. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 725. 
n«(^. ^lA. «-(•( M«(«iXA«cy^ inven. interpr. notisque 
declar. Angel. Mains. MedioL 1816. (annexed to bis 

(ct) Alciphron, of uncertain age, one of the most 
elegant of the Sophists, an imitator of Menander 
(see Meineke qtuest Men. I. p. 53.), wrote 44 letters, 
in which are represented the modes of thinking and 
living which characterize different classes, (e. g. Fisher- 
men, Peasants, Parasites.) 

In CoUecU. no. 27. — ^reo. ed. Steph. Bergler. Lips. 1715. 
8yo. — ^rec. cum St. Bergl. comm. et not Y V. DD. ed. J. A. 
Wagner. Lips. 1798. 2 vols. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 696. 

{ok) TiMJEUs, at the end of the third century. 
Lexicon vocum Platjonicarum, which Dav. Rukn- 
keniiAS first edited from a MS. of the Lihraiy at 
St. Germain. Ltigd. B. 1754. 1789. 8fo. cur* el 
vbserv. append, aux. G. A. Koch, Lips., 1832. 8fo. 
Fabric. B. Gr. X. vi. p. 243. 

(c/) Jamblichus, of Chalcis in Syria, a pupU of 
Porphyry, a New Platonic and Magician. — 1 ] de vita 


Pythoff. (first book of a work wt^l tIk nv^. td^mtfis 
in 10 books.) — rec. Lad. KUsier. Amstel. 1707. 
4to. (with Porpb.) — recogn. KUst. aUorwmque anim. 
adj, Th, Kiessling. ^cc. Porphyr. de vit, Pyth, 
C4 n. Hoist, et Ritterk. Lips, 2 vols. 1816, sq. 2) «'(•- 
r^wrucii rec. Kiessling. Lips. 1812» Svo. 3) in M- 
com. Ger. arithm. ed. et ill. Sam, Tennulius. Amh. 
1688. 4to. 4) de myster. Mg.^ed. Th, Gale. Oxatt. 
1678. fol. A fragment of the work: defato, occurs 
in the £d. of Tennulius. See other frag, in Villois. 
Anecd. Gr. t. ii. p. 188, sqq. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. 
p. 758. 

{cm) EusEBius, (Pamphili sc, amicus), of Cse- 
sarea in Palestine, b. 264, Bishop in his native town, 
fr. 315. d. 340. There are extant by him, 1)^ a 
Chranicon in the Latin Translation of Hieronymus — 
Thesaurus temp. op. et st, Jos. Scaligeri. Lugd. B. 
1606. fol. Amstel. 165S, foL Eus. chron. canonum 
II. II. opus ex Haicano cod. a D. Joh, Zohraho diH-^ 
genter expressum et castig. Ang. Maitis et J. Zohrab. 
nunc primum conjunctis curis Latinit. donatum notis^ 
que ill. odditis Gr. reliquiis edd. Mediol. 1818. — 
chron, bipartitum nunc primum ex Armen. textu in 
Lat, conversum^ adnot. auctum, Gr.fragm, exomatum 
opera P. F. Bapt. Ancher, Venet. 1818. 2 vols. 4to, 
od« I* JoL 2) fMtyytXisiif uiri2uXws ^^•xtt^tiaictvi in 

15 books.— 6(2. R* Stephanus. Paris, 1544. /o/. — rec* 


Franc. Vtgerus. Paris. 1628./oZ. Colon, 1688. fol. 
3) demonstratio evangelica 10 books.^-e<f. Rob. 
Stephan. Paris. 1545. foL-^ilL Ric. Montacutius. 
Paris. 162S. fol. Colon. \6SS. foL 4) hist, eccle^- 
astica 10 books. — re<^ Rob. Stephan. Paris, 1544. 
foL-^m. et ill. H. Valesius. Paris. 1659. 1677. fol. 
— ^10 Hist, eccles. scriptt. Gr. ed. Quit. Reading. 
Cantabr. 1720. 3 vols. /a/. — c. int. H. Valesiicomm. 
sel. Read. Strothii al. animadv. edid. suas animadv. 
excurs. indd. add. Fr. Ad, Heinichen. Lips. 1827, sq. 
3 vols, 8vo. — 5) de vita Constantini IL IV. et Paneg. 
— ed. id. Lips. 1830. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vii. p. 335. 

(c7i) Aphthonius, a Rhetorician and Sopliist of 
Andoch, wrote progymnasmata rhetorica in imitation 
of Hermogenes. 

Ed. pr. CoUectt, no. 39.— c. n. Jo. Schefferi. UpsaU 1670. 
— (c. Dan. Heinsii.) Lugd. B. 1626. Svo. with Theon fn^m 
9%^) TT^tyufUMffMrmf, lastly in the CoUectt. no. 41. Fabric. B. 
Gr. t. vi. p. 94. 

(co) Theon, a Rhetorician of Alexandria, r^^yv- 
fAftivfutztt, the most important work on this sabject. 
See Collectt. no. 41. t. i. p. 145. 

(cp) Paljephatus, about 322, wrote a work w%^ 
uirlrrttv, in which he explained the Myths for the most 
part historically. We still possess an extract from 
the first book. 


£d. pr. apiid A1d« Yenet. 1606. foL (vfUk JEwp and oihen.) 
CoUecit, no. 31.— rec. Sig. Frid. Dreingras. Lips. 1736. 
1761. 8vo — rec. J. Fr. Fischer. Lips. 1772. 1786. 1789. 8vo. 
Fabric. B. Gt. t. i, p. 182. 

(cq) Hbraclitus, of imcertain age, anthor of a 
work «AAjiy«j»/flM 'OfAn^, and of another vt^} uirlfftttf, 
which was formerly ascrihed to Heraclides Pont. 

^IL Mom, ed. pr. ap. Aid. Yenet 1606. fol^-^Cotiedt, no. 
31.— ed. Nic. Schow. Gott. 1782. 8Y0.,r. ilr/rr. Bom. 1641. 
8vo. by Leo AUatitu. CoUecU. no. 31. 

(<?r) Flav. Cl. Julianus, apostata, b. 331, 
Emperor 360, d. 363, a man of great talent, who dis- 
tinguished himself not only as a general and states- 
man, but also as a Philosopher and an eloquent 
author. We have still extant by him Satires, Misopo- 
gon, Casares, Speeches, and 9 Letters. 

Opp. ed. Dion. Petavius. Paris. 1630. 4to. — ed. £z. Span- 
hemius. Lips. 1696. 2 vols. tol. Les C^sars de Temp. Jul. 
Amsterd. 1728. 4to. — Caesares ed. Jo. Mich. Heosinger. 
Grotfa. 1736. 1741. 8vo.— >JuU in Consfiantii landem or. cum 
anim. D. Wyttenbachii ed. Godofr. Henr. Schaefer. Lips. 
1802. 8td.— Jul. imp. qiuB feruntor epist. Ace ei. fragm. 
c. pdemat. Ad fid. 11. MSS. ao typis excns. rec. — -.-com 
priomm editt turn sois observ. ill. Lud. Henr. Heyler. Mo* 
gant 1828. 8yo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. yi. p. 719. 

(cs) LiBANius, of Antioch, h. 314, d. 386, 
a Sophist, lived principally at Constantinople, and 


was a favourite with the Emperor Julian. We have 
by him progymnasmata, Declamations, Speeches, and 


Ed. Feder. Morellus. Paris. 1606. 1627. 2 vols. fol. — ^rec. et 
ill. J. J. Beiske, ed. Ern. Beiske. Altenb. 1784— d7. 4 vols. 
8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. p. 760. 

{ct) Arist^netus, of Nicaea, a Sophist, friend 
of Libanius, came to Nicomedia 358 at the time of an 
earthquake. He wrote amatory epistles in imitation 
of Alciphron. 

Ed. pr. ex bibl. Jo. Sambnci. Antw. 1566. 4to. — rec. et c. 
n. Merceri (Paris. 1639.) ed. de Panw. Traj. 1738. — ed. Frid. 
Lnd. Abreseh. ZwoU. 1749. 8vo. Ei. lectiones AristeDctes 
ib. eod. — Virr. erud. et CI. Salm. ac Tb. Munckeri not. 
Amstel. 1762. Fabric. B. Gr. t i. p. 695. 

(cu) Valerius Harpoc ration, of Alexandria, 
a Rhetorician and Grammarian, contemporary of 
Libanius, wrote a Lexicon X oratorum. 

Ed. Aid. Venet. 1603. fol. — cum Pbil. Manssad et H. 
Yalesii notis ed. Nic« Blancardus. Lugd. B. 1683. 4tD. — ed. 
Jac. Gronorius. Lugd. B. 1696. 4to. Haipocration et 
Moeris. ex rec. Imm. Bekkeri. Berol. 1833. — c. ann. inteipr. 
et lect 1. MS. Yratisl. Lips. 1824. 2 vols. Svo. Fabric. B. 
Gr. t vi. p. 246. 

[cw) HiMERins, of Cios in Bithynia, lived at 
Athens as a teacher of Rhetoric in and after the 

JULIAN. -363. THEOD. THE 6R. 378-395. 189 

reign of Julian^ a Sophist^ and an imitator of 
Aristides. There are several Declamations by him 
still extant. 

Himerii qmecnnqne reperiri potaeruDt, e codd. nunc pri- 
mum ed. et rec. Gottfr. Wernaborf. Gott. 1790. 8yo. Fabric. 
B. Gr. t. vi. p. 55. 

{ex) Themistius^ sumamed Ev^^xiif, of Paph- 
lagonia^ in the reign of Julian, and still living in 
that of Arcadius, Senator 366, Prasfectus of Con- 
stantinople 362 and 384, and companion of the 
Pr. Arcadius in the west, a philosopher and an 
eloquent speaker. Of his writings there still remain 
a paraphrase of some works of Aristotle, and 33 

Ed. pr. Aid. Yenet. 1534. fol. (8 R.)— ed. H. Stephaniui. 
1562. 8yo. (14 R.)— ^* ^<»>* Petavius. Paris. 1618. 4to. 
(19 22.)— «d. Job. Hardnin. Paris. 1684. fol. (33 R.>-^x cod. 
Medici, em. a G« Dindoriio. Lips. 1832, 8yo« e%w. Xiy§i 
jT^W Ttibt alrtm^afkifavf Iw) rf li^tu^m 999 ^x*f*» inven. et 
interpr. Ang. Mains. Mediol. 1816. Fabric. B, Gr. t. iv. 
p. 790. 

(cy) DioPHANTUS, of Alexandria, applied himself 
chiefly to Algebra. He wrote Arithmetica in 13 
books, of which 6 are still extant, and de numeris 
polyganis. — c. comm. Gasp, Backet de Meziriac, 
Paris. 1621. fol. — The de numeris Polygonis trans- 

190 THBOD. THE OR. 378-395. ARCADIUS -408. 

lated by F. Poselger, Leipz. 1810. 8vo. Fabric. B. 
Gr, t. V. p. 641. 

(cz) Sallustius, Cos. in the year 363, a 
Platonic— m^} kSif text koV^»v — c. n. Luc, Holstenii ed. 
Gabr, NaudcBus. Romas 1638. Lugd, B» 1639. 
12mo. also in Collectt. no, 31. — L. Hoist, et Th, 
Galei annoU inU Formeii (French transl. Berlin 
1748. 8vo.) autem selectis aliorumque et suis ill. J. 
C. Orellius. Turici 1821. 8vo. 

{d) Ammonius, a Grammarian of Alexandria, 
about 389, wrote a dictionary of synonyms, vn^i 
ofiolttf Kut hu^i^dtt y^'i^wf, which appears to be in 
great part taken from the work of an old Grammarian, 
the Ptolemaus of Ascalon, {Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. 
p. 156, sq. 521.) «-. 2ut^6^eif As{f«y. 

£d. pr. ap. Aid. 1497. 1524. fol.— ed. Lad. Casp. Valcke- 
naer. Lngd. B. 1739. 4to. Nova ed. (cur. G. H. Schaefero.) 
Lips. 1822. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. v. p. 716. 

{da) Heliodorus of Emesa in Syria, in the time 
of Theodosius the Great and his son, afterwards 
Bishop of Tricca in Thessaly. In his youth he 
wrote a Romance Al6f^iitSf libr, X. de amorib. Thea- 
gents et Chariclea. 

£d. pr. Basil. 1534. 4to. — ap. Hier. Commelin. 1596. 8vo. 
Lugd. 1611 . Svo. — cam anim. Jo. Bourdelotii. Latet Paris. 

XHSOD. THB GB. 378^95. ARCADIUS -408. 191 

1619. 8to.— .recogQ. Ch, W. Mitecherlich. Argent. 1798. 
2 vols. Sto.— rec. Coray. Paris. 1805. 2 void. 8vo. Fabric B. 
Gr. t viii. p. 111. 

(db) Gregory Nazianzenus, brought up at 
NaziaDzus in Cappadoda, b. 300, Bishop at Con- 
stantinople 378, which post, however, he soon re- 
signed. There are orations, epistles, and poems by 
him. The dramatic poem X^trrU yrdo'^tif, for the 
most part consisting of verses of Euripides, is 
spurious. (See Drama chrisL quod X. II. inscri- 
bitur, num. Greg. JSTaz. tribuendum sit, qticestionem 
proposuit H, Car, Abr. Eichstadius, Jerus 1816. 
4to. ) Opera cum MSS. reg, cont em, et interpr, est 
Jac, Billius. Paris. 1609. 1611. 2 vols. 1630. 2 vols. 
fol. — Opera S. Greg, Venet. 1753. 2 vols, fol, — 
stud, manach. ord, S, Bened. e congr, S, Mauri {ed. 
Clemencet) Paris. 1778. 1 vol. fol. unfinished. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. viii. p. 383. 

(rfc) Basilius Magnus, of Caesarea in Cap- 
padocia, educated at Antioch, Constantinople, and 
Athens^ at. the latter with Gregory, in his native 
city ijtiacontis, presbyter, and from 371 Bishop. 
Homilies. — Opera omnia. Basil, 1661. fol, — c. Front, 
Duccei et Fed, Morelli, Paris, 1618. foL — castig, 
Julian. Gamier. Paris. 1721 — 30. 3 vols. fol. — 
Basil, M, ad adolescentes oratio de modo e Uteris Gr. 

192 THEOD. THE 6R. d7&-^95. AECAPIUS -408. 

proficiendi ed. Frid, GuiL Sturz. Oera. 1791. 8vo. 
Fahric, B, Gr. t. ix. p. 1. 

{dd) Nemesius^ Bishop at Emesa in Ph(Bnicia. 
de natura hominis — em. Chrst, Fr, MattlueL 
HaliB 1802. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. viii. p. 448. 

{de) Pappus, of Alexandria, about 390, an 
eminent Philosopher and Mathematician. Of his 
mathematical collections only a small portion is 
extant, in the Aristarchus of Wallis, the Euclides 
of Gregory, ApoUonius Perg. Oxf. 1706. 8vo. and 
by Cameraiius, also in Bredow epist. Paris. The 
5th to the 8th book inclusive are printed in the Lat. 
Translat. of Commandinus. Pisauri 1588. 1602. 
n. o-vtxyiiyM, collect, mathem. nunc prim. Gr. ed. 
Herm. Jos. Eisenmann. Lihri V. p. alt, Paris. 1824. 
foL Fabric. B. Gr. t. ix. p. 170. 

{df) EuNAPius, of Sardis, about 400. Bio- 
graphies of the Philosophers and Sophists. — e cod. 
Sambuci c. Hadr. Junii casting. Antwerp .^ 1568. 
8vo. — e codd. Palat. em. et suppl. Hier. Commelin. 
Heidelb. 1596. 8vo. — vitas sophist, et fr. hist. rec. 
notisque ill. J. F. Boissonade. Ace. ann. D. Wytien-' 
bach. Amstelod. 1822. 8vo. 

{dg) Johannes, of Antiochj b. 354, baptized 372, 

▲B0ADIU8 •408, HONOBIUB -^23. 193 

from 398 Bishop of Constantinople, but banished 
for his open censure of the vices of the great men ; 
d. 407 ; the most eloquent among the distinguished 
Fathers of the Church; thence Chrysostomusn-^ 
Opera ex rec. Front Dwcai et Car, Morelli, Paris* 
1609—33. 12 vols, fol-^c. Henr. Savilii. Eton. 
1613. 7 vols. fol. — op. et st. Bern, de Montfaucon. 
Paris. 1718—38. 13 voh. foL^-^Jo. Ckrys. selecta."^ 
annot. subj. Jo. van Voorst. Lugd. B. 2 vob. 1827. 
31. Svo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. viii. p. 454. 

(di) Hestchius, of Alexandria, at the beginning 
of the fifth cent., author of a voluminous Lexicon, 
compiled from the old Grammarians, of which we 
have a fragment still remaining. C. F. Ranke 
de Lex. Hesych. vera orig. et gen. forma. Quedlinb. 
1831. 8vo. 

Ed. pr. Aid. Yenet. 151 4. edited by Marcus Musurus. — 
cum notifl SD. Y Y.reo. Jo. Alberti. torn. i. 1746. torn. ii. 1766. 
fol. — Hes. Lex. e cod. MS. biblioth. D. Marci restitatom, 
aactore N. Schow. Lips. 1792. Svo. Fabric. B. Grr. t. vi. 
p. 201. 

To the fourth century, the period of the conflict 
between Paganism and Christianity, we may also 
assign with much probability the so-called Obphica. 

Ed. pr. ap. Phil. Juntam. Flor. 1500. 4to.^Ald. 1517. 
8yo. aifirti with the poem AJtni. — by Henr. Stepb. in CoUecU. 


194 ARCADius -408. HOvroRiirs -423. 

no, 2.^-ly JoluMatth. Gresn. and Chr* Hamberger. Lips. 176^* 
8to. — ^rec. God. Hermann. Lips. 1805. 8yo. 

Separate Works : 1) Argonautica ed. Joh. Grotd. Schneider. 
Jena 1803. Svo. translated hf J, H. Voss m his HesiotL Hei- 
detb, 1806. 8to. (See Hertn. ^ss. de miate scfiptoris Af^omud. 
Ms Edit. Jacobs in UkeH's Qeogr. d, Gr. and Bom. 1, 3. 
p. 351. Lobeek. Aglac^h. p. 238.) 2) vfuit (86) (S. Loibeck. 
Aglaoph. p. 396.) translated into Latin by Jos. Scaliiger. 
Lugd. 6. 1616. 12mo. 3) vi^} xiim {upon the theurgie and 
medicinal powers of stones) rec. Th. Tyrwhitt. Load. 1781. 
8vo. also in Herm, Edit. The Fragm. of the Orphioa have 
been collected by Lobeek also in the Aglaoph. p. 411 — 1104. — 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. i. p. 140. 

(dk) Synesius, of Cyrene, a Platonic philosopher, 
from 410 Bishop of Ptolemais near Cyrene; Speeches, 
Letters, and Hymns. 

0pp. rec. Dion. Petavius^ Paris. 1612. 1640. fol. Fabric. 
B. (ir. t. ix. p. 190. 

(dl) LoNGus,. author of a romance, ^^tfi^tnKsiw rm 

Ed. pr. Raph. Columbanii. Flor. ap.. Pbil. Juntam. 1698* 
4to. — e eodd. F. Ursini cur. Godofr. Jungermann. Haaov. 
1605. 8vo. — ed. P. Molliaa. Franequ. 1660. 4to.— ed. Benj. 
Glieb. Laur. Boden. Lips. 1777. 8yo. — rec. Jo. Bapt. Casp. 
d'Ansse de ViTloison. Paris. 1778'. Svo.^ — ^recogn. Ch. W. 
Mitscherlich. Argent. 1794. large 8yo. — rec. (Sodofr. H. 
Schaefer. Lips. 1803. 12mo. — Lxm^ioii the Soph, Ba^^mis at^ 
Chloe Crreek and German by Fr, Passow. Leipz, 1811. 8vo. 
{in which the parts wanting in former editions have been 
supplied from the Florent, Cod,) Fabric. B. Gr. t viii, p. 133- 

A&CADIUS -408. HONORIUS -423. 195 

(dm) NoNNUS, of Panopolis in Egypt, about 410^ 
wrote 1) AffvntucSf L 48. a poem learned in matter and 
diction, but destitute of taste, ed, Ger. Falkenhurg. 
Antv* 1597. 4to. Hanov, 1605. 1610. 8vo. — suis et 
al. conj, em. et ill. Frid. Grdfe. Lips. vol. i. 1819. 
ii. 1826. 8vo. 2) A metrical Paraphrase of the 
Gospel of St. John, ed. Franc. Nansim. Ltigd. B. 
1599. 8vo. — ed. Frid. Sylburg. ap. Comm, 1596. 
8vo. — Fabric. B, Gr. t. viii. p. 601. JV. v. Pan. der 
Dichter. Ein Beitrag zur Gesch. d. Gr. Poesie von 
Ouwaroff. Petersb. 1814. 8vo. 

(dn) MusJEus, a Grammarian, rtt k»6* 'H^m *mi 
Ai«ad(«r» an epic poem. — Venet, ap. Aldum. 1517. 
Svo. — ed. H. Steph. in Collectt. no. 2. — c. n. Barthii 
et al. ed. Jo. Henr. Kromayer. Hala 1721, 8vo. 
— ex rec. Matth. Roeveri cum schol. Gr. varr. 
lectt. et not. Lugd. B. 1737. 8vo. — ex rec. Jo. 
Schraderi, Leov. 1742. 8vo. Ed. nov. auct. cur. 
God. H. Schaefer. Lips. 1825. 8vo.— ^rf. Car. 
Fr, Heinrich. Hanov. 1793. Svo. — Musteos, the 
original text, translation, introd. and crit. annot. 
by Francis Passow. Leipz. 1810. 8vo. 

{do) Xenophon Ephesius, author of a romance, 
de Anthia et Habrocome libr. V. ed. Anton. Cocchius. 
Lond. 1726. large 8ro. — recogn. Chr. Gull. Mits- 

196 THEOD. II. 408-450. biarcian -456. 

cherlich. Bipont 1794. 8vo.— rec. et ill. AL Em. 
L, B. de ho* cella. Fe^iin..l796. 4to.— -r«c. adwU 
illustr, P, Hofmann Peerlkamp. Harlem. 1818. 4to. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. riii. p. 146. 

{dp) Charitok^ of Aphrodisias^ wrote a romance, 
de Ch<Brea et Callirrhoe, rSf xt^i Xen^un xcu KaXXiffiv 
i^etrixSf itnynifMrttf Itbr. 8vo. — -ed, Jac. Phil. d^OrviUe. 
Amstel. 1750. 4t6. Lips. 1783. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. 
t. viii. p. 150. 

{dq) Syrianus> of Alexandria, a celebrated Pla- 
tonic Philosopher and Rhetorician, about 432. His 
commentaiy on several books of Aristotle's Meta- 
physics is extant only in the Latin Translation of 
Hieron. Bagolint^, Venet. 1558. 4to. A com- 
mentaiy upon the treatise of Hermogenes ^n^t rrdntn, 
in Rket. Cr. Venet. ap. Aid. 1508. 2 vols. foL is 
jiscribed to him. A fragment of his works t/f t» in^ 
ii^Sv, an introduction to Hermog. if. I. was first 
published by Spengel rvvay^ rtjc^Sv p. 195. Fa- 
\ brie. B. Gr. t. ix. p. 357. 

(dr) ZosiMUS, about 435, comes Jisci, wrote a bis- 
toxy of the Emperors, particularly from Constantius 

LEO THB OESAT, 457*474. 197 

to 410, with a short survey of the histoiy of former 
reigns^ nmt t«rr^ien fil$\u f(. 

Ed. Fr. Sylbnrg. in Scriptt. hist Bom. min. t iii. p. 623. 
— c. notis Yariorum cur. Chph. Cellario. Jena 1713. 8vo^— 
rec. et illustr. J. Fr. Beitemeier. Lips. 1784. 8yo. Fabrid. 
B. Gr. t. Yiii. p. 62. 

{ds) Proclus, sumamed Lycius and Dia- 
DocHus, i. e. successor to his master Syrianus, bom 
at Constantinople 412, died at Athens 485, an 
eclectic Philosopher. 

1) Four Hymns ^ ai first with Orpheus, Flor. ap. Jun* 
tarn 1500. 4to. Yenet. ap. Aid. 1517. 8yo. Bninck. Anal, 
t ii. p. 441. Jacobs Anth. iii. p. 148. Two newly-discovered 
H» in BibHoth. d, aUen LUt, u, K. i. p. 46. ii. p. 10, sqq. — 2) In 
theolog. Flat, libri VI. cur. Frid. Lindenbrogio ed. ^m. For- 
tQS. Hamb. 1618. fol. See below 5.) 3) Ji^nrrtfiaitM c. schol. 
Andr. Schotti et Jo. Nunnesii. HanoY. 1615. 4to. Cf. Bibl, 
d. cdt, LUt. u, K, Ir Th, Ined. — 4) Comm. in. Plat. Timsnm 
L Y. Basil. 1534. fol. (m thai ed, of Plato,) 5) Initia pbilos. ac 
tbeol. ex Platon. fontibus ducta s. Procli Diad. et Olympiodori 
in Plat. Alcib. comm. £x Codd. MSS. nunc primam Gr. 
edid. itemque cjusd. Pr. institationem theol. integriorem 
emendatioremque adj. Fr. Creuzer. Francof. ad M. 1820. 
3 Yols. 8yo. — Procli opp. e codd. MSS. bibl. reg. Paris, nunc 
primum ed. Y . Cousin. Paris. (Strasb.) 1820 — ^25. 4 yoIs. 8yo. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t iz. p. 863. 

(dt) Marinus, of Flavia Neapolis in Palestine, 
successor to Proclus in the Platonic school at 
Athens: vita Procli. — ed, Jo. Alb. Fabricius. 

198 LEO THE GREAT, 457-474. 

Hamb. 1700, 4to.— ad Jid. MSS. rec. J. F. Bm- 
sanade. Lips, 1814. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr, t. ix. 
p. 370. 

{du) Stephanus Btzantinus, a Grammariaii, 
about 470, wrote a Geographical Dictionaiy, UtauL, 
of which we have still remaining a fragment AifC4 to 
Ad^T<«v, and an extract by the Grammarian Hermolaus 
in the time of Justinian. 

Venet. ap. Aid. 1502. fol. Flor. 1621. fol. The Fragment 
de Dod. w(M first published by Sam. Tennaliiis. Amstel. 
1669. 4to.— c. anim. Th. de Pinedo. Amstel. 1678. fol. — ^restit, 
et illastT. Abr. Berkelius. Lugd. B. 1688. 1694. fol. — Luc. 
Holstenii notae et castig. postumse ed. Steph. Byckio. Lugd. 
B. 1684. fol.— c. prffif. Guil. Dindorf. Lips. 1826. 8vo. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv.p. 621. 

(dw) HiEROCLES, about 450, teacher, of the 
Platonic philosophy at Alexandria. Extracts from 
his philosophical writings have been preserved by 
Photius ; a Commentary on the carm, awr, Pyth, ; 
Gr, et Lai, Grceca accuratius recogn, et ad JliSS, 
Codd,Jidem em, una cum notis subjunctis ed, IL W. 
Lond, 1742. 8vo. — H, opera, u, Jo, Pearsonu Ettmd. 
1655. 1673. 2 vols. 8vo. 'Aatm* rec, Jo, Ad, Schier, 
Lips, 1768. 8vo. — ed, Jac, de Rhoer. in Observ. 
pkiloL Oron, 1768. 4to. 

{dz) Stobjeus, about 500, collected from poets 

ZENO 474-91. ANASTASIUS --518. 199 

and prose writers philosophical, sentences, which he 
arranged according to their suhjects in two works. 
1) Ux»ymi ^wmmk tuu i$mm^ 2 books, primus ed, GuU. 
Canter. Antv. 1575. fol. — ed. A. Herm. Lud. Heeren. 
Gott. 1792— 1801. 2 parts, 4 vols. 8vo. 2) Sermones 
— 2 books. — (ere et diligentia Fr, Trincavelli, Venet 
1535. 4to. — Gr, et Lot, per Conr, Gemerum. Tig, 
1543. 50. 59. fol. Franco/, ap. Wechel. 1581. foL 
(interpolated and intermixed with the CoUectt. of 
Antonius Melissa and Maximus,) a superior edition 
by Aurel. Allobr. 1609. fol. — ed. JNic. Schow. Lips, 
1797. torn. L 8vo. — ad MSS.Jid. em. et suppl. Th, 
Oaisford. Oxon. 1822. 4 vols. 8ro. Lips. 1823. 
4 vols. 8vo. — Dicta poetarum, qua ap. Jo. Stob, 
exstant, emend, et Lat. carm* reddita ah Hug. 
€rotio. Paris. 1623. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. i. ix. 
p. 569. 

(dy) CoiiUTHUB, of Ljcopoiis in Egypt, about 
518, wrote a poem on the Rape of Helen. 

£d. pr. Aid. s. a. 8vo.— ed. Jo. Dan. a Lennep. Leov. 1747. 
8vo. — cur. God. H. Sohaefer. Lips. 1825. Svo. — e ood. Mntin. 
suppl. et em. Im. Bekkerns. Berol. 18 1*6. 8to. Fabric. B. Gr. 
t Tiii. p. 166. 

{dz) Tbyphiodorus, an. Egyptian poet, desti- 
tute of taste : 'ixtdv StKitvtf ed. Th, Northmore. Cant. 
£t Ox. 1791. Lond. 1804. 8vo ed. G. H. Schaefer. 

200 JusTiHiAir 527-465. 

Lips. 1809* fol.-^0. /. Merickii et Sckaef. aimot 
inUfr, ed. F. A. Wernicke. Lips. 1819. 8vo. ft- 
brie. B, Or. U viii. p. 169. 

(e) QuiNTUS (Hmfi) Smybn£0s of uncertain 
age> wrote a poem, chiefly derived from the Cyclics ; 
9F»^e$Xuirifum 'Ojm4(««> in Homeric diction, in 14 
books, which was discovered in the convent Cassula 
near Otranto, (thence Qu. Calaber). Fabric. B. Gr. 
t. viii. p. 161. 

£d. pr. Aid. wUh Co/ti/A.— ed. Laur. Khodomann. Hanov. 
1604. 8to^— ed. Jo. Corn, de Pauw. Lngd. B. 1734. 8vo.--4«c. 
Th. Ch. Tyclisen. Argent. 1807. 2 vols. 8yo. 

{ea) Thbophilus, a jurist, assisted in the Col- 
lection of Laws arranged by Justinian — paraphrttsu 
Gr, Institutionum Justin, c. n. P. ^anni, J. CttrtU, 
D. Gothofredi, H. Emstii et C. A. Fabrotti ed. 
Guil. Otto Reitz. Haga Cam. 1751* 2 vols. 4to. 
Des Antec. Theophilus Paraphrasis der Instit. Jugii- 
nians, Ubers. und mit Anm. von K. WUstemann. JBer- 
lin 1823. 2 vols. 8vo. The works of other Jurists, 
Tkalelcei, Theodoriy Stephani, Cyrilli al. Jet. Gr. 
comment, in tit. Digest, et Cod. de postuiandOm'^^et 
cod. MSto. bibl. Lugd. B. ed. D. Ruhnkenius. Hag. 
Com. 1752. fol. and in Meermann*s thesmur. Ill* IV. 

{eb) Damasgitts, of the city Damascus, au eclectic 

MAURICIUS 582^^2. HSRACLIU8 610-641. 201 

Philos. master to the following.-— AnpioWAtf iuM^w 
u^m^utt Ktti Xvntf fTf^i rSf w^titrnt ^xfi^. Ad fidem 
Codd, MSS. nunc primum ed, J, Kapp. Franco/* 
1827. 8vo. 

(ec) SiMPLicius^ of Cilicia, an eclectic Philosopher^ 
the most acute and judicious interpreter of Aristot. 
and Epictet. Comm* in Arist. I. phys. auscult VeneL 
ap. Aid. 1526. fol. — in ArisL Categanas. BtuiL 
1661. foL— m Ar. L IV. de cctlo. VeneL 1548. 1583. 
fol. His Comment, on Epictetus Enchir. in Epicte- 
tecB phil. monum. ed. Schweighaetb$er. Fabric. B. Gr, 
t. ix. p. 529. 

(ed) H£STGHius> of Milet. with the title vir illu- 
stris, an Historian.— -iii?«. Mil. de viris doctrina 
Claris, lib. ei. de rebus patriis Constantinopoleos 
(Fragm. of the Chronicle of Belus, King of Assyr.^ to 
the death of King Anastasius) c. not ed. Jo. Meursius. 
Lugd. B. 1613. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. U vii. p. 544. 

(ee) Pbogopius, Secretary to Belisarius^ of Cs- 
sarea in Palestine, Advocate at Constantinople, wrote 
Gothica, wars of Belisaiius with the Persians, Vandals, 
Goths. 8 hooks. *Aff»}«r«, secret History of the Court 
at Constantinople are of doubtful authenticity. 

0pp. ed. Claud. Maltretus. Paris. 1662. 2 toIs. fol. — Anecd. 
Nio. Alemanno defensoro primum e bibl. Vatic, prolata^ nunc 

902 MAURicius 582-603. heraolius 610-641. 

plerisque in locis leqQaliiiin testimoniii falsitatis convict^ a Jo. 
Eichelio. Helmst 1654. 4to. — anecd. Alem. Maltr. Reinhardi 
Toap. al. annot. crit ei hist, snasque animadv. adj. Jo. Conr- 
OreHins. Lips. 1827. 8to. — Procop. e rec. G. Dindorfii. Bono. 
1633. in CoUede. no. 44. Fabric. B. Gr. t. tu. p. 563. 

{ef) Agathias^ of Myriua in .^Bolis, contumed 
the history of Procop. to 559. ed. Bonav. Vulcannu. 
Lugd. B. 1594. 4to. ed. B. G. XUbtihr. Bonn. 1826. 
in ColleciL no. 44. He wrote also Epigrams (short 
occasional poems) : Brunch. Anal. t. iii. p. 33. 
Jacobs Antkcl. t. iv. p. 3. and made a collection of 
the Epigrams of contemporary poets according to 
their suhjects^ called JLwcKh, in 7 books. The 
metrical preface has been edited from the Cod. Palat. 
by Fr. Jacobs Anm. in epigr. Anthol. Gr. ProL p. i. 
u, sqq. Fabric. B. Gr. t. iv. p. 424. 459. 

(eg) Johannes Laurentius Lydus^ of Phila- 
delphia in Lydia^ b. 490.— cjnMc. de mensibus et fr. 
de terra moiibus e Codd. MSS, ed. Nic* Sekow. 
laps. 1794. 8vo. — de mensibus qua exst. exeerpta 
recogn. et em. perp. cum sua turn JVtc. Schowii turn 
C. B, Hasii et Fr. Creuzeri al. adnoU instr. Gmi 
Roether. Darmst. 1828. 8yo. — de magistratibus reip. 
Rom, lib. III. nunc primum in lucem ediH et vers. 
notis indicibusque audi a Jo. Domin. Fuss. Pntf. 
est Car. Bened. Hase. Paris. 1812. large 8vo. J. D. 
Fuss ad C. B. Hase epist, in qua Jo, Lour, lAfdi d. 

CONSTANT. P0RPHYR06EN. 780-802. MICH. III. 203 

HMtgistr. r. R. opusculi textus et venio em, loci diffi- 
ciliores illusir, Bonn, 1821. 8to. — de ostentis, qua 
supers, c, ft, L de mens, e eodd, reg^, ed, C, B, Hass. 
Paris. 1«23. 8vo. 

(eh) Theophtlagtus Simogatta, an Egyptian, 
Sophist and Historian : History of the Reign of King 
Mauricius in 8 books* — stud. Car, Ann, Fahrotti, 
Paris, 1647. fol. (the fourth part of the Parisian^ the 
third part of the Venet. collection of the scriptt, 
hisiar, Byzaniina) — ttirt^Ut fvruuu c, n, Andr. 
Rivini, Lips. 1653. 4to. Fabric, B, Gr, X, m 

(«) NiCEPHORus, b. 758, Patriarch of Constanti- 
nople 806, but banished for his defence of Image- 
worship 815, (J^Atynnif), d. 828 in the conyent.— - 
Chranoloffia compendiaria, from the creation to his 
own times in Jos, Scaligeri thes, temp, — c. not, Joe. 
Goar. Paris. 1652. fol. (in the sixth book of the 
Paris, the fifth of the Venet. CoUectt.) — Breviarium 
historicum from the death of K. Mauricius in the year 
602 to 770. c. n, Dion. Petavii. Paris. 1616. (and in 
the eighth book of the Paris, the seventh of the Venet. 
Collectt.) c, L, Schopen, Bonn, 1830. Fabrie^^ B, 
Gr. t, vii. p. 462. 603. 

(ek) Photxus, Patriarch of Constantinople, from 

204 842-867. basilius i. ^886. lbo fhil.-911. 

857—867, then 886, d. 891. Besides several con- 
troversal writings in theology, there is extant by him 
a work, B«/3A4«d«»« or Mv(ioi3«i3x«y, which contains 
critical examinations, (reviews) extracts and fragments 
of 280 books which he had read : (60 Speeches of 
Antiph. [now 16], 60 of Isocr. [21], Lysias 425, 
[34], Isaeus 64 [10], Demosth. 66 [42], HypCTides 
77 [1], Dinarch. 64 [3], Lycurg. 15 [IJ. Alto- 
gether 830 [128], woQting 702.) 

ed. Dav. Hoeschelins. Aug. Vind. 1601. fol«— «d. Andr. 
Schottus. Grenev. 1613. fol. Bothom. 1663. fol. — ex rec. Imm. 
Bekkeri. Berol. 1824. 2 vols. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. x. p. 670. 

Lexicon Photii e daobus apogr. ed. Godofir. Hermann. Xdps. 
1808. 4to. J. Fr. Schleusner. lib. animadv. ad Photii Lexicon. 
Lips. 1810. 4to. £i. Curse noviss. in Phot. Lexic. Lips. 1812. 
4to. O. Xt^uvv ftnay^yn e cod. Galeano descr. Kic. Poison. 
Lond. 1822. 2 vols. 8to. Lips. 1823. Fabric. B. Gr. t. ▼!. 
p. 603. t. vii. p. 666. 

(el) CoNSTANTiNus Cbphalas, at the beginning 
of the tenth century, collected an Anthology of all 
the earlier Epigrammatists. The MS. was first dis- 
covered by Salnumus 1606 at Heidelberg, and the 
inedita were copied by him. From the transcripts 
made by him were printed : Epigrammata Grasca pro 
anecdotis prodeuntia ed, Jo. Jensius. Roterod* 1742. 
8yo. Sepulcralia carmina ex AnthoL MS. {ed. lieich.) 
Lips. 1745. 4to. Anthologies GrceccB a Const. Cephala 
conditcB libri III. Lips. 1754. 8vo. StraUmis aHo- 

842-867. BASXLius i,-886. leo phil.-^U. 206 

ritmque veiL poSt. Gr. epigr. ed. Chr, Ad. Klotzio. 
Jtlieb. 1764. 8vo. Jo, GottL Schneider* perictdum 
crit. in anthoL Const Cephala, Lips, 1772. Svo. 
With the advantage of all these editions and of his 
own transcript^ Brunch published his Analecta, &c. 
See CoUectt. no. 7. reprinted in CollectU no. 8. 
From the Vatican Codex a complete copy was made 
by the Abb. Jos. Spaletti, which Duke Ernest 
purchased for the Library at Gotha^ made use of in 
Frid. Jacobs animadv, in epigr, AnthoL Gr, Lips. 
1798—1803. 7 vols. 8vo. From that: Im. GottL 
Husehke Analecta crit. in anthoL Gr, cum suppL 
epigr. tnaxitnam partem ineditt, Jena 1800. 8vo. 
AnthoL Gr, ad Jidem cod, Palat. nunc Parisini ex 
apogr, Goth, edita : cur, epigramm, in cod, Palatino 
desiderata et annot, crit, adj, Frid, Jacobs, Lips, 
1813 — 17. 3 vols. 8vo. Fabric, B. Gr. t. iv. p. 426. 


£m^ 912, but poisoned by his son Romanus 959, 
an author, but ill qualified for a ruler.— <?6 (Mtminis- 
trando imperio ad JiL Rom, c, n, Ans, Banduris in 
his Imperium orient, Paris, 1711. Venet, 1729. 
2 vols. fol. — de thematibus (quarters of the troops) 
rec. Fed, Morellus, Paris, 1609. 8vo. and in Banduri 
Imp. or. — History of the Reign of the £mp. Basilius. 
— c. vers. Franc, Combefisii, Paris. 1685. fol. (in the 
eighteenth book of the Paris, the sixteenth of the 


Venet. CoUecU. and Collectt. no. 44. 1829.) and 
other writings. By his order were prepared also 
Collections : 1 ) xi^itXtuitim vTtSirwf capit «• Htuli 
63, of which still remain : a) tit 27. Exeerpta de 
Ugationibus, Extracts from the now lost hooks of 
Polyhius^ Diodorus Sic.^ Dionys. Halic, Dio Cassias^ 
Appian. — ed* e bibl. Fulv. Ursinu Antw, 1582. 4to. — 
b) tit 50. Exc. {Peiresciana) de virtutibus et mtiis.-^ 
iJ. Valesius primum Gr, ed. Paris, 1634. 4 to. — 
2) Tuwunmv libri XX. (the Collector was Cassia- 
niis Bassus) post P. Needhami euros ad MSS, /Idem 
denuo rec. et ill. Jo, Nic, JSticlas, Lips, 1781. 4 vols* 
8vo. — 3) He caused a new revision to he made of 
the edicts of the Greek Emperors, of which a 
collection had heen annoimced hy the Emp. BasUins 
(867 — 886) in his 9r(«;^(t» t#» »«fu»», and pc^Mred bv 
his son Leo VI. the Wise (886—911): ^ttv^iXaO^ 
iMXii\%mt L 60. ed, C. A, Fabrotti, Paris. 1647. 
7 vols. fol. (only 41 hooks complete, the others in a 
cvf^i/i(.) — Basil. II. 49 — 52. e cod. MS. bibl. Paris. 
int. ed. Ouil. Otto Reitz in the fifth hook of Meer- 
mtt9ins thes. jur, dv. et can. Hag. Com. 1752. — 
4)'lx^Mr^iM — ed. Sim. GrytuBus. Basil. 1537. 4 to. 
Fabric. B. Gr. t. viii. p. 1. 

(en) Jo. ZoNARAS *, of Constantinople, filled offices 

 Zonarcu is the first of the four proper scriptores historiat 
Byz. Next to him is Nicetas ChoniaieSf who wrote the 

--886. LEO PHIL08.-9n. ALEXIUS 1081-1 118, 207 

of high dignity under £mp. Alexius Comnenus (1081 

1118), but afterwards entered a monastery. X^*fmtf 

of the Creation to 1118. — fnimum ed, Hieron. Wolf. 
SasiL 1557. 3 vols. foL — em* et ill. Car. du Fresne 
du Cange. Paris. 1686. 2 vol. fol. Fabric. B. Or. 
t. yii. p. 468. — Ztmara lexicon ed. J. A. H. Titt- 
mann. Lips. 1808. 2 vols. 4 to. 

{eo) Anna Comnena, daughter of the Emp. 
Alexius Comm. b. 1083. d. 1 148> wife of Nicephorus 
Bryennius, wrote after the death of her husband 
( 1 137^ the history of her father, 'AAf^M^, in 15 books. 
— c. n. ed. David. Hoesckelius. Attgust. Vind. 1610. 
4 to. (only 8 books.) — ed. P. Possintis. Paris. 1531. 
fol. (in the thirteenth book of the Paris, eleventh of 
the Venet. CoUectt.) Translate in Historiscke Me- 
moiren published by Fr. Schiller. Jena 1790. 8vo. 
first and second books. Fabric, B. Gr. t. vii. p. 727. 

{ep) Leo Diagonus in the time of Basil. II. and 
Constautine VIII. History of the death of Emp. 
Constant. Porphyrog. to that of the Emp. Job. 
Tzimisces. hist, e bibl. regia nunc primum ed. et 
notis ill. C. B. Hose. Paris. 1828. fol. Niebuhr corp. 
script, hist. Byz. t. xi. 

history of 1118 — 1206 ; next to him Nicepkonu Gregcras from 
1204 — 1351 'y next to him Loflmcus Cfuilccnebflcu (prop. Chal- 
cocond.) from 1298 — 1462. The rest of the Byzantine historians 
related the history of particular periQds and reigns. 

208 MANUEL I. COMN. 1143-1180. 

(eq) EuDociA MACRSMBOLiTissAy daughter of 
Emp. Constant. VIIIj wife of the Emp. Constantinus 
Ducas (1059—67) and Romanus Diogenes 1068. 
^litnd, an historico-mythological Dictionaxy compiled 
from different authors, particularly Grammarians and 
Scholiasts. — ecL Jo* Bapt Casp. d*Ansse de Villaisan, 
Venet. 1781. fol. and 4to. Fabric. B. Or. t. viii. p.£^. 

{er) SuiDAS, at the end of the 11th century, com- 
piled a Lexicon from the Schol. of Aristophanes, 
Thucydides, ApoUonius Rhod. and others. 

£d. pr. Mediol. 1499. fol— ed. Lad. Etister. Cantabr. 1705. 
3 Tols. fol. Toup. EmendatL in Suidam et Hesyduum et aL 
Lezicogr. Gr. Ozon. 1790. 4 vols. Syo. — Th. Reinesii obss. in 
Said. £not. digessit et ed. Chr. Gottfr. MUller. Lips. 1819. 
8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 389. 

The Etymohgicum magnum is of uncertain date. 

£d. pr. Venet. 1499. fol.— cura Fr. Sylburgii. Heideib. 
1594. fol. Lips. 1816. 4to. Jppended thereto 1. Etym. Gr. 
ling. Gudianum et alia Gramm. scripta e Codd. MSS. none 
primnm edita. Ace. notse ad Etjrm. M. ined. Barken, Bekkeri| 
Kalenkamp, Peyroni al. qaas digessit et ana cum sais edidit 
Frid. Gail. Sturzias. Lips. 1818. Starzii novse annot. in £t 
m. Lips. (Graiulaiionssckrift an HR, Beek.) Lips. 1838. 
2. Orionis Theb. Etymol. pr. ed. Fr. Gail. Starz. Lipc. 1880. 
4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vi. p. 595. 

{es) Ju. TzETZES, a very learned, hut insipid. 
Grammarian of Constantinople, about 1150. By 

ALEXIUS III. 1195. — ^ANDRON. I. 1282-1328. 209 

him aie extant: Chiliades, in ver$ibus ppHHcis 
m Corp, pdet Gr. Geneva. 1614. t. ii. — ad fid. 
2 Codd. Monac. recogn. annoi, et ind, instr. 
Theaph. Kie$$ling. Lips. 1826. 8vo. — Scholia upon 
Hesiod and Lycophron^ which are also ascribed to 
his brother Isaac. — Anteh&merica, Homerica et 
Posthom. e codd. ed. et comm. instr. Frid. Jacobs* 
Lips. 1793. 8vo. ad codd. integriores rec. Imm. Bek- 
kerus^ BeroL 8yo. — ^Eliynrtf uf vnf 'Ofti^cv 'IXmi%» 
in the Draco Straton. of Hermann. 

. {et) <jt'RBGOB,iv%, Bishop (Metropolit.) at Corinth, 
about 1150, wrote a work de dialectis. 

Ed. Gisb. Koen. Lugd. B. 17^6. 8vo. — rec. et o. not. Eoe« 
nii, Bastii, Boissonadi suisque ed. Grodofir. Henr. Schaefer. 
Lips. 1811. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gt. t. vi. p. 194. 

{eu) EusTATHius, of Constantinople, about 1194, 
Archbishop at Thessalonica, Commentary upon Ho- 
mer and Dion. Perieg., see above. A Romance which 
bears his name, de amoribus Ismenia et Ismenes 
11 books, is by an Egyptian. Ed. Gill. Gaulmin. 
Lutet. Par. 1618. 8vo.— L. H. Teucher. Lips. 1792. 
Svo. — Eusth. opusc. Ace. Trapez. hist. scr. Panaretus 
et Etigenicus. E Codd. Basil. Paris. Ven. nunc 
primum ed, Thph. Luc. Fr, Tafel. Franc, ad M. 
1832. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t. viii. p. 136. 


210 ALEXIUS III. 1195. — ANBROK. u 1282-1328. 

(ew) NiCETAs AcoMiNATUs Choniates, of 
Chonae or Colossae in Fhrygia, filled the. highest 
posts of honour at Constantinople, and wandered 
after the captare of this city through Franconia 
in the year 1204 to Nicsea, where he died 1206; 
Geschichie des Gr, R. v. Joh, Comnenus bis Heinr. 

Balduin (1118-^1206) in 21 books ed. Hieron. 

Wolf, Basil. 1557. fol.— c. C. Ann. Fabrotti. 
Paris. 1647. fol. (in the 14th book of the Paris, 
the 12ih of the Venet. Collect, and Collectt no. 
44. 1829.) — narr, de statuis ant. quas Franci post 
capt. a. 1S>04. Const, destruxerunf, e cod. Bodlei. 
emend, a Fr. Wilken. Lips, 1830. 8vo. Fabric. B, 
Gr. t. vii. p. 737. 

{ex) PHiLElfl^ON, a Grammarian : >iS«itoir jtxn- 
Aey<«or. Ex bibl, Paris, (ed. Car, Bumey.) Land. 
1812. 8vo. Phil, gramm. quae supersunt vulgatis et 
emendatiora et auctiora ed. Fr. Osann. BeroL 1821. 
8vo. Fabric. B, Gr. t. vi. p. 169, not. 

{ey) Theodorus Metochita, ChanceDor under 
the Emperor Andronicus I. about 1314, but banished 
by his successor Andronicus II. died in a convent 
at Constantinople, 1332, one of the most learned 
men of his time.^^Th. Met. miscellanea philol. et 
histor. Gr. Textum e cod. Cizensi desor, lectionisque 

ANDRON. II. 1328-1341. JOHAN. I. 1341-1392. 211 

var, ex aliquot aliis codd, enotaiam adj, Chr. God, 
Muller, Prcef, est Theopk. Kiessling, Lips. 1821. 
8vo. Fabric. B. Gr, t. x. p. 412. 

(ez) Thomas M agister, (mag, offidorum, i. e. 
colonel of a section of the body-guard and Chancellor 
of Emperor Andronicos \., then as a monk at Thes- 
salonica Theodulus) '£«A«74 ifafMiraif 'ArrtKcn, 

Ed. pr. Bomse 1517. 8yo. — ed. Jos. Steph. Bernard. Lugd. 
B, 1767. 8vo. ed. Car. Jacobitz. Lipp. 1833. 8vo. — Thorn. M. 
sive Theoduli mouachi ecloga y. Att. ex rec. et cum proleg. 
Frid. Eitschelii. Halis Sax. 1832. 8vo. Fabric. B. Gr. 
t. vi. p. 181. 

{/) Maximus Planudes, a monk at Constanti- 
nople and Grammarian^ about 1327. Besides several 
theological writings, there is extant by him a col- 
lection of iEsop's Fables (see above), and an An- 
tholog. epigr, Grcec, VII. /. arranged in chapters, 
and these according to the initial letters of the super- 

Antbol. Planad. ed. pr. per Jan. Lascarim. Flor. 1494. 4to. 
— c. not. Job. Biodeei. Basil. 1549* fol. — ed. H. Stephani. 
1566. 4to. — Francof. ap. Wecbeli haer. 1600. fol. with Scholia. 
— ed. Hieron. de Boech. c. vers. Lat. Hug. Grotii. Ultraj. 
1795 — 1823. 5 vols. 4to. Fabric. B. Gr. t.iv. p. 429. 

(fa) NiCEPHORUs Gregoras, of Heraclea in 
Pontus, in the year 1295, d. 1359. His Byzantine 

212 JOHANNES I. 1341-1392. 

Histoiy in 38 books embraced the period from 1204 
to 1359 ; only the first 24, however, (to 1351), were 
printed.^-eJ. HUr. Wolf. Basil. 1562. fol. (only 11 
books.) — c. n. Ducangii et suis ed. Joh. Boivin, Pom. 
1702. fol. (the 21st book of the Paris, the 2ath of 
the Venet. Collect. — {ed* L, Schopen* Collectt no. 
44. 1828. 2 vols. A fragment of his Yi;t*^ 
A«y/«i m^i y^eiftfutruuit is extant in Ood, Hermanni 
I. de em, rat Gr, gramm. Fabric. B. Gr. t. vii. 
p. 632. 

(fb) Johannes Cantacuzenus, Emperor 1342, 
from 1355 a monk : HistoruB Byzantine U IV. from 
1320-1354. — c. Pontani et Gretseri notis. Paris. 
1645. 3 vols. fol. (in the 17th book of the Paris, in 
the 15th of the Venet. CoUectt.) Collectt. no. 44. 
1828. 31. He wrote also against the Mahomedans 
and Heretics. Fabric. B. Gr. t vii. p. 727. 

ifc) CoNSTANTiNus Harmenopulus, a jurist 
at Constantinople, bom 1320, died 1380. ff-^*;^- 
(09 yo^r, promtuarium juris civilis in 6 books, and 
vifMi yut^aft\ leges agrarujB. — ex var* Codd, MSS. 
em. atque auxit OuU. Otto Reitzius. Hagas Com. 
1780. io\p Besides these we have some theological 
writings by him. 


Owing to the advances which the Turks were 
continually making upon the Grecian Empire^ and 
especially in consequence of the capture of Con- 
stantinople in the year 1453, the Grecian literati 
were scattered abroad; they betook themselves for 
the most part to Italy^ and planted the knowledge 
of Grecian Literature in western Europe. The most 
distinguished of the Grecian sages, who lived for 
the most part in Italy, are ; Emaniul Chrysoloras ** 
the proper restorer of Grecian Literature in Italy, 
where he taught at Rome, Venice, Milan, and Pavia, 
died 1415 at the Council of Constance; Theodorns 
Gaza, of Thessalonica, about 1430, Translator of 
several writings of Aristotle, Theophrastus, ^lian> 
Dionysius of Halicamassus, and author of a Greek 
Grammar, VeneL 1495. foL; Georg, of Trebisonde, 
bom 1396, died 1480, vindicator of Aristotle against 
the Platonists; Bessarion, of the same place, bom 
1395, Cardinal 1439, died 1472, a Platonist, transla- 
tion of Xenopkons MS* ; Geotg. Gemtstus or Pletho, 
of Constantinople, at the Council of Florence 1438, 
restorer of the Platonic philosophy, author of several 
historical and other writings; Michael Glycas, 
author of Annals of the Creation to the death of 
the Emperor Alexius Comnenus (c. ann. PhiL 
Lahheu Paris. 1660. fol. in the 10th book of 
the Paris, in the 9th of the Venet. Collect.) ; 

[■ See Tennemann, p. 262.] 


Michael ^postolius, of Byzantium^ who about 1450 
came to lisly, author of a collection of Greek 
proverbs^ Tret^uf/UM (c. n, P, Pantini et aL VV. 
DB. Lugd. B. 1619. 1634. 1653. 4to.); Manuel 
Mosckopulus, of the same place, who fled to Italy 
about 1453, author of several treatises on Grammar; 
Johann, Argyropulus of the same place, preceptor 
to Angel, Politianus, Jo, Reuchlin, and others; 
Laonicus Chalcondyles, of Athens, about 1470, 
author of a history of the Turks, and of the decline 
of the Grecian Empire from 1298—1462, in 10 
books, {op, C, Ann, FabrottL Paris. 1650. fol. 
in the 17th book of the Paris, in the 16th of the 
Venet. Collect.) ; Constantimis Lascaris at Milan 
1460 — 1470, author of a Greek Grammar and of other 
grammatical works; Georg, Phranzes, of Constanti- 
nople, bom 1401, monk at Corfu, author of a 
Byzantine chronicle from 1401 — 1477, in 4 books, 
{ed. Franc, Car, Alter. Vindob, 1796. fol.) ; 
Demetritis Chalcondyles, . of Athens, at Milan about 
1479, editor of Homer. Flor, 1488 ; Janus Lascaris, 
of Rhyndacus, editor of 4 Tragedies of Euripides, and of 
the Greek Anthology. For an account of these re- 
fugees, see W, Roscoe, Life of Lorenzo de JHedici, 
and his Life of Pope Leo X, 


J. A. Fabricii bibliotheca Latina, etc. cura J. A. Eraestii. Lips. 

1773, 74. 3 vols. 8vo. 
Th. Ch. Harles introd. in notitiam litterat Bom. Lips. 1794. 

2 vols. 8vo. — EL brevier notitia litteratnrs Romans. Lips. 

1789. 8vo. Supplem. 1799—1801. 2 vols. 8vo.— «ontin. C. 

Fr. Henr. KlugJing. Lips. 1817. 8vo. 
J. 0. F. Manso iiber d. rhetor. Geprage der Rdm. Litt m 

Term. Abb. n. Aufe. Bresl. 1821. 8vo. 
G. J. Yossias de poetis Latinis. AmsteL 1652. 4to. 
Karzer Abriss der Gescbichte der BOm. Poesie in NachirUgen 

zu Sttlzer. 1 book. 
Job. Hartmann Eberbardt uber den Zustand der schdnen Wiss. 

bei d. Rdm. Aus d. Schwed. mit Zus. {von Kordes.) Al- 
ton. 1801. 8vo. 
G, J. Yossius de bistoricis Lat. lib. iii. Lugd. B. 1627. 4to. 

Supplem. et obserw. ad. Yoss. de b; 1. Ed. J. A. Fabricius. 

Hamb. 1709. 8vo. 
[Cmsios' Lives of the Roman Poets, 2 vols. 1753.] 
J. Chr. F. Bahr Gesch. d. Rdm. Litter. Carlsr. 1828. 8vo. 
G. Bemhardy Gmndriss der Rdm. Litter. Halle 1831. 8vo. 
£G. Bemhaidj Grmndriss der Grriechischen Litteratur, mit ver- 

gleichenden Ueberblick des ROmischen. Halle 1836. 8vo. 
L. Schaaf Gescbichte der Griechischen and Rdmischen Lit- 

terator. 1837* 8vo. 
Dnnlop's History of Roman Literature, 3 vols. 8vo.] 

CoUectiam qf several AuUwrs, 

1. Fragmenta vett* poet. Latin* Paris, ap. Rob. et Henr. Ste^ 
phanos. 1564. 8vo« 


2. Mich. Maittaife opp. et fragm. vett. poet. Lat. Ixmd. 1713. 

2 vols. fol. 

3. Andiologia vett Lat. epigr. et poem, sive Catalecta poet 

Lat. in 6 libros digests, ed. P. Barmamnis II. 
Amstel. 1769—1773. 2 toIb. 4to. 

4. Poete Lat. min. — cur. P. Bannanno. LeidiB 1731. 

2 Tols. 4to. 

5. Poetse Lat. minores car. Jo. Chm. WenisdorfL Altealmrg. 

(Helmst) 1780—94. 6 toIb. 8yo. 

6. Syntagma tragoedis Lat. ed. Mart. Ant. Delrio. Antrerp. 

1594. 4to. Paris. 1607. 1619. 4to. 

7. Collectanea vett. tragic, c. n. 6. J. Tossii ed. P. Scri- 

yeriufl. Lugd. B. 1620. Syo. 

8. Comicomm Lat. Fr. ed. H. Stephanns. l^aris. 1569. 8to. 

9. Poetamm Latii scenicor. Fr. rec. Fr. He)ir. BotHe. Hal- 

berst 1823, sqq. 5 voLi. 8yo. 

10. Ant. Riccoboni liber de historia com fragm. vett. bislor. 

Lat. Tenet. 1568. Basil. 1579. 8to. 

11. Fragm. historic, yett. Lat. ab Aus. Pompa coU. em. et 

scholiis ill. Amstel. 1620. 8to. 

12. Scriptores rei rosticiB vett. Lat. cut, Jo. Matth. Gesaero. 

Lips. 1735. 1773. 2 vols. 4to. 

13. lidem cur. J. Glo. Schneider. Lips. 1794. 4 yoIs. 8vo. 

14. Venatio noyantiqna h. e. aactores rei yenatice antique, 

cum comm. Jani Ylitii. Lugd. B. 1645. 12mo. 

15. Poets Lat. rei yenat. scriptt. et bucol. ant. c. n. integr. 

TV. DD. (ed. Sig. Hayercamp.) Lugd. B. et Hag. 
Com. 1728. 4to. 

16. Historis Augusts scriptt. VI. (ed. pr. Mediol. 1475* 

fol.) c. cast. Frid. Sylburgii. Francof. 1585. fol. — c. 
not. J. Gruteri. (Hanoy. 1611.) Is. Casauboni. (Paris. 
1603. 4to.) et CI. Salmasii. Lugd. B. 1670.2 yol8.8yo. 

17. Panegyrici yetL (ed. pr. Tienns. 1513. 4to.) c. not. yarr. 

Paris. 1643. 1655. 2 yols. 12mo. — rec. ao not int. par- 
tim ined. Chrn. Grottl. Sehwarzii et excerptis alior. 
additis etiam sub instr. et ill. W^lfg. Jaeger. NorimU 
1779. 2 vols. Svo. . . . . 


18. Ifythographi Latini, C. Jul. Hjgin. Fab. Planciades Fnl- 

gentins, Lactantius Placidos, Albricus philos. em. et 

comm. perp. ilL Thorn. Munckenis. Amstel. 1681. 8yo. 

— ed. Aug. Tan Staveren. Logd. B. et Amstel. 1742. 

4to. maj. 
19-. Teteres de re militari scriptt c. comm. et anim. Grodesc. 

Stewechii (Antv. 1585. 1592.) et P. Scriverii (Antr. 

1607. 4to. 1632. Lugd. 1644. 12mo.) YesaUe Cliro. 

mm. 1670. 8to. 

20. Antiqni rhetores Lat. ex bibl. Franc. Pithoei, JC. Paris. 

1599. 4to. — rec. em. et notis auxit CI. Capperomierius. 
Argent. 1756. 4to. 

21. Grammatics Lat. anctores antiqui cnra Helie Patschii. 

Hanov. 1605. 4to. 

22. CorpuB gramm. Lat. vett. coll. anz. rec. Fr. Lindemano. 

Lipd. 1832, sqq. at present 3 toIs. 4to. 




§.1. Even up to the end of the first Punic war, 
<A. U. C. 513. A. C. 241.) the Romans bad no 
Literature ; for neither the convivial songs, in which 
the ancients are said to have sung the exploits of 
distinguished men, ( Cic, Brut, 19. Tusc. d. I, 2. IV, 
2. Valer. Max. II, 1, 10.), nor the songs of the 
Salii {axamenta), nor the celebration of festal dances 
without song and words, which the Romans adopted 
as a propitiatory rite from the Etrurians in the year 
A. U. C. 390 (364), nor the Fahula Atellana, 
Farces', which their young men of rank annexed to 
those exhibitions; {Liv, VII, 2. Manut ad Cic, ad 
Famil, IX, 16. Schober Uber d. Atellan. Schatup. d, 
Rlhner, Leipz, 1825. 8vo.) nor the coarse merriment of 
the Lvdi Osci (Cic, ad Farm, VII, 1. T€icit. Ann. IV, 
14.), nor the Fescennine songs of the Peasantiy {Hor, 
Epist. II, 1, 139.) can be regarded as any thing 

[* In the opinion of Diomedes the Grammarian, fhey were 
of a Tragi-Comic character, resembling the Greek Satires. 
They are remarkable as being the only indigenoos spedee of 
the Roman drama.] 

FtRST P&RIOB. 219 

more than the rude ekments of intellectual cultivation ; 
nor indeed can we ascribe any higher merit to the 
annales maanmi of the Pontif. max. (Civ. Or. II, 12. 
Beaufort sur Vincertit. des prem. siicles, p. 46.) or 
the libri lintei, Registers of the Consuls, and of the 
most important events. {Beauf. p. 96, sqq.) It was 
when the Romans had spread their conquests over 
Magna Grecia (fr. A. U. C. 416 to A. C. 338), and 
in the first Punic war (490—515 to A. C. 264—241), 
over Sicily, and, after the Illyrian war (524=230), 
had become more intimately acquainted with the 
Greeks of Graecia Propria, and had been received into 
communion with them at the Isthmian games, that 
they first began to bestow their attention upon the 
cultivation of speech and language. 

§. 2. A Grecian slave of Tarentum, Livius Andro- 
sucus, subsequently emancipated by his master M. 
Livius Salinator, first produced in the year A. U. C. 
514. A. C. 240. Latin tragedies translated from, and 
modeUed after, the Greek^ (hiv. I. c. Cic. Brut. 18. 
Quint. X, 2, 7. Bentl. ad Hor. Ep. II, 1, 71.), and 
translated also the Odyssey. His example was 
followed by Cn. ^avius of Campania (about 519= 

[t> DuDlop well observes, '^ The Greek Drama acquired a 
splendid degree of perfection by a close imitation of nature ; 
bnt the Romans never attained snch perfection, because, how- 
ever exquisite their models, they did not copy directly from 
nature, but from its representation and image.'^l 


235. Gell. JV. A. XVII, 21, d. 550. Cic. Brut. 15, 
60. Davis, ad Cic. Tusc. I, 1. extr.), who was likewise 
formed by the Literature of Greece, and who borrowed 
Tragedies (11 Titles) and Comedies from the Greek, 
also ^vrote an historical poem de hello Punico primo 
(divided by the Grammarians into 7 books. Suet de 
gramm. 2. VonHus de hist. Lat, p. 7, sqq.) but owing 
to the freedom with which after the example of the 
old comedy he assailed in his plays the Roman 
Grandees, particularly P. Scipio and the Metelli, he 
was compelled to retire from Rome to Utica. In his 
time, during the second Punic war (536 — 553=s218 
— 201), appeared the first Annalists, Q. FMus Pietor 
and L. Cincius Alimentus, {Beaufort, p. 158. Wach- 
smuth rdm. Gesck. p. 27, sqq.), who, however, with- 
out any pretensions to historical criticism, had not yet 
raised themselves above the first rudiments of style. 
(Cic. Or. U, 12. Leg. I, 2.) 

§. 3. The art of poetry was first advanced by 
Q. Ennius of Rudiae in Calabria, whom the Romans 
regarded as the father of their poetiy, (b. 515=239. 
d« 585=169. Cic. Brut 18. 20. Cat m. 5.). He 
was brought to Rome about 550 by M. Cato, (Cen* 
sprius), and there enjoyed his society with that of 
the Scipios,M. Fulvius, and others. {Cic. Tusc. 1,2.) 
His tragedies (23 Tit.) were modelled after those of 
Euripides; he wrote also Saturas, poems in various 
metres upon miscellaneous subjects {Diomed* ap. 


Putsch, III. p. 482. Gemer. ikes. L L v. Satyra), 
Annalgs in 18 books^ an historical Epos, for which 
he first constructed the hexameter {Cic Brut 19.), 
a poem Scipio in trochaic metre ( Voxsitts de histar, 
LaL p. 10.), and farces, and translated a work of 
Euhemerus on the Gods. {Cic. de nat d. 1. 42. LacL 
insU I, 2.). But however much he may have raised 
himself above Naevius, he little satisfied the require- 
ments of a cultivated taste, {Quint X, 1, 88. Cf. 
Spald, ad I, 8, 8.). Contemporary with Ennius were 
the Comic poets Plautus (d. 570), who was dis- 
tinguished by a genuine comic humour, which too 
often, however, degenerated into the low and vulgar, 
and Ccsdlius Statius of Gallia Cisalpina, (d. 586), 
of 45 of whose Comedies we have still extant the 
Titles and Fragments, (jStatii deperd, fab.Jraffm, ed. 
X, SpengeL Monack. 1829. 8vo.) Both translated 
into Latin plays of Menander, Diphilus, and other 
poets of the New Com., the latter with inferior talent, 
and in language less pure, (Ctc* ad Ait VII, 3. 
Brut 74. Gell II, 23. Hiyrat Ep. II, 1, 59.) 

^. 4. All this was the fruit of an enlightened study 
of th^ Grecian Literature which had been introduced 
into Home by emancipated Greeks from the very 
commencement of the second Punic war, {Suet de ilL 
gramm, 1.), but which had hitherto been confined 
to a few individuals who possessed the requisite 
leisure without exercising any considerable influence 


upon the nation at large ; generally speaking, the true- 
bred Roman looked upon the study of the Sciences and 
fine arts of the Greeks, as an idle and frivolous pur- 
suit. The Roman character had been moulded 
during the course of several centuries by a succession 
of wars> hardships, and vigorous exertions to a staidness 
which regarded with indifference every thing uncon- 
nected with the administration of the state in war and 
peace, and the constitution which had gradually issued 
from the circumstances of former times^ — a constitution 
which was as yet rather a felicitous than a wisely-planned 
combination of the democratic and aristocratic ele- 
ments, in which plebeian licentiousness and patrician 
insolence were equally restrained, while the proud 
consciousness of glorious victories upheld the solemn 
dignity of demeanour, which so remarkably dis- 
tinguished the citizen of Rome. Hence arose an 
antagonism between respect for national custom and 
the pressure of an intellectual exigency ; the same 
Cato, who reproached the Cons. M. Fulvius Nobilior 
with having taken poets with him into his Province, 
(Ctc. Ttuc. I, 2.) applied himself zealously in his 
old age to the study of Grecian Literature, (Cic. 
Acad. IV, 2. Cato m. I.). The study of the Greek 
language was still more assiduously prosecuted when in 
the year 586=168 Macedonia became a Roman 
Province, when soon afterwards a thousand of the 
most considerable Acheeans were cited to appear 


at Rome, and were detained in captivity for the 

space of seventeen years, {Casaub, ad Suet de cL 

rhetor. 1. torn. iv. p, 308. ed. Wolf,), when in the 

year 599=155 Carneades the Academic, Critolaus 

the Peripatetic, and Diogenes the Stoic, came to Rome 

as amhassadors from Athens, and deUvered speeches 

and philosophical disquisitions hefore the first men of 

the state, {Cic. Or. II, 37. Quint. XIT, 1, 35v 

Ltoctant. Inst. V, 13, 16.); lastly, when about 600 

Crates of MaUus came to Rome as ambassador from 

King Attains of Pergamos, and being detained there 

by the fracture of his leg, entertained the principal 

citizens with his interpretations of the Greek poets. 

{Suet, de gramm. 2.) With the Stoic Pansetius 

and Polybius, Laelius, Scipio Africanus, and others, 

lived in the closest intimacy; after the example of 

Crates the Roman Grammarians began to read and 

explain in their public lectures the native poets in 

place of the Greek, and thus to render them better 

known. Once more the severity of the Roman 

manners made a stand against the arts of foreigners ; 

by a decree of the Senate in the year 593=161, the 

Grecian Philosophers and Rhetoricians were banished 

from Rome. In their places appeared now Latin 

Rhetoricians, until their schools also were shut up, in 

the year 661=93. 

§.5. A taste for the dramatic productions of 
Grecian genius was, however, far too widely spread 

224 riBST PERIOD. 

to admit of being coerced by governmeiit edicts. 
Instead of science and the fine arts being the pmsuit 
of freedmen and persons of low extraction^ as was 
formerly the case, the eques C Lticilius of Snessa 
Pometia, great uncle of Pompeius M. began now 
to apply himself to their cultivation, and became the 
creator of the Roman Satire, a species of poetty 
unknown to the Greeks, but modelled in its spirit 
and design after the Old Greek. Comedy, in which he 
lashed the vices and follies of his time with much 
humour and pungency, {Horat Sat, I, 4, 10. Quint 
X, 1, 94. V. Spald. Heind. on Hor. p. 238, sq.). 
For at that juncture, after the destruction of Coiinth 
and Carthage (608=146), there was generally and 
increasingly manifested a desire to realize the en- 
joyment of possessions which had been won with 
toil, and the strict subordination of rank which had 
prevailed under the old regime was broken up by 
the attempts of the Gracchi to repress the dominant 
influence of the Nobiles* The friend of Scipio and 
Laelius, F. Terentius of Carthage, produced the 
Greek Tragedies of Menander and others in a style 
so polished, that the assistance of his two friends 
was commonly thought to be recognised in them, 
and instead of Greek characters and manners (com. 
palliata), L. Afranius the contemporaiy of Ter, 
exhibited Homan, {fab. togatcBf ex. gr. Querolus see 
Aulularia, inc. aucf. com, tog. Rec. et ill. C. S. 

riftST psaiOD. 266 

KUnkhamihr, 1829. 8yo. tahemarim^ aad io the Trag. 
pfraiextat€B. See Diomed, III. p. 486, sq. Hor. if. 
:P. '285- On Afranms see Har. Ep. IF, 1, 57. 
Quint. X, 1, 100. Rutgers. Var. hct. IV, 19.) 
At the same time Tragedy attained to the high^t 
point which it was destined to reach at Rome, in the 
bands of M. Pacuvius of Brundusimn, the nephew 
of Ennius (18 Tit. De M. Pacuvii Duloreste scr. 
Henr. Stieglitz. Lips. 1826.) and his junior con- 
temporary £. it «w» (57 Tit.) (Cic. Brut. 64. Geli. 
XVII, 21. extr.). Friend of Dec. Brutus, the Cos. 
in the year 616, {Cic. Brut. 28. it rc^. 11.), both 
of whom likewise copied after the Greek Tragedians^ 
but also introduced upon the stage events of the 
Roman History {fab. prcstextata), the former in 
his Paullus, the latter in his Brutus. {Quint, X, 2, 
97. Cf. Cic. Or. 1 1. in. Brut. 74. Horat. Ep. II, 

1, 55. Ovid. Amor, I, 15, 19. Gell. VII, 14. XllI, 

2. Bayle diet. Accius. Heind. on Hor. Sat. p. ^19'. 
Fr. Osann anal. crit. poesis Rom. scenick reliqu.' 
illustr. Betol. 1816. 8vo. A. G. Lange vindicie^ 
Trag. Rom. Lips. 1823. 4to. and in his verm. 
Schriften. Leipz. 1832.) 

§. 6. Eloquence on the other hand flourished 
without opposition, and soon outstripped the fine arts 
in consequence of the frequent occasions supplied 
for its exercise in the peculiar circumstances of the 
Roman polity,. and the refyival of party contests at 


the time of the thkd Panic war^(8ee particularly drnf- 
de cams. eorr» eloqu. c 36.). Cicero mendons as 
the fiist orator pipped^ entitled to the name (JBm/. 
16.) If. Cato, Cos. in the year 5S0=195, Censor 
570=184, died 605=149^ in whose 150 speeches 
he finds not it is true the polished diction, the 
rounded sentences and modulated structure of his 
time, hut in other respects all the characteristics 
of a great orator, (^Cic. ib. 17, 18.). Among the 
nymerous other orators stood preeminent Serv. Sulpi- 
^ GMa Cos. in the year 646=108, (Ctc. Brut 
21, sqq. Or. I, 53. II. 65.), then 7^. and C. Grac- 
chtu, 621—633=133—121, (Cic. Brut 27. Or, III, 
60.), Q. Catulus about 652=102. {Cic. ]^rut36.) 
But the great^t orators, those indeed who may 
be considered almost perfect in the art, were L^ Lid- 
niwi CrMsus^ Cos. 659, and M> Antanius, Cos, 
6^, (CtV. Brut 36, sqq. especially de arat). Some 
of these orators already profited by the instructions 
of the Greek Rhetoricians, as at that time Tiber. 
Gracchus is said to have been formed by Diophanes; 
it was even thought that genius derived more aliment 
firom Grecian exercises in oratory than from Latin, 
for which a school was first opened by Plotius GaUus 
about 661=93 {Sufit de cL rh, 2.). But so great 
was the prejudice against Grecian Literature, that the 
orators, even Cicero, {pro 5. Roscio 25. pro Arch. 
in Verr, IV. 59, 60, et ssep.) thought it necessary 


to disavow an acquaintance with it iit the presence of 
the people. 

§. 7. Besides eloquence^ >tirispradence was an 
accomplLshment of singular efficacy in opening the 
way to the highest offices of state {Cic, Mur. 8, 19- 
Of. II, 19, 66. c. n. Beier. Liv. 39, 40. Hor. Ep. 
II, 1, 103, sqq.). After S. JElius Pcetus the con- 
tempdtary of Ennii»y M» Cata Cenmruu, and his 
amteraporaiy P. Muclus Scavola, M*. Manilius, 
Cos. 604=150, and Q. Mucins Sccsvola, the friend 
of the oratbr Crassus, were particularly distinguished 
for their legal acquirements. History also was cul- 
tivated by eminent statesmen, by Cato, L. Caljpurn. 
Piso Frugi, Cos. in the year 621 = 133, L. Ccelius 
Antipater^ C. Fannius about 124. The poet Attius 
also wrote an historical work, Annales. All these, 
however, adopted the insipid style of the ancient 
annalists; even Cato, whose Origines in 7 books 
{Cam. N. Cat. 3.) are much eulogized by Cicero in 
Brut. \ly was no exception, as is evident from other 
passages of the same author, {Or. II, 12. Leg. I> 2.) ; 
Ccelius AntipaUr is the only one who raised himself 
to a preeminence above the rest. (Cic. II. cc. on the 
otber hand Or. 69.) Even the Commentarii de rebus 
suis of the Dictator L. Cornel. Sylla, however 
valuable the materials which - they contained, can 
hardly be said to possess the characteristics of a 
vigorous style. The Annals of Q. Valerius Antias 

928 7IR8T PERIOD, 

in 74 books were prized for their comprdiensiTenessu 
(^VoM. de hist, Lat. c. 10.) 

Fragm. of these Poets -aee C^UedL no. 1 — 11 . — ^Eiibh fivgm. 
coll. Hier. Colamna. Neap. 1690. 4to. rec. Franc. Hesselin. 
1707. 4to.i— Ennii Medea; conun. perp. ill. H. Plank. Got- 
ting. 1807. Syo. — Lucilii Satir. quse siipersunt fragm. cor. A. 
F, Dousa. Lugd. B. 1697. 4to. 

M. Accius Plautus, of Sarsina in Umbria, born 
527 (227), died A. U. 570, (184.) 130 Comedies 
were ascribed to him, but of these only 21 are recog- 
nised by Varro as genuine. {GelU III. 3. Of. Hot. 
Ep, II. 1. 58. 170. ji. P. 270. Quint. X. 1. 99. 
GelL XVII. 2.) 

Ed. pr. (by Ge. Morula.) Yenet. 1472. foL— ed. Sim. Car- 
pentarius. 1613. 8vo. — ed. Nic. Angelius. Flor. ap. Jontam. 
1612. — ed. Joach. Camerarins (sospit. PI.) Basil. 1561. 1658. 
gvo.— ed. Dion. Lambinus cum comm. Paris. 1677. 1587. 
fol.~-.ed. Jan. G-ruterus. 1692. — cum comm. Frid. TanbmaniiL 
Francof. 1612. 1621. 4to. — ed. Jo. Frid. Gronovius. Amstel. 
1684. 8vo. (cum prsf. J. A. Ernest!.) Lips. 1760. Sto.— 
noriss. recogn. et notis ill. Vienn. ap. ScLiiimb. 1792, aqq. 
9 Tols. 8T0. — ^reo. et e. comm. perp. ed. B. F. Sduaieder. 
Getting. 1804. 6 vols, large 8vo. — Budens, rec. F. W. Beits. 
1789. 8vo. Trinummus rec. God. Hermann. Lips. 1800. 8vo. 
Miles Gloriosus c. n. super, interpr. et suis ed. J. T. L. Dans. 
Weim. 1804. 8to. 

M- PoRCius Cato Ceksokius, of TusculuQi, 
died A, U. 604. A, C. 149. de offricuUura «. de rebus 
rusticis liber adjilium. 

^w.Coikett, no. 12. and 10. 11. 


P, Terentius Afer, of Carthage, b. A. U. 561, 
A. C. 192; came to Rome as the slave of the Senator 
Terentius Lucanns, d. in Arcadia A. U. 594, A. C. 159. 
Oomin. of Donatus and Eugraphius (about 998). 

£d. pr. Mediol. 14^0. fbl. — ed. M. Ant. Muretns. Yenet. 

1&55, pcnrticularijfl55S,8YO.and/reguenify repnfUed,^^m. Gabr. 

Faemus. Flor. 15^. 8vo.— ed. Fr. Lindenbrogiiui. Paris. 1002. 

4to. Franco^ 1623. 4to.— ed. Jo. Phil. Parens, (c. cant Jo. 

Hiccii etc.) Neapoli Nemet. 1619. 2 vols. 4to..-^x rec. Rich. 

Bentleii. Cantabr. 1726. 4to. Amstel. 1727. 4to. Lips. 1791. 

large 8vo. — ed. Am. Henr. Westerhoy. Hags Com. 1727. 

2 vob. 4to. repet. cor. G. Stallbamn. laps. 1830. 8To.-«-ex ree. 

Lindenbrogii c. ejusd. obserr. et Donati, Eograpbii et Cal- 

pumii comnL. integr. Bentleii et Faemi lectt et conject. ed. J. 

K. Zeune. Lips. 1774.— e cod. Halensi ed. P. Jac. Brans. 

(cum Kubnk. dictatis. Halse 1811. 2 vols. 8vo.) — ad Codd. 

MSS. et opt. edd. recogn. yariet. lect comm. perp. et ind. yerb. 

instmxit F. C. G. Perlet. Lips. 1821. 8yo. £i. animady. in 

Ter. comm. ib. 1829. Day. KiUinkenii in P. Ter. com. dictata 

cur. Ludl ScbopenL Bonn. 1825. 8yo. 

Comicoram Latin, fragmenta see CoUecU. no. 8. 




§. 8. The party contests which distracted the 
Republic in its last times, had the same ^ect in 
maturing the growth of eloquence at Rome, which the 
external convulsions of the state produced at Aih^as. 
Next to Crassui^ and Antonius (§* 5.) Q. Horten- 
Bins was the most accomplished orator, ( Ctc. Brut. 
92. L. C. Luzac spec, histor, jurid. de Q. Hartemio 
orat Lugd. B. 1810. 8vo.). But M. TuU. Cicero 
soon surpassed him as well as all other orators before 
and after him, {Quint X, 1, 105, sqq.), for the very 
reason that he did not confine his attention exdusively 
to eloquence, but applied himself to the whole 
range of the arts and sciences of the Greeks, and 
particularly to the Academic Philosophy, (CtV. Bmt 
91, sqq. orat 3. Quint XII, 2, 23.). No other 
orator except Demosthenes can compete with him in 
the art of hitting on every subject the appropriate 
expression, and becoming hue of speech; he is as 
much a master in the impassioned, the pathetic, and 


tl^e sublizne, as be is in the smooth and sim|^ siyle% 
Sat his eloquence is rather that of the feelings while 
tliat of Demosthenes appeab mote to the miderstand^ 
ing ; so that the one appears more indebted to nature^ 
the other to art*; {QuinU "K, l^ 106.); hence Cicero 
is richer in all the figures of speech^ and more 
luxuriant^ or^ as some of his contemporaries thought^ 
(^Quint XII, 10> 12, sqq. dial, de causm c; el. t. 
18.) more tumid, than Demosthenes; but however 
little deficient the Romans may have been in a nice' 
pereqptiou of harmony, (Ctc. Bruti 30, 107. 63, 214$), 
they required nevertheless, with their staid and solemn 
temperament, more powerful stimulants than the 
excitable Athenians. (cL QuiwL Xli, 10, 27—570 
Next to him the obscure Mi C alius Rufus, {Cic. Brut 
79. Quint Xi 1, 115. IV^ 2, 123. Manut ad Cic. 
epist VIII. p« 348* ed. Grav.), the scrupulous pains- 
taking Ct Licinius Calvus, {Cic. Brut 81, sq. dd 
FamiL XV, 2L Quint X, 1, 115. c. n» Gesn. dial. 
d£ eauss* c. eU c. 18. 21.), were in good repute, and 
above all C. JuUut Cmar, (Cic. Brut 72. Quint X, 
1, 114. 2, 25. dial, de causs. carr. el. c. 21.), who 

* [For & graphic illiutratioii of their respeettye exceUcouse, 
see LoBginiu, xii. 4, 5. and for a furtiier exhibition of the 
parallel, see Middleton's Life of Cicero, ii. 487. What St. 
Jerome calls, *^ pnloherrimam illud elogium," thus nninvidioasly 
determines the question of precedence, ^* Demosthenes tibi pra^* 
ripnit ne ^sses primns orator ; to iUi, ne solus."] 



would have been Cicero's most fonnidabla oompediDr; 
if his military talents bad not pointed out a difierait 
path for his ambition. 

§.9. But Cioexo gave the finish to Roman Lite- 
rature in other departments also. Upon his gradnallj 
retiring from public affiiirs after his exile in B. C. 66, 
he exhibited in his rhetorical and philosopliica] 
ivritingS' perfect models of the didactic style, and his 
letters are the most perfect specimens which the 
Literature of either Greece or Rome can produce. 
In all the oratorical charaoter is conspicuous, especially 
in his d books de oratare,m which he approaches nearest 
to Plato in fulness and splendour of expressdon, then in 
his orator and Brutus* In his letters adfrnmiUares 
al90 the diction is elaborated with all the art of a 
Rhetorician; while on the other hand his letters to 
Aitieus are plain, artless, friendly communicatH>ns, 
and his j^ilosophical writings, as r^ards their intrinsic 
merits, the shallowest of his productions, are chasac- 
tei^zed, amidst all their rhetorical fire, with the airiness 
and vivacity of a spirited converseetion. 

, |. 10, Next to Cicero, the Roman Literature is 
most indebted to Jul, Ccesar, who not only improved 
and refined the language, {Cic, Brut. 72, 75, 26L), 
but also imparted to it a peculiar ease and gracefulness 
of expression. In hiis book de hello Gall, et civiL he 
is npt inferior to Herodotus in charm of diction, while 
in an exquisite degance he fiir surpasses him. N^t 

s8C0iv]> pbkiod; d33 

to lum in this respect stands ComeUui AVpot, espe^ 
cuJly in his life of Atticus^ kowever little we may be 
diq>osed to value the matter of his other biographies* 
But. as an historian of the first class appeared in the 
last years of Cioero^ or probably not till after his 
deaths Sallustius, who in richness and vigour of 
thought as well as in terseness of expression, approxi-» 
mated very closely to his modd Thucydides^ and 
though by his affectation of antiquated expressions, 
( Quint Yllh 3, 29. Suet Oct 86. de gramm. 15.) 
and his. parade of moral apophthegms characteristic of 
the old Roman virtue, but which he practically refuted 
in his life, he failed to produce the effect which he 
intended, he is nevertheless entitled to a higher degree 
of admiration on the ground of his having had no pre-* 
decessors worthy of notice ; for even L. Sisenna, the 
best of the historians who had hitherto appeared, was 
far from satisfying the Jegitimate requirements of a 
competent judge, (Cic. Brut 64. de Leg. I, 2. Velleu 
II, Q.). Of Lucceius, the data we possess are too few 
to admit of our forming an opinion, whether the enco- 
miums which Cicero awards to him (ad Fam. V. 12,) 
as an historian, are founded on his favouiable judg- 
ment, or on his endeavour to conciliate him to his 
purppse, (cf. ad Fam* XV, 21, 6.). L. Luoullus^ 
the conqueror' of Mithridates, wrote his history of the 
Socisd y^^ in the Greek language, (Ctc. ad Att 1, 19. 
Heeren de fontt Plut p. 156.), and neither hi? 


extracts from the historical works of Faimius> Ccdius 
Antipater, and Polybius, {ItUerprr*. ad Cic* tff^^ 
AiU XII^ 5.) were thought by M* Brutus, nor his 
Roman Histoiy, (Lit?. IV, 23. X, 9. GelL VI> 3.) bj 
L» JElius Tubero, ( Voss de histor, Lat 1, 12. p< ^) 
who accompanied Q. Cicero to Asia as Legate, to entitle 
him to any distinguished place among the historians. 
§. 11. Poetry, on the other hand, yielded little 
fruit; the Epos, Comedy and Tragedy seemed 
extinct. The didactic poemrof Lucretius, whicli ex- 
hibits only in isolated passages indications of a poetic 
spirit (Ctc.tK^* III, IL Quini*^, 1^87. 
Spald, ad Quint* t. i« p. 198.]^ belongs rather to 
Philosophy ; the poems of Catullus indeed charm bj 
their sensibility and a pleasing unaffected imagery; 
with him the orator Calvus holds a coordinate rank 
in his amatory poems, {Hot. Sat. I, 10, 19. m. Heind. 
JSr. Ovid. Amor. Ill, 9, 62. Trist. II, 427, 431. 
Prop. II, 25, 89. Gell. XIX, 9.). But in the 
poems of Lucretius and Catidlus, written in an stg& 
when prose composition had reached its maturity, 
there still adheres the rust of antiquity, as well as in 
those of M. and Q. Cicero; and the following age 
was first destined to produce a poet, who raised the 
language of poetry to the same degree of elevation 
which that of prose had already attained. Instead of 
Comedy, a new kind of Drama, the Mimes, Mono- 
dramas, which represented in a ccnnie style, prinoipaUy 


with the help of gesticulation^ characters drawn from 
common life, too often, however, interspersed with low 
and vulgar jests, for the entertainment of the Roman 
populace, was constructed hy Cn. Maitius, {GelL 
XX, 9. XV, 25.), the eques Dec. Laberius, {Wieland 
on Hor. Sat I, 10, 6« p. 295.), and his junior con- 
temporary, the freedman Pvhlius Syrus ; hut not* 
withstanding the occasional intertexture of moral 
sentiments, it did not reach the standard of an elevated 
class of poetry, (Ziegler de mimis Rom* GdtL 1789. 
8vo.). M. Terentius Varro Atacinus (of Atax, a 
place in Gallia Narhonensis) translated the Argo- 
nautica of Apollonius Rhodius, in which, as far as can 
be judged from the fragments which remain, he seems 
to have attained a high standard of purity in his dic- 
lion« {Ruhnk. epist crit p. 199 — 201. QuintiL X, 
1, 87, Cf. Wemsdorf poet. Lat. min. U i. p. 154, 
sqq. F. WuUner de P. Ter. Varr. Atac. vita et 
serif tis comm. Manast. 1829. 4to.]. But notwith- 
standing that the period of which we treat presents to 
us no poet of distinguished eminence, the cultivation 
of the art was not altogether abandoned, though it was 
pursued merely with a view to the acquisition of ease 
and adroitness in the use of language generally, and 
as a means of improving its modulation. Besides 
Cicero and Calvus, Hortensius also, {Gell. XIX, 9.) 
Q. LutaiiuB Catulus, and Jul, Cm^ar, wrote poems, 
the foimer two of the amatory kind, {Oell. L c). 


§. 12. At Rome meanwhile the nmnher of Gram- 
iparians or learned men^ partly Greeks who quitted 
their comitiy as slaves^ and then upon their emanci- 
pation opened schools, was continually upon the 
increase, so that at times there were upwards of 20 
schools of Grammarians {litterati, Uiteratares^') in 
the city in great repute and much frequented. {Suet 
de gramm. 3. 4.) They instructed the sons of the 
principal men at Rome, and diffused a general taste 
for the Literature, Philosophy, and learning of 
Greece. The most celebrated, according to Suetonius/ 
are M, Antonius Gnipko (see SckUtz Proteg, ad Cic. 
rhetor,), whom Cicero himself while Praetor attended, 
Orbilius, Atteius of Athens, the friend of Sallust, 
who adopted the surname of Fhilologus, Valerius 
Cato, more highly esteemed as a Poet and a teacher of 
the art of Poetry, Cornelius Epicadus, a freedman of 
the Dictator Sulla, who completed his commentarios, 
Siaberius Eros, ■preceptor o( Brutus and Cassius, Cur- 
tius Nicia, friend of Pompey and Cicero, and among 

^ [The following passage firom Suetonius merits attentioii, 
as exhibiting the extent of meaning attached by the ancients to 
the term Grammatiei : '' Appellatio Grammaiicorum Gntdi 
consuetndine inviiluit, sed initio LUeraH Tocabantur. Corne- 
lius quoque Nepos in libello, quo distinguit literatum ab enidito, 
literatos quidem vulgo appellari ait eos qui aliquid diligenter et 
acute scienterque possint aut dicere aut scribere." Suet, de 
IlL Gr. c. 4. Cf. also QuintU. xi. 1.] 


the Rhetoricians, SexL Clodius {SueL de UL rhet. 5. 
Cic. ad Att. IV, 15. Phil. II, 19.) and a Carni- 
ficius, Cicero's colleague in the Augurate, to whom 
Quint, ascrihqs the rhetarica ad Herenn. (Spald, ad 
Quiat, III, 1, 21. SchHiz. L c.) It soon, moreover, 
became the custom for every one who made pre- 
tensions to a polite education, to visit Greece, par- 
ticularly Athens, and there to study Philosophy and 
Rhetoric, as Cicero himself did. Thus learning pio- 
perly so called progressively extended itself at Rome, 
and the present age resembled in this respect the Alex- 
andrian, while at the same time, as regards Eloquence 
and History, it reminds us of the flourishing times of 
Athens. The most learned Roman was M. TerenUus 
Varro, the friend of Cicero, then P. Nigidius Figulus, 
iErn. CI. Cic. Gell. XIX, 14. Dio Cass. 46, 1. 
Suet Oct. 94.), an Orator, Grammarian, Astrologer, 
and Pythagorean Philosopher. Pamponius Jittieui 
also, the friend of Cicero, who, by abstaining from 
9II participation in the public business of the state, 
and by the voluptuous ease in which he lived, shewed 
himself to be an epicurean, must, in regard to his 
Hber annaUg and other writings, be classed rather 
among the Antiquarians than the Historians. ( Vo$s* 
de hi$t. L I. c. 11.) 



§. 13. Literature assumed a very different position 
from the time that in the year 723^ B«C. 31, Octa- 
vianus acquired possession of the' empire by his victory 
at Actium. Eloquence, which, in the decline of 
liberty, had lost its proper aliment, became more and 
more excluded from public life, and confined to the 
schools of Rhetoricians, and in its place succeeded 
Poetry, which, during the busy life of the RepaiUk, 
had served only for the filling iqp a vacmt hamr re- 
deemed from the service of the state, especially as it 
was the principal means of procuring favour with the 
first men of the day, with Octavian himself, Asinius 
Pollio, and particularly with Maecenas. Virgil now 
gave to epic and didactic Poetry their highest finbb 
even in regard to metrical structure and diction, 
although his prodigious talent for decoration does not- 
suffice to disguise his poverty of invention. In the 
genuine Roman species, in satire and in his Epistles, 
Horace delivered in the Socratic style Philosophy 
and practical wisdom of a most cheerful cast, and 
was the first who introduced into the Literature of 
Borneo the Iambics. of Archilochus and Lyric Poetry, 
the former in his Epodes the latter in his Odes, 
in which, although he is inferior to Pindar with 
respect to boldness and vigour, he is nevertheless 


a model in regard to taste and artificial arrange- 
ment *. 

§. 14. The Literature of Rome was peculiarly rich 
in £legy« as well of the amatoiy as of the plaintive kind } 
TihuHus stands preeminent for truth of conception, for 
a natural grace, and for the harmony of his language 
and versification* The Elegies of Pedo Alhinovanus 
and Cornelius GaUug, as well as the otherwise 
beaniifttl Elegies ad M^ Valerium Messalam (in 
Wernsdorf, II. p« 147.) and the Consolatio ad 
Liviam de morte Drusi, were of inferior merit. 

§.. 15. Next to these heroes appeared also as poets : 
Zf. Varius, the friend of Virgil and Horace, whose 
Tragedy Thyestes, Quintilian (X, 1, 97. Cf. dial, de 
causs. c. el. c. 12. extr.) considers equal to any of 
the Greek Tragedies, and whom Horace {Od. 1, 6, 
Serm* 1^ 10, 43, sq.) names as the first Epic, although 
he is not ment^ioned as the author of any other Epic 
po^n besides a Panegyricus in Augustum and a poem 
die morte, probably Julii CsBsaris, {Heyne ad Donat 
vit Virgil. 8, 30. 14, 53. Mitscherl. arg. Hor. Od, 
1,6. Vos8, on Virgil, EcL p. 396. 475. Heind.. on 
Hot.. Sat. p. 119.); T. Valgius Rufus, friend of 
Horace and TibuUus, whom the latter (IV, 1, 180.) 

[^ Lipsius in a letter to Criiquius, Epistolicamm Qusest. 
lib. ii., thus records his opinion : " Horatio, miCruqui,-in Lyri- 
cis mexito illud Homericum dabimus . . . i7f %§i^awf Ur».''\ 


extols as the Epic who approaches nearest to Homer, 
but also an Elegiac poet, {Bnukh. ad Tib. L c 
Spalding, ad Quint III, 1, 18.); C. Helmus Cimuty 
celebrated for his obscurely learned poem in Hexaime- 
ters Smyrna, on the birth of Adonis, whom Sm. bote 
to her own father Cinyras, a poem, by the interpret- 
ation of which the Grammarian Crassitius rendered 
himself distinguished, {Suet, de gramm. 18. See Von. 
on Virg. Ed. IX, 35. p. 473. Spald. ad Quint X, 
4, 4.); Cassi'us of Paima, one of the conspirators 
against Jul. Caesar, whom Octavian caused to be put 
to death at Athens after the battle of Actium, author 
of a short probably amatory poem, in the style of 
Tibullus, {Hot. Epist I, 4. and Wieland, p. 88. Cf. 
Wemsd. p. Lat min. II. p. 261.). Furius Bibaeulus, 
whom Horace sarcastically mentions as an Epic poet, 
Serm. I, 10, 36. II, 6, 41. is nevertheless ranked by 
Quintilian, X, 1, 96. as an Iambic poet with Catullus 
and Horace, {Heind. p. 215. Spald. ad Quint VIII, 
6, 17. X. I. c). Mascenas also wrote poetry; bat he 
seems not himself to have set much value upon his 
productions, which are first quoted with disapprobation 
on account of their nice and affected egression by 
later writers, (Spald. ad Quint IX, 4, 28. X, 2, 17. 
Cf. Wolf*s Anal. I. p. 268.) since he is no where 
mentioned in this character, either by Virgil or 
Horace. He exercised a more salutary influence as a 
patron and protector of poets, perhaps also as a Critic, 


(Hor^ Sat 1, 10, 81.), since a critical taste often 
exists without the faculty of producing original com- 
positions. As critics such as he wished to please 
Horace /. c. mentions besides Maecenas, Virgil, and 
Varius, Plotius Tucca, to whom also Virgil con- 
signed his unfinished ^neis for completion {Heind, 
on Hor. p, 119.), Aristius Fugcus {Heind. p. 198.) 
and the brothers Visci {Heind. p. 189.); also Quinc- 
alius Varus {Hor, A. P. 438. Heyne Exc. II. ad 
Virg, BucoL p. 167.) To the same class belongs also 
Domitius Marsus, who was at the same time an 
ingenious epigrammatist. {Broukh. ad Tib. IV, 15. 
Spald, ad Quint. Ill, 1, 18* VI, 3, 102.). In 
dramatic Literature Sp, Macius Tarpa was reputed 
the most competent judge since the time of Cicero 
{Heind. p. 216.). But the new school of poets 
formed by the poets above named was zealously 
opposed by the Grammarians, who usually explained 
the old poets — the modem were first explained by 
a. Cacilius Epirota, a freedman of Atticus, {Suet, de 
gramm* 16.) — and consequently conceived an affection 
for them. Among them Horace particularly mentions 
Hermogenes Tigellius of Sardinia. [Heind. p. 32. 100. 
Manso fiber Horaz. Beurth. der alt. Dichter in 
Verm. Ahh. and Aufs. p. 87.) 

§• 16. What Maecenas eflfected for the art of Poetry, 
the same did Asinius Pollio for Rhetoric. After the 
latter as the plenipotentiary of Antonius had con- 



eluded the peace between him and Octavuaras with 
M^ceaas at Brundusium in the year 712^ he withdrew 
himself for the most part into the letirexneat vi 
literary leisure. As an orator^ he was, it is true, as 
much censured for his antiquated simplicity and 
tameness as he was extolled for the judicious arrange- 
mmit of his speeches^ {^Qiunt "K,!, 113. 2, l?. 25. 
dial, de causs. c. eL 21. Senec» epist. 100.); as an 
historian he was not. in the estiuiation of Quintilias 
worthy of a place among the classical authors, how- 
ever truly he may have represented his facts, and 
deduced them firom their causes ; of his Tragedies not 
one was published, aod they were probably desired 
merely for private circulatioji among his intimate 
friends. He was however a main support of the Arts 
and of Literature, and was in thb resp^t celebrated no 
less than Maecenas by Virgil and Horace ; from the 
^ils obtained in the war against the Parthians, 715, 
h^ founded the first public library at Rome ; his 
judgment as a connoisseur in art was as that of oae 
of the first men in the state, decisive for the reputation 
of poets and men of letters. As a critic, however, he 
was rather a captious censor, than a dispassionate 
judge, probably for the same reason, and not fr<»u the 
direct influence of republican principle, that he so 
often went counter to Octavianus, and that he attadied 
himself to Cicero during his life, (see Cie. Epp. ad 
FamiL X, 31. 32. 33*), and after his death reviled 


him, {Senec. sua$. 7.)< — viz. from vanity, which seeks 
by depreciating others to raise itself the higher. 
(^ManuL ad Cic. Epp, ad Fam, X, 31. Voss. de hist 
l. p. 80. Foss, on Virg. EcL 4. Thorbeeke comm, de 
C. Jls. P. vita et stud, doctr. Lugd, B. 1820. 8vo. 
Cf. Ueind. an Hor, Sat* p. 91. 217.) 

§. 17. Besides PoUio^ there was a distinguished 
eharacter, as a general, orator, aod patiofi of the fine 
9art», M. Vahrims Messala Carvinus, one of the 
noblest of the Romans, who being proscribed by Antony, 
fled when a youth of 17 in 711 to Brutus and Cassius, 
after the battle of Philippi went over to Antony, but 
after the peace at Brundusium, '' disgusted at the 
dependence of his debauched comm^knder on Cle(^- 
tra," espoused the cause of Csiisar Octavianus,— the 
patron of TibuUus. As an orator he was remarkable 
for a highly polished diction and an agreeable charm, 
but was deficient in energy, {Quint. X, I, 113. dial, 
de c. c. el. 18.), wrote also in his old age a work de 
familiis Romanis. ( Voss. de hist. Lat. p. 88, Voss. on 
Virg. Eel VI, 74. p. 329. M. Vol. Mess. Corv. in 
eenige tafereelen uit de Ram, gesehiedenis geschetst 
door V. Hall. Amsterd. 1818.). Another orator 
Cassius Severus was detested and feared on account 
of his acrimonious wit and calumnious t^nper, {Quint. 
X, 1, 116, sq. dial, de c. corr. el. 26. Schulze ib. c. 
19. Interpr. ad Har. Epod. 6. Wyttenhach ad Pint. 
p. 479.), but was the first to give to oratory a false 


direction by a sentimental and florid exuberance of 
style^ {dial, de caussis c. el. 19.). The passion for 
eloquence which had been excited and fostered by the 
peculiar circumstances of the state at a former period, 
and which sought its gratification in the schools 
rather than in public life^ would necessarily augment 
the number of Rhetoricians^ who at the same time 
proposed as exercises in declamation {declatnationes) 
or displayed as models, speeches on subjects which 
were either fictitious, or the same which others had 
handled before them*. (Wolf, proff, or. Marc. p. 23. 
Spald. ad Quint IX, 2, 91. X, 1, 18.). Sound 
learning also would necessarily derive encouragement 
from the example of such men as Asinius Pollio and 
Messala, as well as from the Palatine Library foimded 
by Augustus, (726, B. C. 28.) The custom which 
had been established by Asinius Pollio of reading his 
compositions, poems, even dramatic, speeches, speci- 
mens of historical works, not only before a circle of 
friends, but also before large and mixed assemblies, 
would necessarily furnish an additional incentive to 
display by a parade of erudidon, novel terms and ex- 
pressions, and by rhetorical ornament. {Lips, epist 
seL Cent. 11. ad Belgas 48. Cf. Wolf. I. c. p. XIX, 
sqq. Spald. ad Quint. X, 1, 17. p. 16.). 

* Many of the sparions orations of Cicero, (tee bdoW|) 
Salluti. dechm. are probably declamatory exercises of this 
description. See Wbi/PnBf. or. Marc. p. xxii, sqq. 


§. 18, The poems of Propertius and Ovid already 

exhibit palpable indications of this revolution in 

taste, which a nearer acquaintance with the Alex-* 

andrians had also contributed to produce. The former 

is thoroughly Alexandrian, and is more studious of 

effect by the ostentation of learning than of captivating 

the feelings in a more natural manner by jcorrectness 

of expression; though it cannot be denied that he 

possesses consummate art, and a preeminent talent for 

the sublime and majestic, a qualification which in* 

duced him to handle heroic subjects in the Elegy* 

Ovid with the greatest facility of versification possessed 

a brilliant, sportive wit, which with him " o'ersteps the 

modesty of nature," rather than true poetic genius, and 

was the first by his rhetorical arts to give to taste a 

false direction. {Wolf. /, c. p. xxxii. Cf. Senec, 

Contr. II, 19. extr. IV, 28. extr. Quint X, 1, 88. 

93. 98.). After the manner of the Alexandrians, 

some also wrote didactic poems upon subjects which 

rarely admit of being properly handled in verse, as 

Mmilius Macer of Verona, upon the properties of 

plants in the style of Nicander, {Broukh* ad Tib. 

II, 6. Voss. Vorr. zu TibulL libers, p. x, sq. Spald* 

ad Quint. VI, 3, 96* Cf. Quint. X, i, 56. 87.), 

another Halieutica, a poem upon fishes, which was 

formerly ascribed to Ovid. ( Wernsd. poet. LaU m. L 

p. 14L) 

§. 19. This rhetorical taste began gradually to pre^ 

246 SECONTi; PSKtOD'. 

vail in historical composition also, not indeed as yet 
to such a degree as to disfigure matters of fact^ but in 
respect to the artificial garniture with which it in- 
vested them. The precedent was estahlished by Tro- 
gus Pompeius, who, in imitation of Theopompiis by 
means of introductions, episodical narratives, and 
digressions, constructed out of the history of the 
Macedonian empire a general history of all the 
nations at that time known, (Vobs, de hist. Gr. I, 
19. p. 98. Wolf, praft, ad Marc. p. xxxii.) 
Liv^i on the other hand, in regard to pictorial efifect, 
is a perfect historian, and, though he has not the 
ease of Caesar or yet of Cicero, hut by a compression 
of style afiects an air of solemn dignity, he never- 
theless surpasses even the historians of Greece in the 
loveliness and richness of his colouring, and the 
life and spirit of his delineations. \B%hL criL III, 4. 
p. 27, sqq. Mebuhr ROM. Gesch. II, p. 10. 
Quint II, 6, 19. I, 5, 56. VIII, 1, 3. X, 1. 

Valerius Cato, a (rrammarian {Sutton, de 
gramm. 11.) and Poet^ lost his property in con- 
sequence of the Agrarian distribution under Sulk. 
Among his poems, Lydia and Diana were held in 
pftrticular estimation. A poem, Dira, (imprecAiions 
upon the lands of which he had been despoiled,) is 
ascribed to him. See Collectt no. 4. d.'^VaL Cat 


pdem. rec, et ill, C Putschius, Jena 1828. 8vo. 
Bibl. d. alt. Lilt u. K. 9s St. p. ^. 

T. Lucretius Carus, of Rome, eqwes^ b. 95, 
B. C. destroyed himself 52^ devoted to the Epicurean 
Pbilosophy : de rerum natura lihri VI. 

£d. pr. Veron. 1486. M.— «am comm. D. Lambini. Paris. 
1663. 4to. 1670. 4to. Francof. 1583. 8vo.— rcc. Ob. Qifanitw. 
Antv. 1566. 8to. Lugd. B. 1595. 8vo. — ed. Tan. Faber. Salmar. 
1660. 4to^-€d. Th. Creech. Oxon. 1696. 8vo. Lond. 1717. 8to. 
Lips. 1766. Basil. 1770. 8to. — o. not int. D. Lamb. etc. ed. 
Sig. Harercamp. Lugd. 6. ]746. 4to. — ad MSS. fidem rec. 
comm. perp. ill. Gilb. Wakefield. Lond. 1796. 3 vols. 4to. and 
8vo. — c. Bich. Bentleii animadv. Gilb. Wakefieldii commentt. 
integriR csterornrnq. interpir. obss. sel. ed. H. K. Abr. 
Eicbstaedt. Lips. 1801. toL i. 8to. — ad opt. 11. fid. c. perp. 
annot. crit. gramm. et exeget. ed. Alb. Forbiger. Lips. 1828. 
12mo. iihers, 9. KnebeL Leipz. 1821. 2 vols. 8yo. 

M, T. CiCERO, b. at Arpinum A.U. 648=106.' 
B. C. Cos. 691=63, banished 57, and continued in 
exile 16 months, put to death 711=3:43. See The His- 
tory of the Life of M. T. C, by Conyers Middleton, 
Lond* 1741. 3 vols. 8vo. translated by Seidel, Dantzick 
1791 — 93. 4 vols. 8vo. Wieland in the preface to his 
translation of Cic. Lettei's. For an account of his 
writings see de dit>in. II, 1. 2. His philos. and rhet. 
writings are of a date subsequent to his Consulship, 
bis first oration pro Quintio 7S B. C. 


Editions of his Works, Ed. pr» ap. Sweinh. et Pannan. 
1466, sqq. fol. Mediol. 1498. 4 vols, fol.—ed. P. Victoriiu. 
Yenet. 1534. 4 toIs. fol.— ed. Jo. Camerarios. Basil. 1640. 
4 vols, fol.— ed. P. Manutias. Tenet. 1540. 10 vols. 8to. 
1578_83. fol.— ed. Dion. Lambinns. 1566. 4 vols, fol.— ex 
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1692. 4 vols. 4to. cur. Jo. A. Ernesti. Lips. 1737. Halae 1768. 

6 vols. 8yo. with Clav. Cic. — ex rec. A. J. Ernesti. Halae 1774. 

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23. — rec. et ed. J. Casp. Orellios. Turic. 1826, sqq. 4 vols. 
6. p. large 8vo. 

Edd, of separate treatises, 1) opp. rhet(»ica rec. et ill. Chr. 
Gf. Scbutz. Lips. 1804—^. 3 vols, a) Bhetor. ad Her. ed. 
Garatoni. Neap. 1777. Rbet. ad Her. IV. et de Invent. H. 
com notis intt Lambini etc. ed. P. Burniannns2 vols. Ltigd. B. 
1761. 8vo. — repet. cur. suasque not. adj.Fr. Lindemann. Lips. 
1828. 8vo. b) de oratore 3 vols. ed. Jac. Lud. Strebtens. 
Paris. 1540. fol. 1557. 4to. — em. et illustr. Zach. Pearce. 
Cantabr. 1732. 8vo. — ed. Harles. Lips. 1815. 8va— rec. ill. O. 
M. MuUer. Lips, et Ziillich. 1819. 8vo. c) Brutus s. de d. 
orat. cum comm. Seb. Corradi. Flor. 1552. fol.^ — ^ill. J. Ch. F. 
Wetzel. Hal. 1793. 8vo. c. n. Jo. A. Em. alior. interpr. sel. 
ed. suasque adj. Frid. Ellendt. Regim. 1825. 8vo. d) Orator 
fUustr. Bened. Scbirach. Hals 1766. 8vo. — ex tribus Codd. 
denuo rec. H. Meyerus. Ace. ep. crit. C. H. Frotscheti. 
Lips. 1827« 8vo. — orat. Brut. Top.— c. annot. C. Beieri et 
edit. — denuo rec. Jo. Casp. Orellius. Turic. 1830. 8vo. 
e) Topica. f ) de partit. oratoria. g) de optimo gen. die— 
2) Orationes 69. rec. c. comm. Asc. Pediani et notis int. 
Lambini etc* ed. J. G. Grsevius. Amstel. 1699. 6 vols. Svo. — 
e rec* Grsevii c. var. not. ed. Garatoni. Npap. 1777 — 88. 9 vols. 
8vo. — M. T. C. opp. ad opt. U. rec. anim. crit. instr. indd. et 
lex. Cic. add. Chm. Dan. Beckius. Lips. 1795 — 1807. 4 vols. 8vo. 
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anim. Thph. Chip. Hsrles. Ace. Asconii oomm. Erlang. 1783, 
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dupOB. ad optt. edd. et MS8. oodd. pnes. Ambronanas eoU* flri. 
interpr. notiB novisqne avots ear. Fr. BentiTogUo. Medi<^ 
r(^ 1. 1826. 8vo. 4) i^Yov. Treaties, a) Acadeitt. qtuniC. I. 
«t IV. ree. Jo. Daviaias. Cantabr. 1736. 8vo. Hals 1806* Sto. 
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V. ed. Jo. Davis. Cantabr. 1709. 8vo. Hale 180O.— ex rec 
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1795. 8vo g) de Legibus III. ed. J. Davisius. Cant I7S7. 

8vo. ' Hale 1809. 8vo. ed. Jo. Aug. Goerenz. Lips. 1809. 8vo. 
-^rec. snasqne anim. adj. G. H. Moser. Franco!. 1824. Svo.-^ 
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sins. — Q. T. Cicero de petitione consolatns. rec. Chm. Gottl. 
Schwarz. Altd. 1719. 8to. 

M. Tkrent. Varro, b, at Rome» [A. U. 638,] 
116 B. C, once trih.pL, a partizan of Pompey, but 
pardoned by Caesar, lived fmin that time in learned 
leisure; being proscribed with Cicero, he saved himself, 
and returned to Rome under Octavian (Augustus), 
d. B. C. 27. The number of his writings, treating 
upon almost every variety of subject, was 490. Of him 
CtV. Ae. I, 3. 1 ) De lingua Lat, ad M. 71 Cic. L 
XXIV, of which only 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. remain. 

Ed. pr. e& recogn. Potnpon. Lseti. s. 1. et a. — ^Venet. 1474. 
-*ciun conjectaneis Jos. Scaligeri. Paris. 1565. 8to. 1581. 8vo. 
Auotores ling. 1. ed. Dion. Gothofredns. Genev. 1602. 1622. 
^to.'-^. not Ant. Augustini, Adr. Tomebi, Joe. 9oalig# et 
A US. FopmiB. Bip. 1788. 2 vols. 8vo. — rec. L. Spengel. Berol. 
1826. 8to. emend, et annot. a Car. Od» Mullero. Getting. 
1833. 8vo. 


2) De re rust. III. 

See soriptt rei rust The complete loorks i^ V. ed. H. Ste^h. 
c. Job. Seal, et P. Viotorii notis 1569, etc. Amstel. 1623. 8to. 
Besides satyr® Menippeffi m Ptose, hui mixed wUh Vertey afiet 
the example of the Cynic Menippusjor the mod pari oh moral 
subjects. Spald. ad Quint I, 4, 4. 

Q. '^Valerius Catullus, b. 668 U. C. 86 B. C- 
of the Peninsula Sinnio on the lac. Benacus (/. di 
Garda) near Verona, of a respectable family, was still 
living about 707, B. C. 47. Lyrica, eleguB, epigr. 

Generally with TibuUus andPropert. Ed. pr. 1472. ed. Vine. 
1481. fol.— c. nott M. Ant Mureti, Jos. Scaligeri, Jan. Douse, 
Jo. Passeratii all. ed. Jo. Ge. Grsevius. Traj. ad Rhen. 1680. 
8vo. — c. comm. Is. Vossii. Lond. 1684. 4to. — c. annot. Jo. 
Ant Vulpii (Cat Tib. Pr.) Patav. 1710. 4to. (Cat abme) 
1737, 4to. — Cat carmina, varietate lect et perpetoa adnot. 
illustrata a Fr. Guil. Doering. Lips. 1788.— ad opt IL fid. 
recogn. var. lect et indd. adj. C. J. Sillig. Getting. 1823. 8to. 
—ex rec. Car. Lachmanni. Berol. 1829. 8vo. Cat epifli. 
Pelei et Thet ill. C. G. Lenz. Altenb. 1787. 8to.— eL ad 
Manlium. Xiectionem constituit Laur. -van Santen. Lngd. B. 
1788. 4to. The Pendgilium Veneris, by an (Mnonymous atUioTj 
may be found separate vsith the notes of Salmasius, Serhermsy 
and others, in Baudii amores. Lugd. B. 1638. 12mo. and in 
CoUectt. no. 6, torn. iii. 

Corn. Nepos, b. at Hostilia in the Veronesian 

»> See Jahrb. d. Philol. u. Padag. XIII. p. 283, sq. 


territory, was poisoned by his freedman Callisthenes, 
B. C. 30. Vit(B excelL Gr. imperatL 20. (designedly 
short, see Epamin. 4.) Hamilcaris, Hannib. Of his 
work upon the Rom. Historians, there is extant only 
his niia Catonis maj. ; of that de viris illustr. Vita 
T. Pompon, Attici, A revision of his work was made 
by iEmilius Probus in the time of Theodosius the 

£d. pr. Tenet. 1471* fol. — ex em. etc. comm. Dion. Lam- 
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1734. 1773. Svo. Stuttg. 1820. 2 vols. Svo. (cur. Guil. H. 
BaTdili.)->ed. Jo. Mich. Heuoinger. Isenac. 1747. 8vo.^-ed. 

et ill. K. H. Tzschucke. Gott. 1804. Svo mit. Anm. v. J. G. 

Bremi. Zdrich. 1812. 1820. 1827. 8vo.— recogu. sel. al. suisque 
notis max. part, gramm. ill. G. Fr. Gunther. Halls. 1820. Svo^ 
— Me %DrUe besides Chronic, libr. III., illustrium virorum libr., 
of which 16 are cited, 

C. Jul. CiESAR, b. 654 U. C. 100 B. C. + 710 
U. C. 44 A. C, an Orator, Grammarian, General, 
Statesman, de h. Gall, libr. VII. (the eighth is by 
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and very corrupt) are by imknown authors. 

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C. Sallustius Crispus, b. 669 A. U. C. 85 

B. C. at Amitemum in the Sabine territory, in the 
year 704 expelled from the Senate {Heind, on Horat 
Satir. p. 40.), reinstated by Caesar, Praetor, Govemor 
of Numidia, d. A. C. 35. de hello CatiUnarto and de 
belle Jugurth. 

Ed. pr. Veiiet. 1470. fa!. — ex reeogn. J. Gruteri. Francof. 
1607. 8to. — rec. Jos. Wasse. Cftntabr. 1710. 4to. — ed. Gottl. 
CoFte. Lips. 17'24. 4to^^-ed. Sig. Havercamp. Amstel. 1742. 
2 vols. 4to. — reeogn. F. D. Gerlach. Basil. 1823, sqq. 3 toIs. 
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lost, bistor. 1. III. fr. ex Cod. Vatic, ed. ab Aug. Maio. auct. 
et em. cur. Jo. Theopb. Kreyssigio. Misen. 1830. Svo. 

M. ViTRUVius PoLLio, of Verona : de arckite- 
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age in which he lived, see Hirt. Uber d. Pantheon.) 


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can hardly be the composition of Gallus, since in his 
poem Scylla was metamorphosed into a sea-monster^ 


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PuBLius Syrus, a freedman and Mime Poet, a 


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Fabric. B. L. i. p. 477. 

P. Cornelius Severus. The Poem Mtna, which 
goes under his name, was probably the production 
of Lucilius, the friend of Seneca. — ed. Th. Gorallus 
{Clericus). Amstel. 1715. 8vo. — in Collectt. no. 5. 
— Lucuii jun. JStna, Rec, not, J, Scaligeri, Lin- 
denhr. et suas add, Fr. Jacob. Lips, 1826. 8vo. 
A Fragment of Corn, Sev, de morte Ciceronis see 
Collectt, no. 5. 

C. Pedo Albinovanus, a friend of Ovid. Some 
ascribe to him the Consolatio ad Liviam Drusam de 
morte Drusi, which stands also in the Burmaun and 
other Edd. of Ovid, on still slighter grounds eUgia 
in obitum Macenatis, and a third de Macenate tnori- 

See CatcU, Virg, rec. c. not. Scalig. Lindenbrog. Heinsii et 

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See Epp. ex Pont. IV, 16, 34. Cynegeticon lib. 
fVemsd. I. p. 141. also ascribes to him the Halieu- 
tlcon. Gr. F. et Olymp. Kernes, carm. venat. cum 
scriptures variet. et aliorum suisque commentatt. ed. 
Reinh. Stem. Halts Sax. 1832. 8vo. 

Venet. 1634. 8vo. also in the CoUecH. 14. 15. 

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35 are extant, I— X. and XXI— XLV. 

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M. Manilius, a poet wholly unknown in other 
respects, to whom a didactic poem, Astronatnicon L V. 
is ascribed, which tre-ats particularly of the influence 
of the constellations upon the destinies of men, and 
has many poetical passages. 

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P. RuTiLius Lupus, (see Ruhnk, Prcsf. p. xi, 
sqq.) a Rhetorician, translated in one book, which 
however the Grammarians have divided into two, four 
books of Gorgias, an Athenian Rhetorician, the pre- 


ceptor of the younger Cicero, {Cic. ad Div. XVI, 21.) 
upon the Rhetorical Figures de figuris sententiarum 
et elocutionis, 

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Verrius Flaccus, 4 freedman and celebrated 
Grammarian, preceptor to the grandsons of Augustus, 
Caius and Lucius. Suetan, de ill. Gr, c* 17. Festus 
made an extract from his work de verborum significa' 
tiane. V» Fl, qum exstant, cum cdstigat Jos. Scali- 
geru LuteL 1575. 8vo. — Fastorum anni K a Verr. 
FL ordinatorum reliquus, ex marmor* tabb* fragnt, 
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foL also in the Suet, of Wolf. voL iv* p. 315. 



§. 20. With Augustus the Romans lost tlie very- 
shadow of liberty, and Literature, reft of its genial 
influence, declined. Under the dark suspicious Tibe* 
rius, the insane Caligula, the simple Claudius, the 
mere vassal of bis freedmen and women, and the 
sanguinary Nero, it was dangerous to possess talent 
and to employ it to any nobler purpose than that 
of the most obsequious and degrading flattery. 
Hence the honourable pride which distinguished the 
Roman character disappeared, and with it expired all 
sensibility for the noble and becoming in the arts and 
sciences. Eloquence, however, it must be admitted, 
was still cultivated with creditable success by Julius 
Floras in the time of Augustus and Tiberius ( Quint. 
X, 3, 13. c. n. Spald,), by Bomitius Afer, from the 
reign of Tiberius to that of Nero, (Qutn/. X, 1, 118. 
Spald, at V, 7, 7.), and by Julius Africanus in the 
reign of Nero, {Quint, ih, Spald. at VIII, 5, 15.) ; 


but in proportion as it had lost its appropriate stage, a 
partiality for Rhetoric increased, which, the fewer the 
occasions presented in actual life for its legitimate 
exercise and the rarer the instances of elevated senti- 
ment ', tended in the same degree to vitiate their taste 
for the simple and natural. 

In place of the solemn dignity which characterized 
a former age, there now succeeded a studied and often 
ridiculous homhast; in order to acquire favour with 
the great, an affectation of wit prevailed, and efforts 
were made to invest every subject with an air of 
facetiousness and originality''. The language, it 
is true, was enriched with many new forms of ex- 
pression, but in order to acquire this novelty the 
vocabulary of the Poets was rifled, and the boundary 
lines of Prose and Poetry effaced. No other indi- 
vidual contributed more to pervert the national taste 
than Seneca, a man who to prodigious talents united 
the ambition of shining by the brilliancy of his wit> 
his antitheses, and the terse and pointed structure 
of his sentences. (Quint. X, 1, 125, sqq.) 

§.21. Every description of Literature was infected 
withi this rhetorical mania. Poetry, which next to 

^ The dialog, de causa, corr, el, 19. 20. exhibits a lively por<- 
traitare of tiiie eloquence which prevailed at that period. 

^ Istad acntanim festivaramque rerum aucupium in pro- 
sam orationem primus invexit Trogns Pompeius^ in ligatam 
Ovidiui. B,uhnk,prmf. Veil. p. xii, sq. 


Rhetoric had the greatest number of votaries, ex- 
hibited a preference for rhetorical subjects, and de- 
generated into declamation; and that she might not 
be outstripped by Prose, perceived the necessiw 
of elevating her diction likewise to a higher tone* 
Lucau; the best Epic Poet of this age, belongs in the 
opinion of Quintilian (X, 1, 90.) rather to the 
orators than the poets ; while his luxuriant and 
tumid diction, his delineations of character, and his 
speeches, the most brilliant parts of his poem, indicate 
the rhetorical bias of his genius, the choice which 
he made of an historical subject shews how imperfectly* 
he understood the essential nature of Poetry. The 
example of Valeirius Flaccus introduced, moreover, 
an afiectatioQ of learned display ; and if Silius 
lialicus strikes us less in a rhetorical point of view« 
the fact may be imputed rather to the poverty of 
his genius and the embarrassment resulting from 
his attempt to imitate Virgil. Declamation associated 
with a harsh Stoicism characterizes the Satires of 
Persius, and the Tragedies of Seneca are mere de- 
clamatory exercises, without any well-defined plan, 
without nature and truth, though not without noble 
sentiments, a profusion of moral maxims, and much 
boldness of imagery. Pomponius Secundus seems to 
have distinguished himself more by brilliancy of 
expression than by tragic vigour. (Quint X, 1, 98. 
Spald. at VIII, 3, 31. diaU de causs, corr, el. 13.) 


^. 22. History was cultivated with success by a 
few individuals of the age of Augustus^ particularly by 
Cremutius Cordus ( Vossius de kisU 1, 22.) and Au-" 
Jidius Bassus in his libr. belli Germanid and b, 
civilis, whose historical work was continued by the 
elder Pliny {Foss. I. c.) ; but the works of the former 
in consequence of their unreserved and open character 
were burnt in the reign of Tiberius by a decree of the 
senate^ and the author himself impelled to suicide. 
The only historian of this period whose works 
remain to us, Felleius Paterculus, has with all his 
rhetorical colouring the merit of an easy pleasing 
diction, and an animated style. On the other hand, 
the anecdotes which Valerius Maximus collected, 
served for no other purpose than as a medium for the 
exhibition of his rhetorical art in a parade of sen- 
timents. Among the philosophical systems the Stoic 
was in most repute, not so much from its peculiar 
aptitude for raising generous spirits above the cor- 
ruption and calamitous state of the times by the 
additional energy which it imparted to a consciousness 
of the moral dignity of mankmd, as from the attraction 
of its pompous and dazzling sentiments which ren<* 
dered it a most eligible resoiurce for rhetorical 

§. 23. The vigour and good taste of the Roman 
character raised itself once more in the prosperous 
reign of Vespasian and Titus. Quintilian, both by 


precept and, example, restored eloqaence to the Cicero- 
nian standard^ and bad a worthy successor in the 
person of his pupil, the younger Plinius; Tacitus 
wrote the history of his time with the old Roman 
spirit, and with true republican dignity^ and developed 
an art of graphic representation, of which Tbucydides 
and Sallnst had alone as yet furnished examples. 
But the spirit of the time was too far corrupted t(» 
admit of its sacrificing the substantial advantages 
which an acquiescence in the prevailing taste held out, 
to anv disinterested exertions in art and science. 
Statins even outvied his predecessors in Epic and 
Lyric Poetry by rhetorical bombast and erudite 
display. Whether Saleius Bassus (Wemsd. p. /. m. 
IV, p. 43.) was that perfect poet, which the author 
of the Dialogue de caussis corr. el. c. 5. represents 
him to have been, is very questionable, since Quinti- 
lian(X, 1, 90.) denies him this character. 

History confined itself to dry memoirs of the Em- 
perors, as with Stietonius, or degenerated^ as in the 
instance of Florus, who was rather a panegyrist than 
an historian, into mawkish declamation. Servilius 
Nonianus, to whom Quintilian (X, 1, 102.) ascribes 
noble thoughts and an exuberance of sentiment^ but at 
the same time a diction somewhat too luxiuriant, seems 
likewise to have been a rhetorical Historian. All the 
efforts of the Emperoi-s since the time of Vespasian 
to promote the study of the arts and sciences by 


giving salaries and other encouragements to the pro- 
fessors, {Jst Grundriss der Philologie, p. 542, sq.) 
opposed no effectual check to the progressive decline 
of taste. 

T. Phjedrus^ a Thracian, freedman of Augustus, 
wrote, prohahly in the reign of Caligula, Fabularum 
jEsopiarum lihr. V., which, however, had so little 
notoriety, that Seneca Cam. ad Polyb. 27. mentions 
the fahle of iEsop as intentatum Ram» ingeniis opus. 
See NachtrUge on Sulz. Th. 6. p. 29 ^ 

£d. princ. P. Pithcei. Augustod. 1696. 12mo. — cum Dotis 
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Amst. 1698. 8vo. Hag. C. 1718. 8vo. Lugd. 1778. 8to rec. 

[" In opposition to those who impugn the genuineness of the 
Fables ascribed to Phsedrus^ on the ground of their not being 
mentioned by any other writers than Martial, 3, 20. and Avi- 
enus ; and of the ^sopic Fable being affirmed by Seneca to be 
intentatum Romanis ingeniis opusy contending that they were 
fabricated in modem times by Perottus or Gab. Faernes, the 
author maintains in his Encycl. d. Phil. p. 162. that poems so 
manifestly stamped with the Roman genius of a pure age, 
cannot reasonably be conceived to have been the production of 
a modem scholar, who must first have acquired the language 
before he composed them, and that the discovery of the MS. of 
the 10th century, from which the Fables were first printed, 
affords incontestable proof that they were at least anterior to 
the 10th century.] 


Rich. Bendey ad calc. Ter. — cum novo comm. {without the 
notes of the former,) ed. P. Burmann. Lugd. B. 1727. 4to.— 
cum yar. lectt. et comm. perp. ed. Sehwabe. Hal. 1779 — 81. 
3 vols. 8vo. Brunsv. 1806. 2 vols, large 8vo. — ^prima ed. crh. c. 
int. var. Codd. Fithceani etc. Ace. Css. German. Aral, ex fide 
Codd. em. et sappl. Fervig. Yen. ad Codd. ^alm. et Pith, 
exactum ab Jo. Casp. Orellio. Turic. 1831. 8vo» ed. 2. 1832. 
Comp.gen, Schulz. 1829. 2 vols. n. 129. 1831. 2 vols. n. 126. 

Velleius Paterculus, eques, prafor under 
Tiberius, wrote in the year 30 a sketch of the Koman 
history up to the death of Livia, the mother of 
Tiberius, in two books, of which the firsts whieb oc«- 
tains a short survey of the powerful mttioiis which 
existed before the foundi^on of the city, is in a 
very mutilated state. He was put to death as being 
a friend of Sejanus in the year 31. Of his work 
there was only one Codex, now lost. 

£d. pr. Beat. Bhenani. Ba^iil. 1520. fol — ed. J. Lipsus. 
Aittv. 1607. 1648. fol. — ed. P. Burmann. c. n. var. Lugd. £. 
1719. 8vo.— e rec. et c. comm. perp. Jo. Fr. Graneri. Cob. 
1762. 8vo. — anim. doctt. cur. Dav. Kubnkenius. Lagd. B. 
1779. 2 vols. 8vo. denno ed. C. H. Frotscher. Lips. 1830, stjq. 
8vo. — rec. et ill. Jani et Kranse. Lips. 1800. large 8vo. 
translated by Fr. Jacobs, Leipz, 1793. 8vo. 

Valerius Maximus, in the reign of Tiberius; 
dictorum factorumque memorabilium libr, IX. ac- 
cording to some an extract from a larger work. 

£d. pr. Moguntise 1471. fol. — ed. Steph. Pighias. Antv. 
1667. 1674. 8vo. c. brev. n. J. Lipsii. Antv. 1586 etc. — cum 


not. integr. VV. DD. ed. Abr. Torrenius. Lugd. B. 1726. 4tow 
— e rec. Torren. c. var. lect. notisque perp. ed. Kappius. Lips. 
1781. 8vo.— ed. Helfrecht. Hof. 1799. 8to. 

M. Ann. Seneca, of Corduba,. a Rhetorician, 
.collected for his sons, the most memorable thoughts 
from the Declamations of the Rhetoricians in the age 
of Augustus, 1) 35 controversias in 10 books, of 
which we still possess the 1. 2. 7. 9. 10.; of all 
there still remain Excerpta, 2) masorias. See diaL 
de c. corr. el, 35. 

Controv. Venet. 1490. Contr. et snaflor. Ven. 1492. fol 

ed. Jo.* Fr. Gronovius. Amst. 1672. 8vo. in the Sd book of the 
Opp. Sen. 

A. Cornel. Celsus wrote on different 8ul]jects, 
Rhetoric, History, Jurisprudence, Philosophy, the art 
of war. Agriculture; there are still extant de re medica 
libr. VIII. in which the most useful and valuable por- 
tions of the medical systems then known are collected 
with much critical discrimination and judiciously 
arranged. Medicorum Cicero, See Encyclop„ v, 
Ersch tt. Gruher, 

Ed. pr. Flor. 1478. fol. — cara Th. Jans ab Almeloveen. 
Amst. 1687. 12mo. 1713. 1746. — rec. c. not. sup. Car. Chni. 
Kraose. Lips. 1766. 8vo. — ex rec. Leon. Targs. Fatav. 1769. 
4to. — ex rec. Targae. Ace. G. Matthise lexicon Celsianum. 
Lugd. Bat. 1785. 4to. 


Pomponius Mela, of the Province Bsetica, in 


the reign of Claudius, Cosmo^aphioB s, de situ ^rbis 
libH III. 

Ed. pr. Mediol. 1471. 4to.— ed. Is. Vossius Hagse C. 1658. 
4to. Franequ. 1701. 8to.— rec. Jac. Gronovius. Lugd. B. IfiSS. 
8vo. 1696. 8vo. — ad oxnniam Angl. et Hibem. codd. MS3. 
fidem recogn. et ill. (opera Jo. Reinoldi.) Lend. 1711. 1719. 
Eton. 1761. 4to. — ed. Abr.Gronov. c. not. var. Lugd. B. 1722. 
8vo. 1743. 8vo. — e Codd. MSS. rec. c. not. crit. et exeget. ed. 
K. H. Tzschucke. Lips. 1807. 7 vols. 8vo. 

L. Julius Moderatus Columella, of Gades, 
in the reign of Claudius, wrote de re rust lib. XII^ of 
which the tenth is a didactic poem upon horticultui'e, 
as a supplement to Virg. Georg. 

Edd. see in CoUectt. no. 12. 13. 

Cl. Rhemkius Fannius PALiEMON, of Vicentia, 
a Grammarian, {Stiet de Hi* Gr. 23.): ars gramma- 
tica. See CoUectt. no. 21. Fabric, B. L. torn. iii. 
p. 403. de ponder, et mens, in CoUectt, no. 4. 2 vols, 
p. 396. 

ScRiBONius Largus Designatianus, private 
physician to the Emp. Claudius, wrote de compositione 
m edicamen torum , 

First by Jo. Buellius. Basil. 1529. Svc-^-eum not* et lex. 
Jo. Rhodii. Fatavii 1655. 4to. — ed. Joh. Mch. Bernhold. 
Argent 1786. 8vo. 


AscoNius Pedianus, of Padua^ friend of Livius 
and Silius ItaUcus, {Sit It. XII, 212. Quint I, 7.), 
wrote in the reign of Claudius or Nero, {MarkL 
Pwf. ad quat Cic. or. p. Ixxvi. ed. Wolf.) Comm. in 
orati&nes quasdam Ciceronis, {Ferr. I. 2. 3. and 
begin, of the fourth; pro C. Cornelio, or. in toga cand. 
contra Anton, et Catil. in Calpurn. Pis. pro M. 
Scauro, pro Milone.) See the Graevian Edit. 

M. Valerius Probus, of Beiytus, a Grammarian, 
in the reign of Nero, {Stiet. ill. gramm. 24.), another 
of this name in the time of Hadrian, Gell. IX, 9. 
XIII, 19. Under this name are extant grammatica' 
rum institutionum L 11. (in Putsch, p. 1386.) and 
SchoL in Virg. Bucolica et Georg., hut which appear 
to be the work of a later Grammarian. 

L. Ann. Seneca, son of the Rhetorician, Preceptor 
to the Emp. Nero, and put to death hy his order, 
A. D. 66. {Tacit Annal. XIV, 60, sqq.), a Stoic 
Philosopher. Of his works remain a) 12 philosophical 
treatises, {de ira IL Wl.^de consolat. ad Helviam m.j 
de cons, ad Polybium^ de cons, ad Marciam, de pro^ 
videntia, de animi tranquillitate, de con^tantia sa- 
pientiSf de dementia, de hrevitate vitce^ de vita beata, 
de otto (imperfect), de benejiciis II. VII.) b) 124 
Letters to Lucilius; c) naturalium qucestionum 
(particularly upon Meteorology) libri VII. d) tcvc- 




MXwtfffwrif (Satire upon the Emp. Claudius, aa if a 
reception among the pumpkins^ M>ifiwH, as iw^^tmq), 
a satyrs Menippea, Upon him^ see QminL X, I, 
126, sqq. 

Ed. pr. Neapol. 1475. fol. — c. n. M. Ant Mvreti, (Bom. 
1686.) Erasmi (BasU. 1629.) etc. Paris. 1603. 1607. 1627. fol. 
— c. n. J. X*ip«ii. Antv. 1605. 1652. fol. — c. n. int. J. Lips. 
Jo. Frid. Gronovii et sel. varr. Amst. 1672. Syo. 3 vols. (yoI. 
iii. enth. Seneca rh. — )— rec. et ill. F. £. Buhkopf. Lips. Y. 
1797—1811. 8vo.— Epist. cur. adnot. adj. F. C. Matthis. rol. i. 
Fraaoof. ad M. 1803. 8vo.^-emend. J. SchweighflBiuer. Aigent. 
2 vols. 1806. 8vo. — Natar. qusBst. 11. VII. em. et comm. perp. 
iU. G. D. Koeler. Gott. 1819. 8vo. — de providentia. Bee. var. 
lect. et ind. instr. B. A. Nauta. Lugd. 6. 1828. 8vo. 

Under the name of Seneca there are besides 10 
Tragedies^ {Here. /. in imitation of Eurip., TkyesUs, 
ThebaU s. Phcenissa, Hippol. or Plusdra, in imitation 
of Eurip., CEdipus in imitation of Soph. (Ed. T., 
Troiides in imitation of Eur^, Medea in imitation of 
Eur., Agamemnon, Hercules (Etaus in imitatimi of 
Soph. Tr., Octavia), probably rhetorical exercisesyand 
perhaps by different authors. 

Ed! pr. Ferrariae. s. 1. et a. (1481.) See Cellectt. no. 6. 7.— 
rec. J. Fr. Groaovios. Amstel. 1682. 8to. — c. not. Grooov. et 
sell. yarr. ed. Jo. Casp. Schroeder. Pelphis 1728. 4to. — reoogn. 
Fr. H. Bothe. Lips. 1819. 3 vols. 8vo.— rec. Torkill. Baden. 
Lips. 1821. 2 vols. 8vo. 

A. Persius Flaccus, of Volaterr® in Etruria, b. 
in the year 34, eques, a pupil of the Stoic Ann, Cor- 


nuiu8, died in his 28lh year in the reign of Nero. 
6 Satires* Nachtr» on Sulz* VI. p. 81. 

Ed. P. Pitfaceus (cum vett scholiis). Paris. 1686. 8vo. Hei- 
d«lb. 1610. 8yo. c. Is. Casauboni cemm* Lond. 1M7. ^ro' 
generally with Juvenal, 

M. Ann. Luoanus, of Corduba, nephew to the 
Philosopher Seneca, put to death by Nero's order A. 
^6 J in his 27th year. Pharsalia libr. X. See J^achtr. 
on Sulz. 7. p. 340. 

Ed. pr. Kom. 1469. fol. — c. schol. ant. et var. not. ed. Fr. 
Oudendorp. Lugd. B. 1728. 4to.— ed. Gottl. Corte. Lipa. 1626. 
gvo. — cum Heinsji not. ined. et suis ed. P. Burroann. Lugd. 

B. 1740. 4to c. not H. Grotii (Lugd. B. 1626. 8vo.) et 

Rich. Bentleii. Sti*awberry Hill. 1760. 4to. — c. n. sel. H. Gro- 
tii int. et adauctis Rich. Bentl. ed. C. Fr. Weber. Lips. 1821 
— 31.3 Tols. 8vo. — c.not. Barth. Christii Cort. Gron. Heins. 
Martjni-Lag. Telleri al. Ed. morte Cortii interr. abs. C. Fr. 
Weber. Lips. 1828—30. 2 vols. 8yo. 

C. SiLius Italicus, b. in the year 25, Cos. 67, 
and twice again under Vespasian, lived till the early 
part of Trajan's reign, died in tlie year 100 in 
Campania, after a lingering illness, of hanger; sai 
imitator of Cicero and Virgil. Punica s. de hello 
Punico II» libr, XVII, up to the triumph of Scipio. 
See J^achtr, on Sulz. VII. p. 369, sqq. 

Ed. pr. Kom. 1471. fol. — ed. Dan. Heinsius c. crepund. Sil. 
Lugd. B. 1600. 12mo.— ed. Christ. Cellarius. Lips. 1696. 
12mo. — ed. Am. Drakenborch. Traj. ad Rh. 1717. 4to. — comm. 
perp. ill. J. Ch. Gli. Ernesti. Lips. 1791. 2 vols. 8vo.— ill. 
Ruperti. Gott. 1798— 98. 2 vols. 8vo. 


C. Valerius Flaccus Setinus Balbus, pro- 
bably of Padua^ where be died prematurely 88, lived 
in the time of Vespasian. Argonautican ad FL 
Vespasianum libri VIII. (the last unfinished), in 
which he particularly imitated ApoUonius Rhodius. 
See Nacht on Sulz. VIII. 5. p. 296. 

Ed. pr. BoDoniie 1474. fol.-^in. Nic. Heinsiog. Amst. 1680, 
12mo. ujithout notes. Traj. 1701. 1724. 12mo. (cur. P. Bnrm.) 
with the notes. — ed. P. Burmann. c. not. Tar. Lugd. B. 1724. 
4to. — cum not. Bonn, et alior. ed. Thph. Ch. Harles. Altenb. 
1781. Svo.— rec. et ill. J. A. Wagner. Grott. 1805. 8vo. 

Q. CuRTius RuFUS, of whose life no particalars 
are known, as he is not quoted by any ancient author. 
Be rebus Alex. M. libri X., of which, however, the 
first two are wanting, supplied by Freinsheim, Cella- 
rius, and others. See Buttmann and Hirt Uber das 
Leben des Q. CurUus R. BerL 1820. 8vo. 

£d. pr. Yenet. (1470.) ed. Jo. Freinshemius. Argent. 1648. 
8yo. 2 yolfl. — ed. Chph. Cellarios. Lips. l7ll. 12mo. — com 
notis var. ed. H. Snakenbnrg. Lugd. B. 1724. 4to. — var. lect. 
etperp. annot. ill. Jo. Th. Conze. Helmst. 1796 — 803. 8to. 
— ^reo. F. Sohmieder. Gott 1804. 8yo. Commentar. 1804. 8to. 
ad fid. Codd. MSS. rec. C. Theoph. Znmptias. Berol. 1826. 

C. Plinius Segundus, of Verona or Novocomum, 
b. A. D. 23, served under Claudius in Germany, 
filled subsequently different civil ofiices, and was at 


last appointed to the command of the fleet at Mise- 
num. Here be died at the eruption of Vesuvius in 
the year 79 ; {Plin. ep. VI, 16.) a man most ardently 
devoted to the acquisition of knowledge^ and of in- 
defatigable industry. Of his writings, (see Plin, ep. 
Ill, 5.) among which we bare particularly to regret 
the loss of the bellorum Germanic libr. 20. we still 
possess kUtoriiB naturalis libr* 37. a compilation 
made not always with due accuracy and fidelity from 
more than 2000, chiefly Greek, authors upon Cosmo- 
graphy and Geography, the History of Nature and 
Art. His life ^nt Jos. Com. a Turre Rezzonici 
disquiHtiones Pliniana, t. i. Parm. 1763. ii. 1767. 

Ed. pr. Venet. 1469. — Hermol. Barbari castigationes in 
Plin. Bom. 1492, sq. fol. — em. Alex. Benedictas. Venet; 1607> 
fol. — ^per P. Bellocirium (i. e. Danesium). Paris. 1632. fol. — 
e. not. J. Fr. Gronovii. (cur. Schrevel.) Lugd. B. 1669. 3 vols. 
8vo. — rec. Jo. Harduin. Paris. 1723. 2 vols. fol. (Plagiarias.) 
— cnm. not int Hardaini etc. rec. J. G. F. Franz. Lips. 1778 
— 91. 10 vols. 8vo. 

M. Fabius QuiNTiLiANUs,of Calagurris(Calahorra) 
in Spain, came with Galba to Rome, where he acquired 
great reno¥m as a pleader, and during 20 years till 88, 
as a teacher of eloquence. De institutione oratoria 
lib. XII. (found 1417, in the monastery at St. Gallen 
by Poggitts). H, Dodwell. annaU Quint in Burm. 
and Capper. £dit. 

278 THiRP PiaiOD. 

£d. pr. Bom. 1470. fol The firti eriUeal EtHiiMy per Oni< 

nibon. Leonicenum. Tenet, ap. Jenson 1471. fol. — ^rec. Ba- 
phaei Regius. Venet. 1606. 1512. fol. — c. n. var. cur. J. Bur- 
manno. Lugd. B. 1720. 2 vols. 4to. — c. not CI. Capperonerii 

et Tar. Paris. 1725. fol ed. Jo. Matth. Gesner. Gotting. 1738. 

4to. — ^rec. et explan. G. L. Spalding. Lips. 1798 — 1816. 4 toIs. 
8vo. (Vol. V. suppl. annot et ind. continens, cnr. Car. Tim. 
Zumptius. Lips. 1829.) — ex Spald. ree. ad schol. us. cur. God. 
A. Ber. Wolff. Lips. 1816 — ^31. 3 vols. 8to. — not. max. p. 
criticas adj. Aug. G^tth. Gernhard. Lips. 1880 — instit. orat 
1. X. ex ree. et c. comm. C. H. Frotscher. Lips. 1826. Svo. 

To Quintiliaii were ascribed also 19 large and 145 
small oratorical exercises^ declamationes, of which, 
however, the last appears to be by different authoni 
piincipally modem ; besides a Dialogue equally 
excellent in matter and diction of the year 74, de 
caugis corrupta ehquentue, or de araforibtis, which, 
however, some assign to Tacitus, and which commonly 
stands in the editions of Tacitus. (See Spald. ad 
VI. procem. 3. X, 3, 22. Dial, de orat. Tacito 
vhidic. aucU A. G. Langio in Dronkes Edit.) Alone 
cum not, int P. Pithcei, J, Lipsii, J. Fr, Gronovii 
et all. et seL Mureti etc. ed, Er, Benzelius, Upsal. 
1706. Svo. — illustr, Chph. Aug. Heumann. Getting, 
1719. 8vo.— r«c. et ill. J, H. A. Schulze. Lips. 178S. 
8vo. — ree. et annot. instr. E. Dronke, Confluent. 
1828. 8vo. — ree, et annot. crit. instr, Fr. Osann* 
Gissa 1829. Svo.^ed. Jo. Casp. Orell. Turici 
1830. 8vo. 


P. Papikxhs Statius, of Neapolis^ b« 6\, a 
favourite with Domitian on account of his facflily 
in VersificatioD^ died 96 in his native city. By him 
"we have : 1 ) Silvarum L V . occasional poems chiefiy 
in Hexameters. 2) Thebaidos libr. XI I. 3) Achil- 
leidos libr, II. unfinished. Naehtr, on Sulz. Tb. 
VIII. p. 344. 

Ed. pr. Venet. 1472. fol. — ex rec. Fr. LindenbrogH e. 
var. lect. et Lutatii (Lactantii) Plaeidi Hcbol. in Th6b. 
< Venet. 1490. fol.) atque in Acb. nunc pr. Tulg. e MS. Franc. 
Fitboei. Paris. 1600« 4to. — e rec. et cnm n. J. Fr. 6ron<»vit. 
Amstelod. 1653. 12mo. Ej. diatribe in Statium. Hag, Com. 
1637. 8yo. Glim £mer. Crucei aotidiatr. ed. Ferd. Hand. lipv. 
1812. 3 vols. 8vo. — cum comm. Casp. Bartbii ed. Chn. Danm. 
Cygne«e 1664. 2 vols. 4to. ed. Ferd. Hand. t. i. Lips. 1817. 
8vo. Stat. Silvas em. et ill. Jerem. Markland. Cant 1728. 
4to. Dresd. 1827. 4to. 

Decimus Junius Juvenalis, of Aquinum, until 
the middle of his life a distinguished Rhetorician^ 
then wrote Satires, but which he did not publish 
till the reign of Trajan and Hadrian. XVI Satires. 
Naehtr, on Sulz, VI. p. 294. 

Ed. pr. Bomse 1470. foL — cum not. brev. Theod. Pnl- 
manni. Antv. 1565. 8yo. — cum vet. Scbol. et variorum comm. 
Amstel. ap. Wetst. 1684. 8vo.— c. Persio ed. Henr. Cbm. 
Henninius. Lugd. B. 1695. 4to.->rec. et comm. perp. illnttr. 
G. Alex. Buperti. Lips. 1801. 2 rots. 8?o. — ^rec* et annol. 
instr. E. Guil. Weber. "Wimar. 1825. 8vo. — ^In Juv. sat. 
comm. vetusti ; pmt P. Pithoei curas auxit, VV. DD. suis- 
que notis instr. A. 0. Cramer. Hdmb. 1823. 8vo. 


M. Valerius Martialis, of Bilbilis in Spam 
{Calatayud), lived in the reigns of Domitian, Nenra, 
and Trajan. Epi^. libr. XIV. (XIII Xenia. XIV 

£d. pr. Yenet. 1470. 4to. — ex rec. et cum comm. Donit 
Caldeiini. Venet. 1474. fol. etc. — ^rec. Gnttenis. Francof. 
1696. 1602. 12mo. — oum oomm. varior. Paris. 1617. f<^-4]]. 
Matthseus Bader. Mogunt. 1627. fol. — c. P. Scriverii adnot 
J. Lips. S. Batg. Is. Pontani notis. Lagd. B. 1618, sq. 
12mo. — ex recogn. P. Scriverii. Lugd. B. 1619. 12mo. Amst. 
1653. Liber de spectacnlis {upon the public exhibiHons of TUus 
and Domit. bjf setferal) ill. Nic. Perottus in Comaeopue. 
Venet. 1513. fol. Mart. Epigr. m an extract Lot, and Cferm. 
from the poet. TransL of different authors coUeded 6y K» W. 
Bander, Leipz, 1787 — 93. 5 yols. 8yo. See Leumge o&mndl. 
Schriften, BerL 1827. I7r 7%. p. 143, sqq. 

SuLPiciA. Of her writings is extant satira de 
edicto Damiiiani s, de corrupto reip, statu temporibus 
Domit, See Burnt. poSt. Lat. min. t. ii. p. 408. 
Wemsdorf. p. Lm. iii. p. 85. 

Terentianus Maurus, of Carthage^ a work in 
a variety of metres, de Uteris, syllabis, pedibus, et 
metris. See Grammatici vett. ed. Putsch, p. 2383. — 
e rec. et c. not* Laur, Santenii, abs. D. J. van 
Lennep. Traj» ad Rh, 1825. 4to. Fabric. B. X. 
t. iii. p. 415. Cf, Wemsd. t. ii. p. 249. 

C. Cornelius TACiTvs,eques, procurator Gallia 


JBelgiem in the reign of Vespasian and Titus> Consnl 
in the year 97. under Nerva. He wrote 1) vita Agri- 
eolofj his father-in-law ; 2) de maribus Germanorum, 
in the time of Trajan; 3) historiarum lihri V. from 
Galba a. 69^ to the peace with Claudius Civilis a. 71. 
4) annalium lihri XVI. from the death of Augustus 
a, 14, to the death of Nero a. 68. The 7th, 8th, 
9th, 10th books, a. 37 — 47, are wanting, and the 
end of the 5th and 16th books. The first six books 
were found by PhiL Beroaldus in the Abbey of 
Corvey, 1515. The MS. came into the possession 
of Pope Leo X. and then of the Florent. Bibl. 

Ed. pr. Venet. 1469. fol. {Ann. 11— 16.)— ed. Beroaldi. 
Rom. 1615. — ed. Just. Lipsius. Antv. 1574. 1600. 4to. and fol. 
— ^rec. Curt. Pichena. Flor. 1600. Franc. 1607. 4to. — rec. Ber- 
neccerus o. not. Freinshemii. Argent. 1638. and cum not. 
var. and J. Fr. Gronovii. Lugd. B. 1685. 8vo. — rec. 
Theod. Byckius. Lugd. B. 1687. 2 vols. 12mo. — cum notis 
Tar. ed. Abr. Gronovius. Lugd. B. 1721. 4to. — rec. notas int. 
J. Lipsii, J. Fr. Gron. Nic. Heinsii et suas addid. J. A. 
Emesti. Lips. 1752. 1772. 2 vols. 8vo. denuo cur. Oberlin. 
ibi 1801. — ed. Gabr. Brotier. Paris. 1771. 3 vols. 4to. — c* 
comm. perp. ed. G. H. Buperti. Gott 1805. 8vo. {Ann. alone.) 
— ^rec. et comm. adj. Ge. H. Waltber. Halee 1831, sq. 4 vols. 
Svo.^ab Imm. Bekkero recognitus. Lips. 1831. 2 vols. 8vo. — 
Ann. recogn. adn. crit. adj. Theopb. Kiessling. Lips. — Agri- 
cola. Orig. tenet. Tranal. Annot. hy G. L. Walch. Berol. 1827. 
8vo. — ^rec. et annot. instr. E. Dronke. Cobl. 1827. 8vo.— Guil, 
Boetticber lex. Taciteum. Berol. 8vo. 


S. Jul. Frontinus, from the reign of Vespasian 

282 THIRB PSB109. 

to that of TmjaD, died 106. I) de aquaductibut urbit 
Romas l. II. ed. Jo, Palenus, Patav. 1722. 4to.— 
€um not Pol, et suis ed. Adler, Altona 1792. 8vd. 
— 2) StrategemaHc6n, I, IV. in rei milit. scrippt. 
ed, Godesc, Stewechius, Lugd. B, 1592. Sfo. et 
P. Scriverius ib, 1644. 12mo. — cum notis Fr. GvieU, 
Jo, Fr, Gronovii et 9uis ed, Sam, Tennulius* Lugd. 
B, 1675. 12mo. — rec. et not, vat, add. Fr. Ouden- 
dorp, Lugd, B, 1731. Svo. — cum not, Oudendorp, 
£t all, ed, JV. Schwebelius, Lips, 1772. Svo. 


•comum^ nephew to the elder Pliny and pupil of 
Quintilian, first acquired a name as a pleader^ after- 
wards enjoyed the favour of Trajan, and filled the 
highest posts of honour; Consul and Procurator 
Bithynia, 1) Epistolarum L X., of which the 
10th contains PL despatches to Trajan, and the latter's 
rescripts; Ep, 97 one of the most remarkable, 
the rest to his friends, are carefully written after 
the model of Cicero with a view to publication. 

Ed. pr. 8. 1. 1471. fol. 8 B, Complete Tenet ap. Aid. 
1504. 1518. — cum obss. exc. var. et J. Fr. Gronovii ed. Teeo- 
hasen. Lugd. B. 1669. Svo. — cum not Cortii et sel. var. 
ed. P. Ban. Longolias. Amstel. 1734. 4to. — ed. J. M. Go- 
ner, Lips. 1739. 8vo. 1770. — Epist rec. et ill. Gierig. lips. 
1800^802. 2 vols. 8vo. — Epist et Pane^. rec. Gettl. 
£rdm. Gierig. Lips. 1806. 2 vols. 8vo.^ex rec. et e, asDot 


perp. J. M. G^neri, qnibas J. Mcli. Heosingeri, J. Ch. 
Tph. Ernesti suasqve notM add. Gf. H. Schaefer. Lips. 
1806. 8vo. 

2) Panegyricus Trajano dictus, when Cos. 105. 

reo. Arntaenius. Amstel. 1738. 4to.^ — rec. et ill. Scbwarz. 
Norimb. 1746. 4to ed. Gotfl. Erdm. Gierig. Lips. 1796. 8vo. 

C. Suetonius Tranquillus^ a Grammarian 
and Rhetorician^ friend of the younger Pliny> and 
private secretary, mag, epistoL to Hadrian. Of his 
numerous writings there remain: 1) vitce XII. Im- 
perat. 2) L de illustr, GrammaL 3) /. de claris 
rketoribus, imperfect. 4) /. de poStis, only the 
lives of Terence, Horace, Persius, Lucan, Juvenal. 

Ed. pr. Rom. 1470. fol. — ed. Rob. Stepbanus. Paris. 1543. 
gvp. — reo. Des. Erasmus. Basil. 1618. fol. 1646. fol. — cum 
conim. Is. Casauboni. Genev. 1695. 4to. 1616.— cum int. 
comm. Lffivini Torrentii et Is. Casaub. et not. var. (J. Fr. 
Gronorii) ed. J. G. Grsevius. Traj. 1703. 4to. — rec. et comm. 
ac notis var. ill. P. Burmann. Amstel. 1736. 2 vols. 4to. — 
reo. et ill. J. A. Emesti. Lips. 1748. 8vo. 1772. 8vo.^ — c. not. 
Grsevii, Jac. Gronovii, Dukeri et suis ed. Fr. Oudendorp. 
Lugd. 1761. 8vo. — c. Em. notis Casaub. comm. ed. F. A. 
Wolf. Lips. 1802. 4 vols. 8vo. — ^recogn. comm. ill. clavem 
Sneton. adj. Detl. C. Guil. Baumgarten-Crusius. Lips. 1816. 
3 vols. 8vo. 

Julius Obsequens collected from Livy and 
others notices of the prodigia, of which one Fragm. 


remains, extending from the year 249 B. C. to 
Augustus, completed by Conr, Lycosthenes (Wolf- 
hart.) Basel, 1552. 8vo. and others. 

c. not Jos. Scaligeri, Nic. Heinsil, Gisb. Cuperi, Scbef- 
feri, P. Bormanni et suis ed. Fr. Oudendorp. Lugd. 1720. 8to. 
— cum anim. Scheff. et Oad. cor. Kapp. Hof. 1772. 8vo. 

L. Ankjeus Florus, a Spaniard or Gaul in the 
time of Trajan, wrote rerum Rom, libr, IV. or Epi- 
tome de gestis Romanorum, a Paneg}rrist rather than 
an Historian. 

ex rec. Phil. Beroaldi. Mediol. 1610. fol. — rec. £L Vi- 
netus. Paris. 1676. 4to. — ^rec. Jo. Stadias. Antr. 1667. 8to«>- 
rec. Gnitenis. Heidelb. 1697. 8yo. (c. not CI. Salmasii) ib. 

1609. 8yo rec. Jo. Freinshemius Argent 1632. 1669. 8vo.— 

rec. Jo. Ge. Grsvius. Traj. 1680. 8vo. — ed. c. not. Tar. Car. 
Andr. Dnkems. Lagd. B. 1722. 8vo. reprmi. Lips. 1832. 8to. 
— e rec. Grsevii c. ejusd. animadv. pref. J. F. Fischeri. Lips. 
1760. 8vo. 




So far at least the language had been preserved in 
its purity^ and carefully conformed to the models 
exhibited by ancient authors ; but as the intercourse 
of the Romans with Barbarians extended^ great multi^ 
tudes of these nations were continually being intro- 
duced into^ or establishing themselves in the heart of 
the Provinces; and since the Provincial Schools in 
Carthage^ Burdigala, Lugdunum, Augusta Treviro- 
rum, &c. no longer considered themselves obliged to 
take the cue of their taste from Rome, corruption 
spread itself, particularly under the Antonines, till it 
pervaded the very language, which became overlaid 
with exotic words, phrases, and constructions. Ter- 
tullian distinguished himself beyond all others by a 
barbarous diction, probably with the view of shewing, 
. that while exclusively engrossed with his subject- 
matter, he deemed attention to language derogatory to 
his dignity, and in order to produce a contrast to the 


Rhetoric employed in the service of Paganism. In 
proportion as language declined^ the number of Gram- 
marians increased^ inasmuch as authors found it more 
and more necessary to study their mother tongue^ as 
a dead language, from ancient models. By the study 
of these models some few raised themselves above the 
level of their contemporaries, as particularly Lactan- 
titts and the poet Claudian, also, though in a less 
degree, Gellius and Appuleius, 

A. Gellius, of Rome, a Rhetorician and Gramma- 
rian, in the time of Antoninus Pius. ^ocUum Atii- 
carum libr. XX, a collection of Collectanea on histo- 
rical, grammatical, and antiquarian subjects. 

Ed. pr. Venet. 1472. fol. — ed. H. Stephanas. Paris. 1685. 
8vo. Aurel. Allobr. 1609. — em. J. Fr. Gronovius. Amst. 1651. 
12mo. 1665. 12mo. Lugd. 6. 1687. Bto.— ad Codd. MSS. 
exegerunt Jo. F. et Jac. Gronovii. Lugd. B. 1706. 4to. — ex 
rec. Gron. c. prset J. L. Conradi. Lips. 1762. 2 yoIs. 8to. 

Fl, Avianus, in the time of the Antonines, wrote 
42 fables in elegiac metre. — Ed, pr. s» l. 1494. — rec. 
c. n. Neveleti, Barthii et suis H. Cannegieter. Amstel 
1731. 8vo.— «£?. Xodell ih, 1787. 8vo. 

DiONYSius Cato, an author otherwise unknown, 
but under whose name we have a poem disticha de 
moribus. . 


Ed. pr. Aug. Vind. 1475. 1485.-— o. Grseis metaphrasibav 
Max. Planadis Jos. Scaligeri etc. german. vero Mart. Opitii ed* 
Chrst Danmius. Cygnese 1672. 8vo. — c. n. Erasmi, Scaligeri^ 
Opitii, BarthH, Baumii snisque et c. gr. metapbr. ed. Otto 
Amteenius. Traj. ad Bh. 1735. 8to. — rec. J. Mch. Bemfaold. 
NiMut 1784. 8vo. — ex rec. Arntz. ed. Tzschuoke. Lipn. 1790, 
12mo. Fabric. B. L. t. iii. p. 259, sqq. 

JusTiNUs made an extract from Trogus Pompeius 
hist. Philipp. — Historiarum Philipp, ex Tr, P. ex- 
cerptarum libri XLIV. 

Ed. pr. Romse s. a. 4to. — e castig. Sabellici Paris. 4to. — 
ill. Jac. BongarBiue (Soepitator). Paris. 1581. 8vo. — ed. Jo, 
Ge. Grsvius c. not. iat. V V. DD. et suis Lugd. B. 1683. 8vo, 
170J. 8vo. — cur. Th. Heame. Oxen. 1674. 8vo. — c. not. iot. 
W. DD. ed. Abrah. Gronovins. Lugd. B. 1719. 8vo. — c. var. 
lect. ed. P. Burmannos. Lagd. B. 1722. 12mo. — e rec. Graevii, 
c. ej. et J. Fr. Gronovii anim. ed. J. Fr. Fiscber. Lips. 1757. 
Bvo. (cur. Oberlin.) 1807. 8vo. — ex rec. Gronov. et cum divers, 
lect. ed. Graev. W, DD. comment, var. lect. 11. nondum adhib. 
suaaque ann. atque indd. adj. C. H. Frotscher. Lips. 1827. 
8to.— -sec. vetust. codd. priu.«t neglectos recogn. brevi adnot. 
crit. et hist instr. Frid. Duebner. Lips. 1831. 8vo. 

M. Corn. Fkonto^ of Cirta in Africa, an advocate 
at Rome, and preceptor in Rhetoric to the princes 
M. Aurel. and L- Verus, highly esteemed in his time 
as an orator, though his writings are full of barbarisms. 
— de differentiis vocum in Putsch, p. 2191, sqq. — 
opp. ined* c. epist item ined. Antanini Pit, M. Aurelii, 
L. Veri et Jppiani. Inv, et camm, pravio notisque 


ill, Ang, Majus. MedioL 1815. 1823. 2 vols. 8vo.— 
ad ex. MedioL Franco/, ad M. 1816. 8vo. — relifuut. 
Meliorem in ord, digestas, suisqtte et Ph. Buttm. 
Heindorf. ac sel. Maii anim. instr. iterum ed. B« G. 
Niebuhr. Berol 1816. 8vo. {Eichstaedt) M. C 
Frontonis opp. notitia et specimen. Jente 1816. fol. — 
M. Corn, Front, et M. Aurel. Imp. episi. L. Veri et 
Anton, Pii etc. epist. reliquice, e cod, reset, hibl. Vatic, 
cur. Ang. Majo. Rom. Cellos 1832. 8vo. 

L. Apuleius^ of Madaura in Africa, brought up 
at Carthage, an orator and Platonic Philosopher in 
the time of the Antonines. — Opp. ed. pr. Ronus 1469. 
fol. — c. comm. Ph. Beroaldi et Stewechii et aL VV. 
DD. emend. Ba^il. 1560. 1620. 3 vols. 8vo.—- «</. 
Geverh. Elmenhorst. Franco/. 1621. 8vo.— ex rec» 
P. Scriverii. Lugd. B, 1624. 12mo. — c. var. lect^ 
Altenb. 1778. 2 vols. 8vo. Metamorphoseon s. de 
asino libri XI. (taken from a narrative of Lucius of 
Patrae, from which Lucian also borrowed in hb 
narrative of the Ass, a Satire upon the corrupt morals, 
particularly the superstition of those times.) — c. not. 
ed, J. Pricasus. Goudcs 1650. 8vo. — c. n. int. var. 
impr. Fr, Oudendorpii, Pruef. prasm. D. Ruhnk, 
Lugd. B. 1786—1823. 3 vols, large 4to. The Gnan- 
maiian is a different person. See L. Case. Minutiani 
et Apul. min. de notis aspirattonis et de diphth. //. //. 
Ed. et anim, auxit Fr. Osann. Darmst, 1826. Svo. 


T. PsTBONius Arbiter, probably in the age of 
tbe Antonines [Ignarra de palcestra Keap. p. 182. 
Cf. BibL cr. II, 1. p. 84.), pretended author of a 
Satyric6n liber, a Menippean or Varronian Satire 
upon the corruption of his time, but which has not 
been preserved entire. 

£d. pr. Venet. 1499. 4to. — c. Jani Douse preecidaneis. 
Lugd. B. et Paris. 1586. 8yo. — c. comm. Jos. Ant. Gonsalv. 
de Salat. Francof. 1629. 4to. — e Codd. em. et comm. YY. DD. 
ill. P. Burmann. Ultra] . 1709. 1743. 4to. — e rec. Burm. c. not. 
crit. et ind. ed. Kr. Glo. Anton. Lips. 1782. A heatdiftU 
Poem f&imd among these Satires, de b. civ. or de mutat. reip^ 
Rom. s, Wemsd. P. Lat. min. t. iii. p. 24, sqq. other smaller 
ones ib. t. iv. p. 283. 753. 

Q. Septimius Florkns Tbrtullianus, of Car- 
thage, one of the most learned Fathers of the Church, 
whose style however is bombastic and barbarous. See 
Ruhnk. praf, ad Schelleri, lex, in my Eloqu, Lat, 
exemplis. {Altenh, 1821. 8vo.) p. 349, sq. 

Opp. per B. Bhenanum. Basil. 1521. fol. — ad fidein vetost. 
exempl. em. diligentia Nic. Bigaltii. Paris. 1675. fol. — rec. 
J. Sal. Semler. Hal. 1770—73. 1824—29. 6 vols. 8vo.— de 
pallio. CI. Salmasius rec. explic. ill. Lngd. B. 1656. 8vo. 

Sbbenus Sammonicds, in the time of Septimius 
Severus and Caracalla, put to death by the latter. 
By him or by his mi\ we have a Poem de medkina, 

Ed. pr. Yenet. 1488. 4to.~ ad Codd. MSS. castig. c. not. 
et comm. Bob. Keucbenii. 1668. 8vo. — ^in CoUectt, no. 4..-^ 


rec. le^t. variet not, interpr. sel. suasque add. J. Ch. Tlieopb. 
Ackermann. Lips. 1786. 8yo. 

Nonius Marcellus, of Tibur, author of an 
important work on the subject of Grammar, de pro- 
prietate sermonis. 

£d. pr. 1471. foL s. 1. — ^rec. Adr. Junius. Antv, 15^. 8to.— 
cum not. sel. ed. Jos. Mercerus. Paris. 1614. 8vo.— ex rec. et 
c. n. Merc. Lips. 1826. 

C. Julius Solinus, a person of w£om no par- 
ticulars are known, wrote a work Polyhistar, m 
extract from the elder Pliny. 

cast. CI. Salmasius. c. ei. Exercit. Plinianis. Paris* 1629. 
2 vols. fol. Trsg. 1689. 2 vols. fol. 

Apicius, a notorious glutton {Plin. H, N, X, 48. 
Juven* XI, 3.), under whose name a cookeiy-book, 
de re culinaria L X. is extant, but which might, 
perhaps, be more correctly entitled Ccelii Apiciiis. 

£d. pr. 8. 1. et a. wiih Suet, de rhet. et gramm.— c. var. 
lect. et not. Hummelbergii. (Tiguri 1542. 4to.) suisque ed. 
Mart. Lister. Lond. 1705. 8vo. — rec. not. Barthii, var. lect. 
Reinesii et obss. Ant. van der Linden add. Theud. Jansson ab 
Almeloveen. Amst. 1709, 8vo. — ed. Job. Micb. Bembold. 
Ansb. 1800. 8vo. 

M. MiNucius Felix, an African, author of an 
Apology for the Christians in the form of a dialogue 



£d. pr. Bom. 1542. ibl. cw Me 8M hook of Arnobits. adv. g. 
rec. et c. n. Chstph. Cellarii. Halse 1699. 8to. — ex 
rec. Jao. Gronovii c. not int. Woweri, Elmenhorstii, Heraldi 
et Rigaltii Logd* B. I70d. 8¥(w— ex. lec. Jo. Davisii, c. 
ex. aniin. et n. int Heraldi et Bigaltu. Cantebr. 171S. 8to. 

Censorinus^ a Grammarian, about 238, wi*ote 
a learned work, de die natali, which extends over a 
great variety of subjects. 

Ed. pr. Bonon. 1497. fol. — rec. fragm. inc. script, (de 
naturali iDStitatione) snbj. Lud. Carrie. Paris. 1683. 8vo. — 
rec. em. et iU. Henr. Lindenbrogins. Hamb. 1614. 4to. Lugd. 
B. 1642. Svo.— rec. cmn comm. Undenb. et not. sel. Scalig. 
Bartbii, Salm. Meursii al. ex rec. Sig. Havercamp. Lugd, B. 
1743. 8yo. — ex rec. et c. anim. J. Sig. Gruberi. Norimb. 
1744. 1810. 8vo. 

Aquila Romanus, a Grammarian and Rhe- 
torician, wrote dejlguris sententiamm et elocutionis. 
See antiqui rhet. e bibl. Franc^ Pithcei, Paris. 
1599. 4to* — by Ruhnkenius on RuHL £. 

M. AuRBLius Olympius Nemesianus, of Car- 
thage, wrote Cynegetica in a pure style, and not 
without poetic talent. Burnt, poet Lat, min. t. i. 
Wernsd, poet, Lat. min, t. i. See Grat. Falisc. 

T. Julius Calpurnius, of Sicily, wrote 11 Idyls 
addressed to his patron Nemesianus, which are more 


remarkable for facility of versification than poetic 

£d. pr. Bom. 1471. fol—^ee C^Uectt. no. 3. h, 15. — ree. 
adnot. et glossario instr. Ch. D. Beck. Lips. 1803. 8va 

Cl. Mamertinus^ author of a Panegyricus dtc- 
tus Maximiano HercuUo Aug. of the year 289, and 
a Genethliacus Maximiani et Dwcletiani; ori- 
ginating in the custom which prevailed particularly 
in several cities of Gaul^ of conveying congratnlations 
and thanksgivings to the emperors through the instru- 
mentality of Rhetoricians. (The other Panegyrici are ; 
Eumenius of Augustodunum (Autun), J^azariMs, CL 
MamerU minor, Latinus Pacatus Drepanius. Fa- 
bric, BibL Lat. ii. p. 424^ sqq.) 

See CoUecU, no. 17. Cf, Heyne censura XII. Paneg. in 
Ejus opiisc. YI. p. 80, sq. 

Arnobius^ of Sicca in Africa, wrote to shew his 
fitness to he received among the Christians 7 books 
advers, gentes, a learned work: ex rec* V, celeberr, 
{CL Salmtmi) et int» omnium {Theod, Canteri, God. 
Stewechii, Elmenharstii, Des, Heraldi) comm. Lugd, 
B. 1651. 4to. 

^Lins Lampribiits Spartianus, friend or 
freedman of the Emperor Diocletian, wrote the life 
of Hadrian and JElius Verm, probably also of 



tonin. Pius, M, Aurel. Anton,, L. Verus, Avidius 
Cassinus (general under M, AureL), Commodus, 
and other Emperors. 

See CoUectt, no. 16. — Cf. Heyne censara VI. scr. hist. Aug. 
in Opusc. VI. p. 53. 

L. C(BLius Lactaktius FiRMiANUS^ in the 
reigns of Diocletian and Constantine the Greats 
Teacher of Oratory in Nicomedia, wrote with much 
learning and philosophy^ and in a language felicitously 
formed after the model of classic antiquity, besides 
several ethico*dogmatic treatises^ institutiones du 
vinos lib, VII. and others. 

£d. pr. 1466. fol. — ex fid. et auct. Codd. MS. em. Jo. 
Tomsesins. Lugd. 1587. Svo. — em. et ill. Jos. Isseus. Cesense. 
1646. fol.— c. not. yar. rec. J. L. Bunemann. Lips. 1739. 8yo. 

Chalcidius, a Platonic Philosopher, according 
to some a Jew, according to others a Christian, by 
whom we have a translation of the first part of Plato's 
Timseus with a learned commentary. 

Ed. pr. Paris, ap. Bad. Ascens. 1620. fol. — ex rec. et c. n. 
Meursii. Lagd. B. 1617. 4to. 

Julius Rupixianvs, a Rhetorician, by whom we 
have a small work, de figuris sent, et eloc. See 
Rutil L. 


Julius Firmicus Maternvs, of Sicily, Advo- 
cate in the time of Constantine the Great till 336 ; 
upon the influence of the stars^ matheseos Ixbr, VIII. 
Ed» pr. Venet. 1497. foL-^rec. JSTic, Pvuckner. 
Basil, 1533. l56i,/oL — de errore prof, relig. ed. Fr, 
MUnter, Havnue 1826. 

Fab. Marius Victorinus^ a Granunarian ; ex- 
positio in L II. Cicer, de inventione : ap, Rob, Ste- 
phan. Paris. 1537. 4to. and in the Rhetor. Pithcei. — 
ars grammatica de orikograpkia et ratione metrorum. 
See Putsch. Gr. vett. p. 2450. 

Mlius Donatus^ a celebrated Grammarian at 
Rome, preceptor to St. Hieronymus. By him are 
extant (imperfect and interpolated) Scholia upon 
Terence, besides ars {de litteris syllabisque pedihus 
et tonis, de octo partibus orationis) de barbarismo, 
solcecismo et tropis, which last are found in Putsch. 
Gr. vett. p 1735—1779. The Scholia on Virgfl are 
by a younger Tiberius Don. 

Cf, Pompeii commentum artis Don. Ejusd. in 1. Don. de 
barbar. et metaplasmo commentariolam Ace. are gramm. Ser- 
yii. Primum ed. Fr. Lindemann. Lips. 1820. 8vo. 

Sbx. Aurel. Victor, of Africa^ a favourite with 
the Emperor Julian. By him we have : 1 ) liber de 
viris illustribus urbis Rorme, which was fonneriy 


ascribed to Com. Nepos, Suetonius, or the younger 
Pliny; 2) /. de Casaribus from Augustus to Con- 
stantius ; also 3) /. de origine gentis RomancB. 

c. comm. Andr. Sohotd. Antr. 1579. 1582. 8vo. in the hist, 
aug. scriptt. by Sjflburg and Gruier; c. not int Tarr. ed. 
Jo. Arnzeniiis. Amst. 1733. 4to.^— ez rec. et c. anim. J. Fr. ' 
Gruneri. Cob. 1757. Svo..— ed. Th. Ch. Harles. Erl. 1787. 
8vo. — ^ree. anim. et indd. instr. Fr. Schroeter. Lips. 1829. 31. 
2 vols. 8vo. 

Fl. Eutropius, Secretary to Constantine the 
Greats afterwards accompanied the Emperor Julian 
on his expedition against the Persians, also Pro- 
consul of Asia 371^ wrote by order of the Emperor 
Valens^ breviarium Romance historuB L X.^ from 
which Frid. Sylburg, published a Greek translation 
of the Paeanius, in Scriptt hist. Graci min» 1590. 
t. 111. 

ed* Chpb. Cellariofl. CiaiB 1678. 8vo.— .c. not varr. ed. 
Sig. Havercamp. Lngd. B. 1729. 8vo. — rec. Henr. Yerheyck. 
Lugd. B. 1762. 8vo.-^rec. C. H. Tzsobucke. Lips. 1804. 8yo. 
— Pseanii metapbr. ed. Kaltwasser. Gotb. 1780. 8vo. 

Sextus Rufus ; breviarium de victoriis ad pro- 
vinciis pop. R. ad Valentinianum II, Aug. 

Script bist B. ed. J. Grnttero. Hanoy. 1611. fol. — c. n. 
Henr. Meibomii. Helmst 1588. 8yo. — o. n. Cbr. Cellarii. 
Halae 1698. 8to.— ed. Tasebncke. Lips. 1793. 12mo. 


L. Ampbliu8> a person otherwise unknown; Kber 
mefMrialis, remarkable facts in Astrononaj, €reo- 
gmphy, History; first published by Salmaaius in 
his Com. on Florus ; then in the Edd. of Flor. 

Dec. Magnus Ausonius, of Burdigala (Bor- 
deaux), (jrrammarian^ Rhetorician^ and Poet> pro- 
bably a Christian^ preceptor to the Emperors Gratian 
and Valentinian, filled several distinguished offices, 
among others the Consulate 379, and died 392. By 
him we have Liber epigrammatum ; SO Idyls, of 
which the 10th, Mosella, is the best, and others. 

£d. pr. Yenet. 1470. fol.— c. not. int. Soaligeri al. et 
sel. J. F. GronoTii et Jo. Ge. Graevii al. ed. Jac. Tckllias. 
Ainstel. 1671. Svo.— -in usum Delphini ed. Jolian. Floridns et 
Jo. Bapt. Souchay. Paris. 1730. 4to. Cf. Wenwd. p. 1. m, I. 
p. 192. 231. II. p. 299. Heyne censnra ingenii et momm D. 
M. Au8. in Opnsc. acad. t. vi. p. 19. 

Amhiakus Marcellinus, a Greek of Antioch, 
served among the imperial Life Guards at Rome, 
and wrote with much fidelity and sound judgment 
a history of the reign of Nerva up to the death of the 
Emperor Valens 378 in a rugged, often barbarous, 
language in 31 books, of which the first 13 are 

£d. pr. Bom. 1474. fol. — e. not. Henr. et Hadrian. Va. 
lesii suisque ed. Jac. Gronovius. Lugd. B. 1693. 4to.— e rec. 


Grnm. dd. et gloBsarinm add. Jo. Aug. Eraesti. Lips. 1773. 
8to.<— c. not. int. Lindenbrogii, Vftlerioram et Gtron. ed. 
J. Aug. Wagner, et K. GotU. A. Erfardt Lips. 1808. 3 toIi. 
dTo.— Heyne eensnra ingenii et hist. Amm. Marc, in Opnsc. 
acad* t. Vi. p. 35. 

• * • 

, PtiNius Valerianus, of Comum^ a Physician, 
wrote dff re medica L V. chiefly extracts from Pliny's 

Nalurttl History. 

. *•* 

.^Ed^inr. Rom. 1609.— ed. Alb. Torinus. Basil. 1528. fol. 

felFjUt. Vegetius Ren at us, Vir illusiris. Comes: 
epitQjm insiitutorum rei militaris L V. addressed 
td-'VHleihtinian II. 

r •■ ''' '■ - 

•  '• • 
•' .1 . .' 

'•''£4m jpi^* . Oxon. 1468. — em. Grodesc. Steweohias. Antv. 
lfl)d5.ito. 1692. 8yo. 1607. 4to.— c. sel. not. God. Stewechii 

et^*' Scri^erii ed. et em. N. Schwebelius. Norimb. 1767. 4to. 

■•V-.-. .... 
.♦  • . 
•'•  '• . 

.^-;By another PubL Vegetius are artis vetennarUe 
sh^Mg^storum artis mulomedicince L IV. first Ba- 
«ff»" 1^28. 4to. — then in Scriptt. rei rust, by Gesner, 

•Q.. AuR£Lius Stmmachus, Vir Consularis and 
pr/ffeqtus urbis, under Valentinian II., Theodosius 
ain^ '.hjis sons, an adversary of Christianity : epis- 
totttru/n ad diversos L X. in imitation of Pliny. 


• ;Ed."pr. Argent. 1610. 4to. — c. not. Franc. Jureti. Paris. 
1^^, 4to.— rec. Jao. Lectins. Genev. 1687. 1699. 8yo.->c. 


not Casp. Scioppii. Mogant. 1608. 4to. — tee. electa Sjiamaoh. 
et Symm. lexicon adjedt PhiL Parens. Neap. Nenet. 1628. 
Fraaoof. 1642. 8vo.~Symai. VIII. oratt. ined. partes. Inv. 
notisque declaraTit Angel. Mains. Medid. 1816. 8¥o. C£. 
Heyne censnra ingenii et monun Q* Aar. Symm. in Opnsc. 
t. yi. p. 1. 

ViBius Sequester^ his age and countiy un- 
known; de JluminibuSt fmtibus^ laeubus, nemo- 
ribuSf paludibuSf montibuSf gentihm^ qnarum ap. 
poetas mentio Jit. — ed. Franc. Hesseliut. Rate- 
rod. 1711. 8vo. — varr, lect. et int. VV. DD. o©m- 
ment. suasque a^. Jer. Jac, OberUn, Argent, 
1778. 8vo. 

Sextus Pompeius Fest0S, a Grammarian, made 
an extract from the work of Verrius Flaccus de ver- 
borum significatione, which however has been pre- 
served only in an extract of P^ulus Diaconus (in the 
8th cent.) 

£d. pr. Mediolani 1471. fol. — ill. Jos. Scaliger. Paris. 1675. 
8vo. — in usam Delph. ill. Andr. Dacerins. Paris. 1681. 4to. — 
c. n. int. Jos. Scaligeri, F. Uraini, Ant. Augustini, A. Dacerii. 
(cur. Jo. Clerico.) Amst. 16d9. 4to. 

Servius Maurus Hokoratus, a celebrated 
Grammarian, Commentator on Virgil. Other gramm. 
writings, see in Putsch, p. 1779, sqq., among which 


ars de pedibus versuum s. centum metris. Centime' 
trum corr. a Laur, Santenio Lugd, B. 1788. 8vo. 

Fl. Mallius Theodorus^ Cos. in the year 399^ 
a Grammarian : de metris — e cod. Guelph, ed. J. F. 
Heusinger. Guelph, 1755. 4to. — adjidem codd. Pdris. 
recogn» J, F. Heusinger, Lugd. B. 1766. 8vo. 

AuRELius Prudektius Clemens^ a Spaniard, 
b. 348^ author of Christian poems without poetic 
merit — Prud. qiue exstant; Nic. Heinsius ex vet. 
exempt, rec. et anim. adj. Amstel. 1667. 12mo. — rec. 
et annot. ill. Chph. Cellarius. Hake 1703. 8vo. 

Paulus Orosius, a Spaniard, but lived from the 
year 415 in Africa with Augustinus, and in Bethlehem 
with Hieronymus ; historiarum /. VII. adv. paganos 
— ad fid. MSS. adj. int. not. Franc. Fabricii et Lud. 
Lautii rec. suisque animadv. nummisque ant. ill. Sig. 
Havercamp. Lugd. B. 1788. 4to. 

Cl. Claud I anus, of Alexandria, in the time of 
Honorius and Arcadius, a Poet of much talent. Be- 
sides several panegyrical poems on Honorius, Stilicho, 
and others, we have by him two Epic poems eU rapiu 
ProserpiwB libri III. and an unlGinished GigantO' 
. machy, and several Epigrams, occasional poems» &c. j 


Ed. pr. Vioent. 1482. fol.~ed. Casp. Barth. Franoot 1650. 
4to. — rec. Nio. Heinsius. Lugd. B. 1666. — c. not. int. varr. 
ed. P. Burmann. II. Amst. 1760. 4to. — ill. Jo. M. Gesaer. 
Lips. 1759. 8vo. — ^rec. perpetuaqne annot ill. G. L. Konig. 
Gotting. 1808. toI. i. 8yo. 

AuR. MacrobiuSi Vir consularis et illustriSf sacri 
cubiculi pra/ectus, under Honoriusy probably a Greek, 
wrote Comm, in Cic. Somn. Scipion. lihr. II. and 
Conviviorum Satumaliorum lihr. VII., a learned 
Dialogue on various scientific subjects. 

Ed. princ. Yenet, 1482. fol. — ^Basil. 1535. fol. (cor. Jo. 
Camerario) c. not. Fontani, Jac. Grronovii (Lugd. B. 1670. 
8vo.) suisqae ed. Zenne. Lips. 1774. 8vo. 

RuFus Festus Avienus, a Poet. By him we 
have yet extant: metaphrasis Arati. Venet, 1488. 
4to. — Hug, Grotii synt, Aratearum, Lugd. B. 1600. 
4to. Metaphrasis Periegeseos Dionys. AL and a frag- 
ment of a description of the sea-coast from Cadiz to 
Marseilles, the latter in Iambics (703. V.) Venet 
1488. 4to. Vetera poemata cur. P. Pitkceo. Paris. 
1590. 8vo. 1599, 12mo. Wernsd. p. Lat. min. t. v. 
p. 2. 3. 

Fl. Sosipater Charisius, a Grammarian: m- 
stitutionum gramm. ad Jil. I, V. the beginning and 
the end in a mutilated state, in Putsch, p. 1, sqq. 
Fabric. B. L. t. iii. p. 394. 


DiOHXDES, a Grammarian : de oratione, partihus 
orationis et vario rhetor um genere L III. in Putsch. 
p. 270, sqq. Fabric, B, L, t. iii. p. 397. 

Cl. Rutilius Numatianus, a Gaul, via con- 
sularis, prcefectits urbis, in the reign of Honorius, 
wrote a now imperfect Itinerarium in elegiac verse 
and two books, in which he described his journey from 
Rome to Gaul. 

£d. pr. per Jo. Bapt Plum. Bonon. 1520. 4to.«— em. et ill. 
Joft. Castalio. Bomse. 1632. 8to. — ^rec. et comm. adj. Casp. 

Barth. Francof. 1623. 8yo c. int Simleri, Castal. Pithoei, 

Sitzmanni (Lugd. 1618. 8yo.), Barlhii, GrseTii al. animady. 
Amstel. 1687. 12mo. — c. sel. yar. lect. atque integr. not. 
GrsByii Jansson. ab Almeloyeen, nee non Gottl. Cortii iui»qne 
ed. J. Sig. Gf uber. Norimb. 1804. 8yo. — ^rec. Chr. Tob. Damm. 
Brand. 1760. 8yo. — Barm. p. Lat. min. t. ii. Weinsd. p. 1. ra. 
t. y. p. 1. 

Marcianus Capella, of Madaura, wrote in a semi- 
barbarous language a work in the form of an Ency- 
clopaedia upon the 7 liberal arts, (Grammar, Logic, 
Rhetoric, Geom,, Arithmet., Astronomy, Music), to 
which is prefixed as an introduction an allegorical 
romance, de nuptiis Mercurii et Philologia, 

Ed. pr. Vicent. 1499.— -rec. et ill. II. Grotius (14 J). Lugd. 
B. Ifi99. 8yo.— rec. Tar. lect. et anim. ill. J. Ad. GAtx. Norimb. 
1794. 8yo. 


After the decline of the Western £mpire, tfae follow- 
ing still deserre notice : 

Amicius Manlius Torquatus Seyerinus Boe- 
THius, Cos. in the year 510, executed by order of 
the Emp. Theodoric, 524, a Platonic PhikMO|)iher. He 
wrote in prison de consolatione pkHasophue L V. ed. 
J, n, B. Heljrecht Car. R. 1797. 8vo.— Opera 
Basil. 1570. fol. Heyne Censura Boith. de com. 
phil. in opusc. ac, t. vi. p. 143. 

Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus, of Scylacinm 
in Bruttii, b. about 470 of a respectable family in the 
time of Odoacer and Theodoric, Cos. 514, d. in the 
monastery Vivarese near Scyll. about 560, Philosopher, 
Rhetorician, and Grammarian. Among his writings 
partieularly deserve notice epist variarum L XII. on 
account of the Edicts and Rescripts of Theodoric and 
his successors. 

0pp. omnia, ad fidem MSS. Codd. «m. et aucta et ilL op. et 
St. J. Garetii. Botoma^. 2 vols. 1679. fol. Tenet 2 yoIs. 1729. 

pRisciANUS, of Rome, brought up at Csesarea, a 
Grammarian^ taught in the time of Justinian at Con- 
stantinople: commentariorum grammaticorum L 
XVIII. de accentibus, de versibus com,, de praexer- 
citamentis rhetoricce after that of Hermogenes, etc. 


in Putsch. Periegesis e Dionysio, carmen de fonde- 
rihtts et mensuris, epitome Phamomenon s. versus de 
sideribus in Wemsd. p. L min. t. v. p. 1. — Pr, opp. 
ad vetustiss. Codd.Jidem rec. A. KrekL Lips. 1819, 
sqq. 2 vols. 8vo. — opp, minora, ed. J, Lindemann. 
Lttgd. B. 



oioi^ogi ^oL^ooSo^^ ^oL'^a^sivy 'Ojcti^glSai, havxtvoi&Toti. 

Strictly speaking, in the early poetry of Greece the 
MM^is recited his own effusions only, and the fa^tf^Uy some- 
times indeed his own, for the composition of which the 
practice of recitation not unfrequently qualified him, hut 
generally the effusions of others. The origin of the 
practice and its designation may he traced to Hesiod, 
who is said hy Nicocles, apud Schol. Find. Nem. ii. 1. 
to have heen the first Rhapsodist, «'^«r«» fm-^^wttt. In the 
early ages the Rhapsodi were held in high estimation, 
as heing the sole depositaries of the national poetry; it 
was not until afler the introduction of writing, and the 
general institution of lyric and other recitations of a 
theatrical character, that they lost caste, and hecame 
degraded to the rank of mere iirax^ireti and x'C*"^"^* Plat. 
Pol, ii. 373. Legg. ii. 658. The etymology of the term 
has heen much controverted. Of the two schools of Rhap- 
sodists we learn from Pausanias, (ix. 30.) that the Ho- 
meric accompanied their recitations on the Ijnre, and that 



the Hesiodic simply held the f^fity but whether " as 
a badge of their profession," as the author affirms^ or from 
its supposed effect upon the imagina tion, admits of doubt ; 
** Non enun casu factum est, quod lauri ramum pro sceptro 
vates aceepit, ut opinabatur WoMus, sed divino ille ramus 
spiritu implet eos qui manu tenent," observes G5ttling on 
Hesiod. Theog. 1. 30, '^ Ea enim erat lauri natura se- 
cundum Graecos, ut et canentes vaticinandi facultate 
impleret, et promptos ad audiendum animos' inspiraret 
excipientibus." Id*, in Fraef. p. xiii. Hence also it was 
worn, carried, and even eaten by prophets, and called 
fiMmnkf porU. To a kindred origin Nitzsch (Hist. Horn. 
p. 139,) ascribes the practice of singing r«/X4« at feasts to 
a branch of laurel or myrtle, the ti^iStMu and imw^m^ 
of suppliants y the sceptre or staff which Homer puts into 
the bauds of his orators when addressing the assembled 
people^ the fufii§f o£ Mercury, and the seytale of die 
Spartans. Hence the etymology of the term wodd 
appear to be correctly deduced from ftifihtj there being no 
greater dissimilarity between f^fiif^s and fa^ff^is than 
between fiaixxti and •^<gxx», (iVw and ^pim The expression 
parTal^n of Pindar (Nem« ii. 1.), when viewed in con- 
nexion with the xmrek fmfitv^if^tutw of the same poet, (Isdi. 
4. ^^')i determines nothing in favour of the elymology 
from fiitrruf, and the alleged apocryphal origin and hetero- 
genepus structure of the Homeric po6ms« But evoi 
admitting f4ttruf to be the true etymon, the expressian 
-might simply denote the continuous flow of the 9r4f, in 
contradistinction to lyric and dramatic poetry, which is 
interrupted by pauses and divisions ; and hence from its 
antiquity, the- term fa^tfitTf appears to have been appro- 


priated, when oiher kinds of poetry came mto cnltiTation, 
to ihe epic as iihe most ancient species, and it is probably 
in this sense that Plato proleptically applies it to Horner^ 
and that the Homeric poems have been designated- 

'0^^i)«i.] Whether the Homerfdae were a family or caste 
— ^]ike the Asclepiadse in Cos, the Deedalidse at Athens, 
and the Talthybiadse at Sparta — as the author with Her- 
mann (Pol. Antiq. p. 11. 6.) supposes, or simply a sc(hool 
devoted to ihe preservation and recital of the Homeric 
poems, is a question which does not admit of an easy 
solution ; we may, however, not unreasonably conjeqtjure^ 
that the immediate descendants of the poet were the first 
to interest themselves in the preservation and transmission 
of his works, and that then as his fame extended, a 
reg^ilarly organized 2}W«»a/« was instituted, , by which 
they were securely delivered down to .the age of Pisis- 
tratus, when, if not before, as, in other parts of Greece at 
least, is extremely probable, they were, in .their existing 
order consigned to writing. 

How far the l^ofMua^Klof Pisistratus, or those of a later 
age at Alexandria, may have tampered .with the. structure 
of the poems which they undertook to edit, c^ only be 
surmised from internal data, and the author's reasoning 
in defence of their general integrity will probably appear 
to most of his readers conclusive. That they did some- 
what more than edit and revise, that they occasionally 
even interpolated and expunged, seems generally admitted. 
See on this subject, Wolf Prolegg. Herm. preef. in H. 
Horn. Heinrich. de diasceuastis Hom« Kil. 1807- Coleridge 


on the Greek Classic Poets, p. 57. The authorities usoallj 
cited to prove that they were the compositioii of diffenent 
authors, and that they owe their origin to the age of Pirastra- 
tus, have heen notoriously misrepresented. The passage of 
^lian, V. H. xiii. 14. on which so much stress has been 
laid by the French critics Rapin and Perault, simply avers 
that Pisistratus Ji^i^n (published them), which tiie Lat. 
Vers, renders * confecit;' the ambiguity of whidi, as 
Boileau (Reflex, sur Longin. iii. p. 197.) has shewn, may 
possibly have been the source of their delusion. As regards 
the possibility of their oral transmission witihout the aid c^ 
writing, on which Wolf has expressed himself so ineon- 
sistently, see, for a discussion of the question, Clinton^ 
YoL i. Append. 372. and Heeren, Pol. Hist, of Gr. ff. 
9d — 101. 2d edition. The Calmuck Dschangariade, 
which are said to exceed the Homeric poems in length, 
are preserved without the aid of writing among a people not 
unacquainted with the art. 

Clinton maintains that they were composed, B. C, 
962 — 927, that they were orally preserved for about two 
centuries, and that they were committed to writiBg, at 
least in Ionia and iBolis, as soon as written poetry came 
into use, viz. B. C. 776 — ^700, between the times of 
Arctinus and Archilochus, 

On note (1) p. 18.] The same characteristic inflaenee of 
genius is indicated in the reply which Lucian repres^ts 
Homer to have made, when asked why he b^^ the 
Iliad with the rage of Achilles, viz^ •Zrtt WiTJth mtr^ fmS» 
Irirn3i^«»ri. Ver. Hist. ii. §. 20. p. 280. Bip. 


On p. 20.] The author reasserts and defends his opinion 
rec^iecttng the genuineness of the Odyssey in his Encykl. 
der Phil. p. 157 — 9. In answer to the hypothesis of Fr. A. 
Wolfy that the striking resemhlanee in point of expression 
which exists between them, may be accounted for on the 
^ound of the Iliad being regarded as a sort of stereotype 
for the Epic style^he observes, that the spirit which breathes 
in both poems is the same, that the characters and incidents 
«xhibit the same life, the same power of vivid delineation, 
which stamps them severally with the impress of a strongly 
defined individuality, — a talent which perhaps only three 
others have hitherto possessed, viz. Shakspeare, Walter 
Scott, and Goethe — a talent which cannot be cast into a 
mould, or acquired from others — a talent such as nature alone 
can impart, and of which she is exceedingly sparing ; and 
that such a notion would tend to degrade the Greeks to a 
level with the Egyptians. 

It is worthy of remark, that no suspicion of the spurious^ 
ness of the Odyssey appears to have been entertained before 
the age of the Alexandrian critics, and that of these, 
AristarchuSf by implication at least, assigns it un- 
doubtingly to Homer. 

On p. 31.] The a^e of Homer has been as fruitful a 
subject of controversy, as his individuality, and the genu- 
ineness of the poems ascribed to him. Three principal 
opinions have been held respecting it. See Clinton, i. 
359, sqq. who adopts the date sanctioned by Aristotle, 
placing his birth at the time of the Ionic migration, B, C, 
988, and Coleridge, p. 132, sqq. 


Page 2. line 7* /or Comedy recui Comedians 
8. 15. for this read it 

10. /or Cinsdas Cecrops read Cinspthos 

.... Cercops 
29. note m. Payne, Knight dele comma 

26. for Melanippus Myrti rettd Melanip- 

pides .... Myrtis 
45. 20. for see read zu 
55. 5. for over read of the 

58. 9. delef 

59. 2. for especially read indeed 

113. 1. /or especially Archeeology r«a</ Archseologj 

265. (ak) for with Bein read with the sobriquet of 
236. noteb. for Qaint. xi. read Q. Inst ii. 
244. line 11. for ^, read ^ ; and add the most ce^brated of 

these was M. Porchts LairQ 
■27J^» 2. for on read za 


The numerals refer U the page. 

Achsus, 55, 83. 
Achilles Tatius, 189. 
Acnmenas, 70. 
Acusilaus, 30, 49. 
^lianas Tact. 163. 
.£]ianu8 Soph. 180. 
^milius Macer, 245. 
i£nea8 Tact. 106. 
JEBchines Socr. 64, 100. 
.^chines orator, 67, 108. 
JEachyluBj 52, 71. 
/Eao^vis, 28, 29, 43. 
Afraiiias, 224. 
Agatharchides, 143. 
Agathemer, 179. 
Agathias, 202. 
Affathon, 55, 89. 
AiyifUf, 10. 
Alcffius, 26, 41. 
Alcidamas, 101. 
Alcinous, 163. 
Alciphron, 158, 183. 
Alcmieon, 68. 
'AX^ifimunti, 10. 
Alcmao, 26, 39. 
Alexander Aphrod. 178. 
Alexandrine Library ^ 110. 
Alexis, 61, 123. 

Amipsias, 61. 
Anmuanus Marcell. 296. 
Ammonius Gramm. 190* 
Ammonius Sdccas, 179. 
Ampelias, 296. 
Amphis, 61. 
Anacharsis Scyth. 28. 
Anacreon, 26, 45. 
Ananias, 24. 
Anaxagoras, 54, 75. 
Anaxandrides, 61. 
Anaximander^ 30, 31, 45, 69. 
Anaximenes Lampsac. 123. 
Anaximenes Milesius, 30, 48. 
Andocides, 64, 66, 90. 
Andronious, 150. 

LiTias, 219. 

Androtion, 67. 
Anna Comnena, 207. 
Annates maximi, 219. 
Antigonus Caryst. 137. 
Antimachns, 68, 98. 
Antipater, L. Coelins, 227* 
Antiphanes, 61, 103. 
Antiphon, 64, 66, 87. 
Antisthenes, 64, 92. 
Antoninus LiberaUs, 168^ 
Antoninus pUlos. i68. 



M. Antoniiu orat 396. 
Aphthoniiis, 186. 
Apioins, 390. 
Apioa, 164. 
ApoUodorafl Comic. 189. 

Athen. 147. 

DyscoliiB, 165. 

ApoUonhis Molo, 130. 

Pergeos, 113, 139. 

Rhodius, 114, 141. 

Sophista, 149. 

JkwiSuym, 29, 
Appianns, 167. 
ApHleius, 333, 388. 
Aqatta Boio. 391. 
AratQs, 115, 136. 
'Jify§MUfrtudj 10. 
Arcadiua, 175. 
AroeiilaiM, 117, 139. 
Archiloehiu, 33, 37. 
Archimedes, 113, 14K 
Arohytas, 66, 68, 97» 
Arctioua, 11, 36. 
Areteas, 167. 
ArgyropuluB, Joh. 314. 
Anon, 36, 40. 
AristeDetufl, 158, 188. 
AristarchaB Gramm. 113, 144. 

Maikem. 113, 137. 

Ariateas, 46. 
Aristides, 166, 173. 
Aiistippiu, 66, 99. 
AriatiiM FnscuSf 341. 
AriatDbaliu, 134. 
Ariato^ton, 67. 
Ariatophanes, 61, 91. 

Byz. 113,143. 

Ariatophon, 66. 
Ariatoteles, 109, 131. 
Ariatozeniifi, 116, 136. 
ArnobiuM, 303. 
Arrianufl, 160. 
/Irtemidorus, 164. 
'A^»Xnwt£Utf 69. 
Asolepiades, 106. 

Ajcomna Pediaoaa, 373. 
Asimiia PoUio, 34L 
Aaiua, 33. 

AieUanm/ahUm, 318. 
Atiienaena, 178. 
Athenagoras, 173. 
Atticns, Pompiiii. 337. 
Attius, 336, 337. 
Anfidius Baastia, 367. 
Aurdina Victor, 394. 
Auaonios, 396. 
ATianna, 386. 
ATienna, 300. 
axameniay 318.^ 


Babriua, 160. 
Bacchylides, 26, 63, 73: 
Basiliua Magnna, 191. 
BeroBQS, 138. 
Bessarion, 313. 
Bias, 38. 
Bion, 137, 146. 
Boethius, 303. 
Bnittts, 334. 


Cadmas, 30, 49. 
Cecilius Statins, 331. 
Ciesar, C. Jul. 353. 
Ciesar Germanicos, 363; 
Callimachus, 116, 135. 
Callinus, 33, 37. 
CallistheDes, 134. 
Callistratos, 66. 
Calpumios, Jul. 391. 
CalYUS, C. Licin. 331, 3$4. 
Cemon of the Alewandriam^ 

Cantacuzenns, Joh. 313. 
Caroiniia, 38. 



Caraeades, 118, 146, 223. M. Coelius Antipeter, 927.: 

Cusiodoius, 302. Buiiis, 231. 

Caasios, Farm. 240. Columella, 272. 

Sever. 243. Colathus, 19^ 

CatD, M. PorciuB, 220, 226, KSftUy 26. 

327, 228. Comedy, old, 51. 

Cato Dionysias, 286. middle, 61 . 

.... Valerius Gramm. 236^ new, 116. 

246. CoQOD, 148. 

Catulus, Qu. 226, 235. Constantiiius Cephalas, 204. 

Catullus, 234, 252. Harmenopulus, 212. 

Cebes, 64, 101. ConstantinusPorphyrogenitus,. 
Celsus, 271. 205. 

Censorinus, 201. Corax, 55. 

Cercops, 10. Corinna, 26, 73. 

Cephisodorus, 67. Cornelius Gallus, 239, 257. 

Chalcidins, 293. Nepoe, 232, 252. 

Chalcondylea, Laomcus, 214 Severus, 260. 

Demetrius, 214. Comificius, 237. 

Chamadeon, 125. Cornntus, 120, 155. 

Charisius, 300. Crantor, 118, 132. 

Chariton, 196. Crassus, L. Licin. 226. 

Charon, 78. Crates Com. 60. 

Charondas, 28. Cynic. 125. 

Chilo, 28. Mallotes,113, 145,223. 

Chion, 103. Cratinus, 60, 81. 

Choerilus, 68, 98. Cremutius Cordus, 267. 

Choral Lyric, 25. Creophylus, 11. 

Chryaippus, 117, 139. Critias, 68, 101. 

ChryfK^oras, Eman. 213. Gritolaus, 223. 

Chryaostomus, Dio, 161. Ctesias, 94. 

Johann. 192. Curtius, 276. 

Cicero, 230, 232, 234, 247. Cydians, 11. 

Cinsthon, 11, 22. l^«<rc« '<^« 40. 

Cinsethus, 10. 

Cincius Alimentus, 220w. 

Cinna, Helvius, 240. 

Claudianus, 286, 299. D. 

Cleanthes, 117, 137. 

Clemens Alex. 176. Damascius, 200. 

Cleobolus, 28. Bedamationet,, 244. 

Cleomedes, 163. Bemades, 67, 108. 

Cle<^hon, 66, Demetrius Chalcondylas, 214. 

Clitarchna, 124. Phalereus, 1 19, 127. 

CUtomachus, 11^. Demochares, 119. 



BemooritaS) 63, 6&, 80. 
BemosthenM, 67, 106. 
Diagoras, 83. 

Dicearchas, 110, 116, 128. 
Didymns, 148. 
Dinarchus, 119, 126. 
Dio Cassias, 180. 
. . . Chrysostomua, 168. 
Diodorus Siculas, 119, 151. 
Diogenes ApoUon. 75. 

Cynicus, 67, 99. 

Laertius, 179. 

Sioicus, 223. 

Biogeniamis, 176. 
Diomedes Gramm. 301. 
Dionysius ApoUon. 68. 

CatQ, 286. 

Halicani. 119, 120, 


Milesius, 56, 74. 

Perieget. 115, 152. 

Thrax, 149. 

Diophantos, 189. 
Dioscorides, 155. 
Diphilus, 116, 133. 
DUhyrcanbSj 24. 
Domitius Afer, 264. 


Donatas, ^1. 294. 

Dositheus, 177. 

Draco Hippocratis f. 70. 

StratoDic. 165. 

Drama, origin rf, 51. 

sai^ricum, 52. 

Duns, 119. 

>lyiuifumt 25. 
EleaHc School, 30. 
Elegy, 23. not. x. 
Empedocles,30,55,62, 68, 79. 
Banias, 220. 

£p1iora8, 67^ 105* 
*Z9iy4nt, 10. 
E/ngrafM, 29, 70, 116. 
*E*tf»xAfu»; 25. 
Bpichamiiis, 60, 72. 
Epictetos, 156. 
EpicurnS) 117, IBl. 
Epimemdes, 28, 42. 
!h^««JUmm, 11. 
Eratosthenes, 112, 140; 
Eretriant, 65. 
Erinna, 26, 42» 
Erotianos, 155. 
Eryximachas^ 70. 
Etymologicum magaum, 308. 
Eabulus Cora, 61. 
....... rhet.'67. 

EncMes, Mathem. 112, ISO. 


Ettdocia, 20&. 
Endoxns, 69, 103. 
Eugaramon, 11. 
Euhemeras, 130. 
Eiimelofl, 22, 37. 
Eumolpus, 8. 
Ennapiua, 192. 
Euphorion, 115, 142. 
Enpolis, 67, 82. 
Eurimdes, 60, 85. 
Eusebius, 180. 
Eostathins, 209. 
Eatropius, 295. 


Tabios Pictor, 230. 
Fesaewmnet, .tl8. 
Festns, 298. 
Firmicus, 294. 
Floras, 268, 284. 


Frontinas, 281. 

Fronto, 287. 

Farias Bibaonkts, 34Q. 




Gralba, Serv. Salpic. 336. 

GralenaS) 169. 

Gellias, 286. 

GeminuS) 149. 

Georgias Gremistas or Pletho, 

Georg. Pbransies, 214. 

Trapezunt. 213. 

Gnomic Poettj 29. 
Grorgias Leont. 56, 80. 
Gracchus, Tib. and Cai. 336. 
GrammarktMy Greek,- 113. 

Boman, 236. 

Gratius Falisctts, 261. 
Gregorius Corinth. 309. 
Nazianz. 191. 


Hagias, 11. 
Hanno, 74. 
Harmenopulus, 164. 
Harpocration, 188. 
Hecatseus Abder. 133. 

Miles. 30, 31,49. 

Hegemon, 83. 
Hegesias, 119. 
Hegesippus, 67. 
Heliodorus, 190. 
Hellanicus, 67, 78. 
Hephsestion, 168. 
Heraclides, 113, 116, 134. 
HeraclltQs, allegor. 187. 

Ephesius, 50. 

Hermarchus, 117. 
Hermesianax, 138. 
Hermippus, 61. 
Hermogenes, 169. 


Hero, 113. 

Herodes Attieus, 167« 

Herodianas, Graiom. 169. 

historic. 181. 

Herodicus, 70. 
Herodorus, 56, 79. 
Herodotus, 63, 83* 
Hesiodus, 31, 35. 
Hesychius, Aleit. 193. 


Hierocles, Alaband. 119. 

Platon. 198. 

HieroDjmus Card. 134. 
Himerius, 158, 188. 
Hipparchus, 113, 144. 
Hippias, 56, 83. 
Hippocrates, 69, 89. 
Hipponas, 34, 50. 
Hippys, 57. 
Historise By^nit; scr. 306^ 

Homerns, 9, U, 31. 
Horatiue, 338, 356. 
Hortensius, 330, 335* 
Hyginus, 361. 
Hyperides, &!<i 107. 

Jamblichus, 184. 
Ibycus, 36, '45. 
Johannes Argyropulus, 314* 
..««.. Cantacnzenus, 313. 

Chrysostomus, 193« 

Ion, 55, 81. 
I&nk School, 30. 
Josephus, 156* 
Iseeus, 67, 104. 
Isocrates, 67y 101. 
Julianus apost. 158, 187^ 
Julius Africanus, 364. 

Floras, 264. 

Obsequens, 383.. 

Justinus, 237. 

Martyr, 172. 

Juvenalis, 279. 



Laberius, 235. 
Lactantiufl) 9H2, 293. 
LampridiuB, 292. 
Laoniciw Chalcondyles, 214. 
Laacaris, Janus, 214. 

ConstantiD. 214. 
JjBsub, 26, 60. 
Laurentius Lydus, 202. 
Leo Diaconus, 207. 
Leodamas, 66. 
Lesbonax, 154. 
Lesohes, 11, sq. 29. 
Leucippus, 62, 78. 
Libanins, 168, 188. 
LUrary at Alexandria j 110. 

Per^aniM, 111. 

lUmey 242, 244. 

Ubri Uniei, 219. 
Licinias Calyus, 231, 234, eq, 
Linus, 8. 

HUeratif -^toreg, 236. 
Livius, 246, sq. 261. 
Livius Andronicus, 219'. 
Longinus, 182. 
Longus, 194. 
Lacanus, 266, 276. 
Lucceius, 233. 
Lucianus, 168, 171. 
Ladlhis, 224, 260. 
Lucretius, 234, 247. 
LucuUus, 233. 
Lycophron, 116, 133» 
Lycurgus, 67, 103. 
Lysias, 67, 100. 


Macrobius, 300. 
Maecenas, 240. 
Msecius Tarpa, 241. 
Mallius Tbeodonis, 299. 
Mamertinus, 292. 

Manethos, 139. 
M' ManUiuH, 227. 
Manilius eutran. 26^. 
Manuel Mcwcbopulus, 2l4w 
Marcellus Sidetes, 164. 
Marcianus Capella, 301. 
Margiiety 24. 
Marinus, 197. 
Marinus Victorinus, 294 » 
Martialis, 280. 
Matron, 127. 
Mattius, 236. 
Maximus Flaniides, 211. 


Megarians^ 66. 
Melanippides, 26, 50. 
Meleager, 116, 147. 
Melissus, 62, 76. 
Memnon, 170. 
Menander, 116, 129. 
Menecles, 119. 
Menedemus, 63. 
Messala Corvinus, 243. 
Metrodorus, 117, 132. 
Michael Apostolius, 214. 

Glycas, 213. 

Mimety 234. 
Mimnermus, 29, 43. 
Minueius Felix, 290. 
Mceris Atticista, 174. 
Moerodes, 67» 
McBTO (Myro), 136. 
Moschus, 146. 

Q ( Mucins Scserola, 227. 

Musseus, 8, 196. 

Museum at Aleaandnay 111. 

Musonius, 120, 166. 
Myrtis, 26. 


Nsyius, 219. 
Naucrates, &l^ 



NatnrmxrtxAj 22. 
'NemediaDus, 291. 
Nemeaiusy 192. 
Nicander, 115, 146. 
Nicephorus, 203. 

Gregoras, 211. 

Nicetas Choniates, 210. 
Nicolaas Damasc. 153. 
Nicomaohus, 167. 
Nigidius Figalus, 237. 
pifitUj 24. 

Nonius Marcellus, 290. 
NonnuR^ 195. 
ir«rr«f^ 11. 


Ocellus Lucanus, 62, 75. 
Odal Lyricy 25. 
Olen, 9, 22. 
OnosaDder, 155. 
Oppianus, 177. 
Oratory of the Greeks ^ 06, 
Origenes, 181. 
Orosius, 299. 
Orpheus, 8. 
Orphica, 193. 
Osci ludiy 218. 
Ovidius 246, 269. 


Pacuvius, 225. 
PiBanSy 24. 
Psetus, S. M\, 227. 
Paleephatus, 186. 
pcUliaia comoed, 224. 
Pamphufi, 8, 22. 
Panffitius, 117, 145. 
Panyasis, 68, 76, 
Pappus, 192. 
^o^ifMy 25. 
Parmenides, 30, 54, 62, 76, 

fr«^«iW, 25. 

Parthenius, 150. 

Pausanias, 171. 

Pedo Albinovanos, 239, 260. 

Periander, 28. 

Pericles, 55, 69, not. 

Persias, 266. 274. 

Petronius, 289. 

Phseax, 66. 

Phsedrus, 269. 

Phaiaris, 44. 

Phanocles, 128. 

Pherecrates, 60, 90. 

Pherecydes Athen. 31, 47, 78. 

Syrius, 28, 31, 47. 

Philemon Com. 93, 129. 

Gramm. 210. 

Philetas, 115, 128. 
Phiiippides, 116, 127. 
Philiscus, 67. 
Philistus, 68, 97. 
Philo Jud. 154. 

Mechan. 146. 

Philochorus, 141. 
Philodemus, 117, 148. 
Philolaus, 66, 68, 99. 
Philosophy, 30, 54, 8qq.''62, 

sqq. 109, sq. 117, sq. 161. 
Philostrati, 176. 
Philoxenus, 68, 98. 
Phlegon, 166. 
Phocyiides, 28, 29, 47. 
Phormis, 60. 
Photius, 203. 
Phranzes, 214. 
Phrynichus Trag. 52, 61, 71^ 

Soph . 1 73. 

Pindarus, 26, 53, 73. 

Pisander, 40. 

Piso, L. Calpum. 227. * 

Pittacus, 28. 

Plato, 65, 68, 82, 95. 

Comic. 61, 82. 

Plautus, 221, 228. 
Pleias Alex, 114. 



Plinius Secundus, 276. 

CieciliuB Sec. 268, 382* 

PlJaius Valerianu, 297. 
Plotinus, 181. 
Plotius Tucca, 241. 
Plutarchus, 160, 162. 
Polemo, Anton. 166. 
Pollux, 174. 
Polyenas, 169. 
Polybius, 118, 143. 
Polyeactofl, 6/. 
Polymnestas, 26. 
Poniponius Atticas, 237. 

Mela, 271. 

Secundns, 266. 

Porcias Latro, 244r 
Porphyrius, 183. 
Posidonins, 148. 
prigteatafa ferula, 225. 
Pratinas, 62, 68,72. 
Praxilla, 74. 
Priscianas, 302. 
Proclus, 197. 
Procopius, 201. 
Prodicus, 66, 83. 
Propertius, 246,^68. 
w^^a («r|f«r^.) 25. 
Protagoras, 66, 81. 
Pradentiu!«, 299. 
PtolemsBus Claud. 160. 

Lagi, 124. 

Pythagoras, 30, 47, 62. 


Quintilianus, 267, 277. 
Quinctilius Varus, 241. 
Quintus Smyrneeus, 200. 


RhapsodUts, 9, 27. 
Khemnius Fannius Palsmon, 

Khianus, 14(Kr 
Bhinthon, 133. 
Ruiinianus, 293. 
Bufus, Sextos, 296, 
Rutilius Lupus, 262; 
' Nuniatianu», 3^1. 


Sabinus, 2fi9. 
Sacadas, 26. 
Saleias Bassus, 268. 
Sallustius Platonic. 190. 

.- historic. 233, 264. 

Sappho, 26, 41. 
Satura, 220, 173. 
fttiXfy 25. 

Scsevola, Q. and M. 227. 
Scribonius Largus, 272. 
Scylax, 106. 
Scymnus, 116. 147. 
Seneca, M. Ann. 266, 27K 

1 . L. Ann. 265, 273. 

tragioQS, 207, 213. 

Serenus Sammonic, 289. 
Servilius Nonianus, 268. 
Servius, 298. 
Sextus Empiricus, 1 74. 
SibyUina &racula^ 183. 
Silius Italicus, 266, 276. 
Simmias, 131. 
Simonides Amorg. 24, 39. 

Ceus, 26, 29, 63, 70, 

Simonides geneal. 66, 79. 
Simplicius, 201. 
Sisenna, 233. 
Socrates, 62, 89. 
Solinus, 290. 
Solon, 28, 43. 
Sophists, 66, 168. 
Sophocles, 64, 76. 
Sophron, 62, 90. 
Speusippus, 108. 
StasinuS) II, 40. 




Statiii»y Cecil. 221. 

Papin. 279. 

Stephanu9 Byzaot. 198. 
Stesiohonu, 26, 42. 
Stobaeus, 198. 
Strabo, 120, 163. 
Suetonius, 268, 283. 
Suidas, 208. 
Sulla, 227. 
Sulpitia, 280. 
Sulpicius Galba, 226. 
Susarion, 52. 
Symmachtts, 297. 
Syneslus, 194. 
Syrianus, 196. 
Syrius Publ. 236, 269, 


tabemaria fabultBy 226. 
Tacitus, 268, 280. 
Tatianus, 173. 
Terentianus Maoros, 280. 
Terentias Afer, 224, 229, 

Varro, 237, 261. 

Terpander, 26, 39. 
TertuUianus, 286, 289^. 
Tetrahgietj 63. 
TuXi^fOMC, 11. 
Thales, 28, 30, 42. 
Thaletas, 26. 
Thamyris, 8. 
Theano, 48. 
Themistius, 168, 189. 
Tbemistocles, 72. 
Theocritos, 116, 134. 
Theodorus Cnid. 68. 

Gaza, 213. 

Metochita, 210. 

Theognis, 29, 46. 
Theon. Alex. 186. 

Smym. 162. 

Theophilus, 200. 
Theophrastus, 110, 116, 128. 

Theophylactus Simocatta, 203f 
Theopompus, 67. 104. 
Thespis, 62. 
Thessalu.c, 70. 
ThomsM Mag. 211. 
Tbrasymachus, 66. 
Thucydidee, 68, 63, 87. 
Tiberius rhet 182. 
Tibullus, 239, 258. 
Tigellius Hermog. 241. 
Timceus histor. 118, 133. 

Locr. 66, 96. 

Sopb. 184. 

Timon, 136. 
TiiDOtbeus, 68, 98. 
Tisias, 66. 
togake/ab. 224. 
Tragedy y origin o/y 51, 
Trilogies^ 63. 
Trogufl Pompeius, 246. 
Trypbiodorus, 199. 
Tubero, 234. 
TyrtfiBus, 23, 38. 
Tzetzes, 208. 


Valerius Antias, 227. 

Cato, 246. 

Flaccus, 266,276. 

Maximus, 267, 270. 

Probus, 273. 

Valgius Bufus, 239. 

Varius, 239. 

Varro, M. Ter. 237, 251. 

Atacinu^i, 235. 

Varus, Quintilius, 241. 
Vcgetius, 297. 

Velleius Paterculns, 267, 270. 
Verrius Flaccus, 263. 
Vibius Sequester, 298. 
Virgilius, 238, 266. 
Visci, 241. 
Vitruvius, 254. 





Xenarchufl, 62. 
Xenocrates, 123. 
Xenophanes, 29, 30, 49. 
Xenophon, 64. 93. 
Ephesius, 196. 


Zaleucfifl, 28. 

Zeno Eleat. 54, 66, 6S. 

Stoic. -117, 131. 

Epicur. 117. 

Zenobius s. Zenodotos, 179. 
Zenodotos Gramm. 113. 130. 
Zonaras, 206. 
Zosimos, 196. 






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